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Collin's class Period 5

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Dante

1265 - 1321

"Vita Nuova", "Divine Comedy", Italian vernacular literature, Dante's Inferno

Petrach

1304 - 1374

"Father of Humanism", famous humanism poetry/letters, secular

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

Pope Clement V raises money with papal tax and introduced Indulgences, Pope John XXII returns to Italy in attempt to restore papal independence but ends up in a power conflict with Emperor Louis IV. Leads into Great Schism.

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Humanist studies, "Decameron", manuscript collector, assembled Greek/Roman mythology encyclopedia.

The Hundred Years War

May 1337 - October 1453

The Hundred years war inspired French Nationalism, changed the French society from a Feudal Monarchy to a Centralized state. This war opened the doors to developing clothing industries and foreign markets in England. Burgundy gained huge political power.

Lollards: John Wycliffe:

1348

Lollards were followers of John Wycliffe (England) that preached church vernacular (religious understanding widespread), confiscated clerical properties (Economic struggle), and sparked question in Priest Validity.

The Black Death

1348

The Black Death was introduced to Europe by Italian trading ships, crippling the European population through obsession with death (Specialty/Guild demand increase), radical religious reactions (Like Flagellants) and a decline in farms and increased Taille (Landowners lose power, Jacquerie)

Golden Bull

1356

Agreement of Emperor Charles IV and some German rulers for a seven member college which elected an emperor for the Holy Roman Empire, but balanced out the emperor's power.

Jacquerie

1358

Peasant Rebellions caused by unfair taxes

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

Period where people begin to adopt rational/statistical thoughts, restarts appreciation of worth/creativity of humans (Humanism, Patrons, Artists), Polis dominates over countryside, social division (Grandi Top, Popolo Grosso Middle, Popolo Minuto Bottom), government despots, and education in Platonism.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Pope Urban VI and Pope Clement VI both try to be the legitimate Pope of France, Concilliar Theory created to regulate the Pope's actions, Council of Constance elects another Pope. This movement devolves religious responsibility leading to King's power over church.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

War and religious division caused the panic, but these witch hunts also created competition for the church.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Helps Huss and condemns him for heresy, created Sacrosanta (supremacy and elect new Martin V pope)

Hussites: John Huss:

1415

Hussites were the followers of Huss, won important religious reforms as well as control over Bohemian Church.

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Religious/Educational reformer, tries to unite humanity/civic virtue with love/piety, created Greek and Latin New Testament, first with ideas of Protestant/Catholic reform which Luther later added onto.

Printing Press - Guttenberg-

1468

Cheap and quick creation of books help literacy and widespread communication.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)

1479 - 1504

Ruled Spain together, gave support to church, catholic and medieval.

Ignatius of Loyola

1491 - 1556

Wrote Spiritual Exercises (Shape self), founded Jesuits, "Don't question and just follow church authorities"

Columbus/Start of the Spanish Empire

October 12 1492

Discovered Caribbean/South America, expanded Spanish Territory, enslaved the natives, new species, extracted goods for Spain's economic benefit.

The Prince: Machiavelli

1513

Introduce "feared/loved/ends justify the means" and political suggestions based on observations.

Reformation

1517 - 1563

Martin Luther 95 Thesis inspires a a peasant revolt, Zwingli inspired by Erasmus and makes scripture test, Anabaptists and radical protestants sprout, John Calvin had a more violent reformation plan, expansion of reformation idea, The Peace of Augsburg (Ruler decides religion.), and Council of Trent.

Diet of Worms

April 1521

Luther doesn't recant even though ordered to in front of Emperor Charles V.

Calvin/Geneva

September 1540

Geneva invites Calvin to come back, and Geneva becomes home of exiled Protestants (Free City) and punished men who beat their wives.

Copernicus: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres:

1543

Reformed calendar, had heliocentric model, new thoughts in astronomy.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Council of church that met in Trent under Pope control, revived Genevan Calvinism and Catholicism,resisted by "The Compromise", made Protestants suspect existence of imperial/papal conspiracy reverting to pre-reformation times, Jesuit support promote Trent reforms/doctrines, Galileo disagrees with church interpretation.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Supported geocentric system, but had astronomical data as proof of his claims.

Peace of Augsburg

September 1555

Division of Christendom is made permanent. Ruler decides religion.

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Wrote about Richard III, referenced political events in his plays, political conservative, wrote histories, comedies and tragedies, many universal themes rooted in religious traditions.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 24 1572

Catherine convinced Henry of Navarre to execute 3,000 (And later 20,000) huguenots creating religious tension.

Baroque Art: (Catholic Nations)

1573 - 1780

Usually were Bible scenes with realistic detail to show religious truths.

Spanish Armada

1587 - 1588

Defeat at Cadiz encouraged Protestant resistance

Mary Stuart Executed

February 18 1587

Mary plotting to take England throne, tried to kill Queen Elizabeth but was caught by Walsingham, execute for it, Catholic hopes killed for Protestant England.

Edict of Nantes

April 12 1598

Forced religious toleration of minority religions (Huguenots).

Mannerism: (Until Baroque)

1600 - 1700

Strange/abnormal individual perception/feelings style of art.

Kepler: The New Astronomy

1609

Used Copernicus and Brahe's data to find that planets moved all elliptical like.

Columbian Exchange

1616 - 1619

Columbus brought diseases from Europe to America, and took some of their animals and crops.

Galileo Condemned...

1616

Believed in Copernican system but condemned wrongfully for it led to conflict of new science and authority of the roman catholic church.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

Had religious division. 4 periods of war, and Treaty of Westphalia ended it in 1648. I think it was the last religious war.

Bacon: Novum Organum:

1620

Says all truth hasn't actually been found and attacks reverence for authority in intellectual life.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Known for trying to combine faith and new science, wrote Pensees (Thoughts), believed in "leap of faith", "What do you have to lose if God doesn't exist?"

Descartes: Discourse on Method

1637

Rejected all forms of intellectual authority, believed in a mathematical model.

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

Rebellions among nobles caused by the policies of Richelieu and Mazarin

Hobbes: Leviathan:

1651

Published his beliefs of all people, government. (Naturally egotistical people, consent of the governed)

Newton: Principia Mathematica

1687

Wrote how everything in universe is affected and affects through gravity.

Locke: Treatises on Government (First and Second)

1690

Wrote his beliefs on government (Role is to be responsible and responsive to the people.), people (Naturally having good morals), and natural rights (Life, Liberty, and property)

Emergence of Rococo-

1700

Portrayed a playful, light-hearted, pastel theme and associated with Old Regime Aristocracy

End of the Witch Hunts

1700

Witches began to take down everybody that they could as they were being put on trial, and people began using more scientific reasoning.

Act of Settlement

1701

Made it so that if Queen Anne died, the Elector of Hanover would become King

War of the Spanish Succesion

1701 - March 1714

No heir to Hapsburg throne, Phillip V becomes king, France has bad military, English better, France beats Spain, France made peace with England at Utrecht 1713 and Holland at Rasttat in 1714.

Mercantilism

1713

Government regulates trade/commerce to help wealth, not approved by Adam Smith

Treaty of Utrecht (Ends War of Spanish Succesion)

July 1713

France makes peace with England after Spanish Succession

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

Shares stock in exchange for government bond, not enough money/gold to back it up, economic crash.

War of Jenkin's Ear

1731 - 1815

Jenkin shows ear to Britain Parliament, and starts war between Britain and Spain.

Industrial Revolution

1733 - 1787

1765- Spinning Jenny spins 16 spindles of thread, mass thread spinning
1769- Water Frame able to create a 100% cotton fabric
1769- Steam Engine uses portable industrial power

Frederick II (The Great) (Prussia)

1740 - 1786

Embodied enlightened absolutism, put Enlightenment ideas into effect, religious toleration

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Pitt get most NA territory, Treaty of Paris 1763 gives Britain less than what they deserve. Pitt replaced.

Voltaire- Candide

1759

Satire focusing on religious persecution and the optimism of humans' condition. Revealed a darker side of the Enlightenment.

Agriculture Revolution

1761 - 1792

Innovations in farm production. Low Countries had no change, Charles Turnip introduces fertilizers, crop rotation, enclosure method (fences in) replaces open field (animals graze)

Catherine The Great (Russia)

1762 - 1796

Gave nobles rights and privileges, decreased imports, increased exports, expanded,

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract:

1762

Emile- Tradition values of women. Men and women in different spheres.
Social Contract- Outlined Rousseau's beliefs of a political structure that overcomes evil

Neoclassicism

1764

Criticized Old Regime, inspires Napoleon and republican values, involved heroism and political criticism.

Joseph II (Austria)

1765 - 1790

Rationality, wanted to help the people, ended up starting Aristocratic/peasant rebellions from Hungary to Austrian Netherlands.

Smith- Wealth of Nations

1776

Wanted the Mercantile System in England to be abolished, didn't want much government participation in the economy, and supported a four stage theory.

Estates General called/Meets

1789

Estates General called to make new taxes, bullied with block votes from clergy and nobles, leaves and makes National Assembly.

Tennis Court Oath

June 23 1789

Louis XVI attempts to stop National Assembly, unable to control them, they form a pact to meet until France has a Constitution, clergy and nobles join NA, Louis loses power.

Storming of Bastille

July 14 1789

Louis XVI sends royal troops into Paris, troops create tension and anxiety, storms Bastille for weapons to protect National Assembly, Bastille falls, turn of revolution, great fear begins.

Great Fear

July 16 1789

Anxiety and fear in countryside over rumors of royal troops, peasants want to reclaim property/ possessions, leads to August 4th.

Nobles renounce feudal privileges

August 4 1789

Clergy and Nobles give up feudal rights, idea spreads, equal laws for everyone.

Rights of Man and Citizen

August 27 1789

Foundation to constitution, all men equal, government must protect natural rights, due process, innocent until proven guilty, freedom of religion, tax percentage, and not applied to women.

March of Fishwives

October 5 1789

Parisian women march over to Versailles with passionate complaints of high taxes and high bread prices, forces Louis XVI and family to leave Versailles and go to Paris.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy

July 1790

National Constituent Assembly makes France Catholic Church under the state, conflict between state and church, still happens today.

Legislative Assembly Meets

October 1 1791

Completely new members try to solve the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, King's runaway, and Declaration of Pillnitz problems.

Reign of Terror

1792 - 1793

Hostilities rise, aggressive country protection by government, executes many people.

Wollstonecraft- Vindication of the Rights of Women

1792

Accused traditional gender role thinkers of limiting women so that they become sensual slaves of men.

War with Austria

April 20 1792 - June 1815

Girondists lead Legislative Assembly, Prussia, and Francis II into battle with Austria which ended in defeat at Waterloo.

Tuileries Stormed- King Captive-

August 10 1792

Crowd invades Tuileries, fights with troops, King recalls troops, King imprisoned.

Convention Meets- Monarch Abolished

September 21 1792

Convention makes France a Republic, no monarch and elected assembly.

Cult of Reason

November 10 1792

Revolutionary calendar replaced old calendar, celebrates French Revolution.

The Directory

1793

5 person executive body from the Constitution of Year III.

Constitution of the Year III- The Directory Establised

1793

Constitution rejecting constitutional monarchy and democracy. A two house legislation.

Louis XVI Executed

January 21 1793

King killed for threatening the freedom and security of state.

Levee en Masse

August 23 1793

Requires all males to join military and large sums of money goes to the military.

Danton Executed

April 1794

Robespierre accuses Danton of only wanting money out of the French Revolution, executes Danton and Robespierre make law to convict people without trials.

Cult of the Supreme being

May 1794

Robespierre replaces worship of reason with "cult of the supreme being" a deistic idea portraying civic religion inducing citizen morality.

Fall of Robespierre

July 28 1794

Robespierre arrested and killed for making too many speeches that took down several leaders in the government. Created the convention that killed him.

Napoleon- coup Brumaire

November 10 1799

Napoleon's troops do a coup de'etat under the leadership of Abbé Sieyes.