1st semester AP Euro timeline, Alec Pierce, McAvoy, 8th
Dante, a poet. Writer of the Divine Comedy.
Renaissance started in Italy. Revolution in art, literature, etc. Humanism. Mannerism.
Francisco Petrarch - father of Humanism
When the papacy moved from Rome, Italy to Avignon, France
Giovanni Boccaccio was a famous Italian renaissance writer, humanist, and poet. Decameron.
War between England and France. (Joan of Arc). Struggle of national identity and land. England won (but only a little land).
The Black Death (Bubonic plague + other diseases) decimated European population by 1/3.
John Wycliffe, his followers: Lollards. Anti-clerical and bible-centered Christianity.
Made Holy Roman Empire slightly less fragmented
French peasant revolt (centered in Paris)
Between 1400 and 1700 70,000 to 100,000 people were put to death for "harmful magic" and "diabolical witchcraft".
Jan Hus, his followers: Hussites. Precursor to the reformation.
The time in the Roman Catholic church when there was a crisis in the papacy (3 popes). Ended by the Council of Constance. Weakened papacy.
Put an end to the Great Schism
Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press (+Gutenberg bible). This sped up the reformation. Print culture precursor.
Desiderius Erasmus. Very influential northern Renaissance pioneer. Imitation of Christ.
Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain (counter-reformation). Catholic monarchs.
Henry VII of England (1457-1509). First Tudor king. Son was Henry VIII of England.
Gothic (late Medieval) art being completely overtaken by Renaissance art.
Vasco de Gama (Por.) explored India. Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespuci, and Ferdinand Magellan explored the "new world".
Renaissance in the north of Europe. New art, thinking, etc. Very influential.
Started by conquests to "new world". Europe gave the Americas disease, farm animals, fruits, and vegetables. The Americas gave Europe Syphilis, fruits, vegetables, gold, and silver. Also, Europe took major advantage of the people, land, and animals of the "new world".
Christopher Columbus first explored the "new world" in 1492. This was the start of what was to become the Spanish empire.
Italy was declining because of French invasions (Italian war). Ludovico il Moro
European economic expansion, mercantilism, colonialism, more supply & demand.
Government regulated trade. Favorable balance of trade. (France ,Spain, etc.) Overtaken by capitalism.
"Warrior pope", "terrible pope"
Henry VIII of England (1491-1547) . Counter-reform, married a lot o' ladies. Supremacy act
95 Thesis, written by Luther, and nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany (Deutschland). These were all complaints to the Catholic church. Reformation...
(CHAPTER 11) - Protestant reformation; Martin Luther, Thomas a Kempis, Peace of Augsburg, Zwinglii, etc.
Italian (renaissance) form of art.
Martin Luther formally excommunicated from the Catholic church
German peasant revolution(s). Peasants revolts motivated by religion.
A book called "The Prince" was written by Niccolo Machiavelli and published posthumously. This book was a guide for princes to govern by.
William of Orange united the Netherlands (+ revolt against Spain). He died by assassination.
Henry VIII making the state the head of the church in order to get a divorce
Counter-reformation, mainly in Spain: Jesuits (Society of Jesus) founded by Ignatius of Loyola.
John Calvin created Calvinism (Christianity + predestination). This was rooted in the "Utopian" city of Geneva.
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) wrote "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres". Heliocentric model of solar system.
Somewhat codified Catholicism. Somewhat...
Crazy scientist. Took many good astrological stats and what not. Had a moose as a pet. The moose died after having a little too much to drink and falling down the stairs. And that's how I remember Tycho Brahe.
Mary I of England (1516-1558). Counter-reform. Succeeded by Elizabeth I of England.
Cuius regio, eius religio. Gave governments in the Holy Roman Empire the right to choose to mandate Catholicism or Lutheranism as the state religion. It's main flaw was that it did not give Calvinism recognition... French wars of Religion. IMPORTANT.
Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603). Policy of moderation.
Huguenots, Huguenot suppression, etc... (Henry IV of Navarre)
39 Articles on Religion put forth by Elizabeth I. (moderation, Anglicism...)
The Dutch revolution against Spain. William of Orange
William Shakespeare codified the English language through his many poems and plays.
Coligny and 3000 other Protestants killed in Paris
United the Netherlands against Spain
Mary, Queen of Scots executed by order of Elizabeth I of England for being in an assassination plot against her (Elizabeth).
Attacking Spanish fleet gets decimated by British ships. End of "Invincible armada"
Henry IV (Navarre) of France (1553-1610). Good king, Edict of Nantes.
Famous notice that made Catholicism the official religion of France that also granted religious toleration for French Huguenots. Proposed by politique king Henry IV of France; Paris is worth a mass.
Revolution in agriculture that led to population growth, and the industrial revolution. Started in low countries. (Enclosure method, POTATOES, cotton...)
Glamorous form of art called Baroque. Popular in Catholic nations (over-the-top).
James I, Charles I: Stuart kings. Overtaken by Oliver Cromwell, and along with: "Puritan" Republic.
James I of England (1566-1625) son of Mary, Queen of Scots. Corruption dominated his rule. Made puritans convert to Anglicism or sale to the Americas.
Miguel de Cervantes wrote the satire book Don Quixote
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) wrote "The New Astronomy"; heliocentric and accurate depiction of the solar system and stars.
Louis XIII of France (1601-1643). Cardinal Richelieu reigned under him (Catholic state). Absolute ruler.
Henry IV of France assassinated by a religious fanatic
Motivated by religion, but also land, $, and political gain. Bohemian period (1618-1625), Danish period (1625-1629), Swedish period (1630-1635), and Swedish-French period (1635-1648). Ended by the treaty of Westphalia.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) wrote the book "Novum Organum". Empirical data, Baconian method.
"Faith by reason alone"
Charles I of England (1600-1649). Stirred up civil war.
Rise of the Netherlands, decline in 1702
Galileo Galilee was placed under house arrest in 1633 for pissing off pope Urban VIII; Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems
Rene Descartes (1596-1650) wrote his "Discourse on Method". Dualism, DOUBT, inductive reasoning.
The long Parliament (English civil war)
The short Parliament (English civil war)
Monarchy vs. Parliament. Parliament (led by Ollie Cromwell) won.
Louis XIV of France (1638-1715). Cardinal Mazarin reigned under him (Catholic state). "I am the state". Versailles. A lot of wars. Revoked Edict of Nantes in 1685. ABSOLUTISM.
French nobility revolution
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) wrote the book Leviathan. Limited government. Pessimistic.
Charles II (1630-1685) returned the country to the status quo of 1642 (Anglicism, Parliament, monarchy).
Academies on Natural Philosophy. (London first) These academies may have played around with expensive instruments more than they worked.
Charles II (r. 1660-1685) returned the country to the status quo of 1642 (Anglicism, Parliament, monarchy). ...James II... William III of Orange (Netherlands) pressured James II to flee from England to France. William III and Mary II became the English monarchs. More religious toleration.
Royal Society of London (science) founded by natural philosophers. Criticized for being poser-ish.
Sir Robert Walpole made Great Britain a model of economic success.
Peter the Great of Russia (1672-1625). Developed better military (Great Northern war), better fleet, St. Petersburg, and a secular control of the church. Also suppressed Streltsy rebellions.
James II of England (1633-1701). Wanted a Catholic England, William III of Orange overthrew him in a bloodless, glorious revolution.
Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685; this made him look like a religious fanatic (Catholic). Stupid move, bro
Issac Newton wrote the physics book "Principia Mathematica". IMPORTANT.
Checked power for monarchy and Parliament. More religious tolerance for protestants.
William III of England (+Orange)(1650-1702) who took power of England during the "Glorious Revolution". His death in 1702 ended the Dutch House of Orange, and another Stadtholderless period ensued in the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
Published anonymously by John Locke. Attacks patriarchy and outlines an ideal society.
Revolution in which village industry -> city (factory) industry. IMPORTANT. Spinning Jenny, Water frame, Steam engine, proletariat class, bourgeoisie...
The Witch hunts ended because people were recognizing that the hunts were asinine.
Russia vs. Sweden. Russia won some land. Ended with the peace of Nystad.
Art: looking back to antiquity and merging it with modern events. (Neoclassical architecture still goes on to this day)
Art form with lavish, light-hearted decoration. Emphasis on pastels and play of light. (Aristocracy)
Bourbon succession (Spain + France)
Settles the questions to the British throne
Frederick William, Electorate of Brandenburg (1638-1740)
Pragmatic sanction made by Charles VI (r. 1711-1740) to continue the Hapsburg line in Austria.
(Signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht) Ended struggle for the Netherlands (Ended war of Spanish Succession).
Bad direction for France...
John Law and the Mississippi bubble. Financial crisis based off of land in Louisiana.
Spain vs. G.B. - public opinion, resulted in status quo ante bellum
Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia (1712-1786). "First Servant of the State".He further developed Prussia into a military state. Best definition of Enlightened despot; promotion through merit, FULL religious tolerance, reforms.
Frederick II of Prussia invaded Silesia, therefore violating the Pragmatic sanction. France, Prussia vs. Great Britain, Austria. Ended in stalemate, treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle
Maria Theresa of Austria (1717-1780). A tiny, tiny bit enlightened. War of Austrian Succession, Seven Years' war.
France, Austria, Sweden, (Russia), 2 German states vs. Great Britain and Prussia. European and North American fronts. European front ended in 1763 status quo ante bellum. G.B. gained North America because the European front was only a diversion. William Pitt, "I won North America on the plains of Germany". Ended by treaty of Paris (1763) Resulted indirectly in French and American revolutions.
France paired up with Austria, Great Britain paired up with Prussia. Flipped from war of Austrian succession.
Voltaire (1694-1778) wrote Candide, a satire against war, religious persecution, and unwarranted optimism. Good book.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) wrote Emile, a book about education, and The Social Contract, a book about the unspoken deal between a government and its' citizens.
Catherine the Great of Russia (1729-1796). Limited reforms, territory expansion.
Joseph II of Austria (1741-1790). Centralized power, religious reform, economic reform, tax reform, FREED THE SERFS.
Multi-spool spinning machine (textiles). Invented by James Hargreaves.
Originally used for pumping water out of mines. The important steam engine was perfected by James Watt in 1769.
Water powered spinning frame. IMPORTANT. Patented by Richard Arkwright.
America gains independence from Great Britain. Distracts from the Seven Years' war.
Adam Smith (1723-1790) wrote the "Wealth of Nations". This book is the foundation of capitalism and laissez-faire economics.
The French Revolution.
Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) wrote "An Essay on the Principle of Population". This book outlined how higher population = lower wages.
David Ricardo contributed to the iron law of wages theory
An atheistic form of belief. An attempted counter of Christianity.
A form of Deism that was intended to be the state religion of France. An attempted counter to Christianity.
French Estates General for first time since 1614 called to handle French financial crisis.
French Estates General for first time since 1614 called to handle French financial crisis.
The National Assembly takes an oath to not stop until a new constitution for France is drafted.
Parisian citizens storm the Bastille prison. 98 of them are killed, they kill the guards and governor, and release 7 prisoners (none of which are political).
Fear of French troops moving into the French countryside. This led to looting, rioting, etc.
In response to The Great Fear, nobles in France renounced their Feudal privelages to make the peasants less angry. This is VERY important.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen is finished; Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression should be upheld by a just government, all men equal, promotion by merit, freedom of religion, flat tax. Important.
A lot of angry, armed women march on Versailles looking for reform. They take the king and queen back to Paris.
Made the Catholic church part of the French government. Pissed off a lot of Catholics.
Legislative assembly (constitutional monarchy) meets.
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman to try to get equal women's rights.
France vs. coalitions
The convention met, and abolished the monarchy
Tuileries palace stormed, king Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette taken captive.
Louis XVI (Citizen Capulet) executed for being the king (counterrevolutionary)
Levee en Masse - made all French efforts go to the war (draft, etc.)
A lot of people beheaded. Robespierre's justification: utilitarianism, general will
Georges Danton (1759-1794) executed for "counterrevolutionary activities".
Maximilien de Robespierre (1758-1794) started pissing off the wrong people, and he was beheaded. This was his own fault. Lead to the Thermodorian reaction.
A ratification to the French constitution that establishes the Directory (leadership of France)
5 Directors held power in France
General Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) overthrew the French Directory in a coup d'etat on 18 Brumaire and replaced it with the Consulate.