1st semester AP Euro timeline

1st semester AP Euro timeline, Alec Pierce, McAvoy, 8th



1265 - 9 September 1321

Dante, a poet. Writer of the Divine Comedy.

Renaissance in Italy

1300 - 1530

Renaissance started in Italy. Revolution in art, literature, etc. Humanism. Mannerism.


1304 - 1374

Francisco Petrarch - father of Humanism

Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity)

1309 - 1376

When the papacy moved from Rome, Italy to Avignon, France


1313 - 1375

Giovanni Boccaccio was a famous Italian renaissance writer, humanist, and poet. Decameron.

The Hundred Years' war

May 1337 - October 1453

War between England and France. (Joan of Arc). Struggle of national identity and land. England won (but only a little land).

The Black Death

1346 - 1352

The Black Death (Bubonic plague + other diseases) decimated European population by 1/3.

John Wycliffe and the Lollards


John Wycliffe, his followers: Lollards. Anti-clerical and bible-centered Christianity.

The Golden Bull


Made Holy Roman Empire slightly less fragmented



French peasant revolt (centered in Paris)

Witch hunts

1400 - 1750

Between 1400 and 1700 70,000 to 100,000 people were put to death for "harmful magic" and "diabolical witchcraft".

John Huss (Jan Hus) and the Hussites


Jan Hus, his followers: Hussites. Precursor to the reformation.

The Great Schism

1400 - 1418

The time in the Roman Catholic church when there was a crisis in the papacy (3 popes). Ended by the Council of Constance. Weakened papacy.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

Put an end to the Great Schism

Gutenberg: Printing press


Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press (+Gutenberg bible). This sped up the reformation. Print culture precursor.


October 1466 - 12 July 1536

Desiderius Erasmus. Very influential northern Renaissance pioneer. Imitation of Christ.

Ferdinand and Isabella (reign)

1474 - 1504

Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain (counter-reformation). Catholic monarchs.

Henry VII's reign

1485 - 1509

Henry VII of England (1457-1509). First Tudor king. Son was Henry VIII of England.

Decline of Gothic art

1490 - 1560

Gothic (late Medieval) art being completely overtaken by Renaissance art.

Early exploration- Portugal and Spain

1490 - 1500

Vasco de Gama (Por.) explored India. Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespuci, and Ferdinand Magellan explored the "new world".

Northern Renaissance

1490 - 1600

Renaissance in the north of Europe. New art, thinking, etc. Very influential.

Colombian Exchange

1492 - 1820

Started by conquests to "new world". Europe gave the Americas disease, farm animals, fruits, and vegetables. The Americas gave Europe Syphilis, fruits, vegetables, gold, and silver. Also, Europe took major advantage of the people, land, and animals of the "new world".

Columbus/ start of Spanish empire


Christopher Columbus first explored the "new world" in 1492. This was the start of what was to become the Spanish empire.

Italian decline

1494 - 1498

Italy was declining because of French invasions (Italian war). Ludovico il Moro

Commercial revolution

1500 - 1710

European economic expansion, mercantilism, colonialism, more supply & demand.


1500 - 1700

Government regulated trade. Favorable balance of trade. (France ,Spain, etc.) Overtaken by capitalism.

Pope Julius II's reign

1503 - 1513

"Warrior pope", "terrible pope"

Henry VIII's reign

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII of England (1491-1547) . Counter-reform, married a lot o' ladies. Supremacy act

Luther- 95 Thesis


95 Thesis, written by Luther, and nailed to a church door in Wittenberg, Germany (Deutschland). These were all complaints to the Catholic church. Reformation...


1520 - 1650

(CHAPTER 11) - Protestant reformation; Martin Luther, Thomas a Kempis, Peace of Augsburg, Zwinglii, etc.


1520 - 1580

Italian (renaissance) form of art.

Luther- Diet of Worms


Martin Luther formally excommunicated from the Catholic church

German Peasant revolts

1524 - 1525

German peasant revolution(s). Peasants revolts motivated by religion.

Machiavelli: The Prince


A book called "The Prince" was written by Niccolo Machiavelli and published posthumously. This book was a guide for princes to govern by.

William of Orange (William the Silent)

1533 - 1584

William of Orange united the Netherlands (+ revolt against Spain). He died by assassination.

Act of Supremacy


Henry VIII making the state the head of the church in order to get a divorce

Counter-reformation (Jesuits)


Counter-reformation, mainly in Spain: Jesuits (Society of Jesus) founded by Ignatius of Loyola.

John Calvin (Geneva)


John Calvin created Calvinism (Christianity + predestination). This was rooted in the "Utopian" city of Geneva.

Copernicus: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres


Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) wrote "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres". Heliocentric model of solar system.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Somewhat codified Catholicism. Somewhat...

Tycho Brahe

14 December 1546 - 24 October 1601

Crazy scientist. Took many good astrological stats and what not. Had a moose as a pet. The moose died after having a little too much to drink and falling down the stairs. And that's how I remember Tycho Brahe.

Mary I's reign

1553 - 1558

Mary I of England (1516-1558). Counter-reform. Succeeded by Elizabeth I of England.

Peace of Augsburg

25 September 1555

Cuius regio, eius religio. Gave governments in the Holy Roman Empire the right to choose to mandate Catholicism or Lutheranism as the state religion. It's main flaw was that it did not give Calvinism recognition... French wars of Religion. IMPORTANT.

Elizabeth I's reign

1558 - 1603

Elizabeth I of England (1533-1603). Policy of moderation.

French wars of religon

1562 - 1598

Huguenots, Huguenot suppression, etc... (Henry IV of Navarre)

Thirty-Nine articles


39 Articles on Religion put forth by Elizabeth I. (moderation, Anglicism...)

Dutch revolt

1564 - 1609

The Dutch revolution against Spain. William of Orange


26 April 1564 - 23 April 1616

William Shakespeare codified the English language through his many poems and plays.

St. Bartholomew's day massacre

24 August 1572

Coligny and 3000 other Protestants killed in Paris

Pacification of Ghent (union of Brussels)

8 November 1576

United the Netherlands against Spain

Mary Stuart executed

18 February 1587

Mary, Queen of Scots executed by order of Elizabeth I of England for being in an assassination plot against her (Elizabeth).

Spanish armada


Attacking Spanish fleet gets decimated by British ships. End of "Invincible armada"

Henry IV's reign

1589 - 1610

Henry IV (Navarre) of France (1553-1610). Good king, Edict of Nantes.

Edict of Nantes

13 April 1598

Famous notice that made Catholicism the official religion of France that also granted religious toleration for French Huguenots. Proposed by politique king Henry IV of France; Paris is worth a mass.

Agricultural revolution

1600 - 1800

Revolution in agriculture that led to population growth, and the industrial revolution. Started in low countries. (Enclosure method, POTATOES, cotton...)

Baroque art

1600 - 1720

Glamorous form of art called Baroque. Popular in Catholic nations (over-the-top).

Stuarts, Cromwell, Puritan Republic

1603 - 1658

James I, Charles I: Stuart kings. Overtaken by Oliver Cromwell, and along with: "Puritan" Republic.

James I's reign

1603 - 1625

James I of England (1566-1625) son of Mary, Queen of Scots. Corruption dominated his rule. Made puritans convert to Anglicism or sale to the Americas.

Cervantes: Don Quixote


Miguel de Cervantes wrote the satire book Don Quixote

Kepler: The New Astronomy


Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) wrote "The New Astronomy"; heliocentric and accurate depiction of the solar system and stars.

Louis XIII's reign

1610 - 1643

Louis XIII of France (1601-1643). Cardinal Richelieu reigned under him (Catholic state). Absolute ruler.

Henry IV of France assassinated

May 1610

Henry IV of France assassinated by a religious fanatic

The Thirty Years' war

1618 - 1648

Motivated by religion, but also land, $, and political gain. Bohemian period (1618-1625), Danish period (1625-1629), Swedish period (1630-1635), and Swedish-French period (1635-1648). Ended by the treaty of Westphalia.

Bacon: Novum Organum


Francis Bacon (1561-1626) wrote the book "Novum Organum". Empirical data, Baconian method.

Blaise Pascal

19 June 1623 - 19 August 1662

"Faith by reason alone"

Charles I's reign

1625 - 1649

Charles I of England (1600-1649). Stirred up civil war.

Dutch Golden age

1630 - 1702

Rise of the Netherlands, decline in 1702

Condemnation of Galileo


Galileo Galilee was placed under house arrest in 1633 for pissing off pope Urban VIII; Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems

Descartes: Discourse on Method


Rene Descartes (1596-1650) wrote his "Discourse on Method". Dualism, DOUBT, inductive reasoning.

Long Parliament

1640 - 1660

The long Parliament (English civil war)

Short Parliament

13 April 1640 - 5 May 1640

The short Parliament (English civil war)

English civil war

1642 - 1649

Monarchy vs. Parliament. Parliament (led by Ollie Cromwell) won.

Louis XIV's reign

1643 - 1715

Louis XIV of France (1638-1715). Cardinal Mazarin reigned under him (Catholic state). "I am the state". Versailles. A lot of wars. Revoked Edict of Nantes in 1685. ABSOLUTISM.

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

French nobility revolution

Hobbes: Leviathan


Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) wrote the book Leviathan. Limited government. Pessimistic.

Charles II's reign

1660 - 1685

Charles II (1630-1685) returned the country to the status quo of 1642 (Anglicism, Parliament, monarchy).

Academies of Science


Academies on Natural Philosophy. (London first) These academies may have played around with expensive instruments more than they worked.

Restoration of monarchy, Glorious Revolution

1660 - 1688

Charles II (r. 1660-1685) returned the country to the status quo of 1642 (Anglicism, Parliament, monarchy). ...James II... William III of Orange (Netherlands) pressured James II to flee from England to France. William III and Mary II became the English monarchs. More religious toleration.

Royal Society of London

28 November 1660

Royal Society of London (science) founded by natural philosophers. Criticized for being poser-ish.

Robert Walpole

1676 - 1745

Sir Robert Walpole made Great Britain a model of economic success.

Peter the Great's reign

1682 - 1725

Peter the Great of Russia (1672-1625). Developed better military (Great Northern war), better fleet, St. Petersburg, and a secular control of the church. Also suppressed Streltsy rebellions.

James II's reign

1685 - 1688

James II of England (1633-1701). Wanted a Catholic England, William III of Orange overthrew him in a bloodless, glorious revolution.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685; this made him look like a religious fanatic (Catholic). Stupid move, bro

Newton: Principia Mathematica


Issac Newton wrote the physics book "Principia Mathematica". IMPORTANT.

English Bill of Rights


Checked power for monarchy and Parliament. More religious tolerance for protestants.

William III's reign

1689 - 1702

William III of England (+Orange)(1650-1702) who took power of England during the "Glorious Revolution". His death in 1702 ended the Dutch House of Orange, and another Stadtholderless period ensued in the United Provinces of the Netherlands.

Locke: Treatises on Gov't (1st and 2nd)


Published anonymously by John Locke. Attacks patriarchy and outlines an ideal society.

Industrial Revolution

1690 - 1780

Revolution in which village industry -> city (factory) industry. IMPORTANT. Spinning Jenny, Water frame, Steam engine, proletariat class, bourgeoisie...

End of the Witch hunts

1700 - 1750

The Witch hunts ended because people were recognizing that the hunts were asinine.

The Great Northern war

1700 - 1721

Russia vs. Sweden. Russia won some land. Ended with the peace of Nystad.


1700 - 2013

Art: looking back to antiquity and merging it with modern events. (Neoclassical architecture still goes on to this day)


1700 - 1789

Art form with lavish, light-hearted decoration. Emphasis on pastels and play of light. (Aristocracy)

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Bourbon succession (Spain + France)

Act of Settlement


Settles the questions to the British throne

Friedrich Wilhelm I's reign

1713 - 1740

Frederick William, Electorate of Brandenburg (1638-1740)

Pragmatic Sanction


Pragmatic sanction made by Charles VI (r. 1711-1740) to continue the Hapsburg line in Austria.

Treaty of Utrecht

11 April 1713

(Signed in the Dutch city of Utrecht) Ended struggle for the Netherlands (Ended war of Spanish Succession).

Death of Louis XIV

1 September 1715

Bad direction for France...

Mississippi bubble bursts


John Law and the Mississippi bubble. Financial crisis based off of land in Louisiana.

War of Jenkin's ear

1739 - 1748

Spain vs. G.B. - public opinion, resulted in status quo ante bellum

Frederick the Great's reign

1740 - 1786

Frederick II (the Great) of Prussia (1712-1786). "First Servant of the State".He further developed Prussia into a military state. Best definition of Enlightened despot; promotion through merit, FULL religious tolerance, reforms.

War of Austrian succession

1740 - 1748

Frederick II of Prussia invaded Silesia, therefore violating the Pragmatic sanction. France, Prussia vs. Great Britain, Austria. Ended in stalemate, treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle

Maria Theresa's reign

1745 - 1765

Maria Theresa of Austria (1717-1780). A tiny, tiny bit enlightened. War of Austrian Succession, Seven Years' war.

Seven Years' war

1756 - 1763

France, Austria, Sweden, (Russia), 2 German states vs. Great Britain and Prussia. European and North American fronts. European front ended in 1763 status quo ante bellum. G.B. gained North America because the European front was only a diversion. William Pitt, "I won North America on the plains of Germany". Ended by treaty of Paris (1763) Resulted indirectly in French and American revolutions.

Diplomatic Revolution


France paired up with Austria, Great Britain paired up with Prussia. Flipped from war of Austrian succession.

Voltaire: Candide


Voltaire (1694-1778) wrote Candide, a satire against war, religious persecution, and unwarranted optimism. Good book.

Rousseau: Emile, The Social Contract


Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) wrote Emile, a book about education, and The Social Contract, a book about the unspoken deal between a government and its' citizens.

Catherine the Great's reign

1762 - 1796

Catherine the Great of Russia (1729-1796). Limited reforms, territory expansion.

Joseph II's reign

1764 - 1790

Joseph II of Austria (1741-1790). Centralized power, religious reform, economic reform, tax reform, FREED THE SERFS.

Spinning Jenny


Multi-spool spinning machine (textiles). Invented by James Hargreaves.

Steam Engine


Originally used for pumping water out of mines. The important steam engine was perfected by James Watt in 1769.

Water frame


Water powered spinning frame. IMPORTANT. Patented by Richard Arkwright.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

America gains independence from Great Britain. Distracts from the Seven Years' war.

Smith: Wealth of Nations


Adam Smith (1723-1790) wrote the "Wealth of Nations". This book is the foundation of capitalism and laissez-faire economics.

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

The French Revolution.

Malthus: Principle of Population


Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) wrote "An Essay on the Principle of Population". This book outlined how higher population = lower wages.

Ricardo: iron law of wages


David Ricardo contributed to the iron law of wages theory

French Revolution

Cult of Reason

1789 - 1799

An atheistic form of belief. An attempted counter of Christianity.

Cult of the Supreme Being

1789 - 1794

A form of Deism that was intended to be the state religion of France. An attempted counter to Christianity.

Estates General called/ meets

May 1789

French Estates General for first time since 1614 called to handle French financial crisis.

Estates General called/ meets

June 1789

French Estates General for first time since 1614 called to handle French financial crisis.

Tennis court oath

20 June 1789

The National Assembly takes an oath to not stop until a new constitution for France is drafted.

Storming of the Bastille

14 July 1789

Parisian citizens storm the Bastille prison. 98 of them are killed, they kill the guards and governor, and release 7 prisoners (none of which are political).

The Great Fear

4 August 1789

Fear of French troops moving into the French countryside. This led to looting, rioting, etc.

Nobles renounce Feudal Privelages

14 August 1789

In response to The Great Fear, nobles in France renounced their Feudal privelages to make the peasants less angry. This is VERY important.

Rights of Man and Citizen

27 August 1789

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen is finished; Liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression should be upheld by a just government, all men equal, promotion by merit, freedom of religion, flat tax. Important.

March of the Fishwives

5 October 1789

A lot of angry, armed women march on Versailles looking for reform. They take the king and queen back to Paris.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

12 July 1790

Made the Catholic church part of the French government. Pissed off a lot of Catholics.

Legislative Assembly Meets

1791 - 1792

Legislative assembly (constitutional monarchy) meets.

Wollstonecraft: A Vindication of the Rights of Woman


Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797) wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Woman to try to get equal women's rights.

War with Austria

1792 - 1801

France vs. coalitions

Convention meets, monarch abolished


The convention met, and abolished the monarchy

Tuileries stormed

10 August 1792

Tuileries palace stormed, king Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette taken captive.

Louis XVI executed

21 January 1793

Louis XVI (Citizen Capulet) executed for being the king (counterrevolutionary)

Levee en Masse

16 August 1793

Levee en Masse - made all French efforts go to the war (draft, etc.)

Reign of Terror

5 September 1793 - 28 July 1794

A lot of people beheaded. Robespierre's justification: utilitarianism, general will

Danton Executed

5 April 1794

Georges Danton (1759-1794) executed for "counterrevolutionary activities".

Fall of Robespierre

28 July 1794

Maximilien de Robespierre (1758-1794) started pissing off the wrong people, and he was beheaded. This was his own fault. Lead to the Thermodorian reaction.

Constitution of the Year III

22 August 1795

A ratification to the French constitution that establishes the Directory (leadership of France)

The Directory

2 November 1795 - 10 November 1799

5 Directors held power in France

Napoleon: Coup Brumaire

9 November 1799

General Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) overthrew the French Directory in a coup d'etat on 18 Brumaire and replaced it with the Consulate.