Collin's class Period 5
"Vita Nuova", "Divine Comedy", Italian vernacular literature, Dante's Inferno
"Father of Humanism", famous humanism poetry/letters, secular
Pope Clement V raises money with papal tax and introduced Indulgences, Pope John XXII returns to Italy in attempt to restore papal independence but ends up in a power conflict with Emperor Louis IV. Leads into Great Schism.
Humanist studies, "Decameron", manuscript collector, assembled Greek/Roman mythology encyclopedia.
The Hundred years war inspired French Nationalism, changed the French society from a Feudal Monarchy to a Centralized state. This war opened the doors to developing clothing industries and foreign markets in England. Burgundy gained huge political power.
The Black Death was introduced to Europe by Italian trading ships, crippling the European population through obsession with death (Specialty/Guild demand increase), radical religious reactions (Like Flagellants) and a decline in farms and increased Taille (Landowners lose power, Jacquerie)
Lollards were followers of John Wycliffe (England) that preached church vernacular (religious understanding widespread), confiscated clerical properties (Economic struggle), and sparked question in Priest Validity.
Agreement of Emperor Charles IV and some German rulers for a seven member college which elected an emperor for the Holy Roman Empire, but balanced out the emperor's power.
Peasant Rebellions caused by unfair taxes
Period where people begin to adopt rational/statistical thoughts, restarts appreciation of worth/creativity of humans (Humanism, Patrons, Artists), Polis dominates over countryside, social division (Grandi Top, Popolo Grosso Middle, Popolo Minuto Bottom), government despots, and education in Platonism.
Pope Urban VI and Pope Clement VI both try to be the legitimate Pope of France, Concilliar Theory created to regulate the Pope's actions, Council of Constance elects another Pope. This movement devolves religious responsibility leading to King's power over church.
War and religious division caused the panic, but these witch hunts also created competition for the church.
Helps Huss and condemns him for heresy, created Sacrosanta (supremacy and elect new Martin V pope)
Hussites were the followers of Huss, won important religious reforms as well as control over Bohemian Church.
Religious/Educational reformer, tries to unite humanity/civic virtue with love/piety, created Greek and Latin New Testament, first with ideas of Protestant/Catholic reform which Luther later added onto.
Cheap and quick creation of books help literacy and widespread communication.
Ruled Spain together, gave support to church, catholic and medieval.
Wrote Spiritual Exercises (Shape self), founded Jesuits, "Don't question and just follow church authorities"
Discovered Caribbean/South America, expanded Spanish Territory, enslaved the natives, new species, extracted goods for Spain's economic benefit.
Introduce "feared/loved/ends justify the means" and political suggestions based on observations.
Martin Luther 95 Thesis inspires a a peasant revolt, Zwingli inspired by Erasmus and makes scripture test, Anabaptists and radical protestants sprout, John Calvin had a more violent reformation plan, expansion of reformation idea, The Peace of Augsburg (Ruler decides religion.), and Council of Trent.
Luther doesn't recant even though ordered to in front of Emperor Charles V.
Geneva invites Calvin to come back, and Geneva becomes home of exiled Protestants (Free City) and punished men who beat their wives.
Reformed calendar, had heliocentric model, new thoughts in astronomy.
Council of church that met in Trent under Pope control, revived Genevan Calvinism and Catholicism,resisted by "The Compromise", made Protestants suspect existence of imperial/papal conspiracy reverting to pre-reformation times, Jesuit support promote Trent reforms/doctrines, Galileo disagrees with church interpretation.
Supported geocentric system, but had astronomical data as proof of his claims.
Division of Christendom is made permanent. Ruler decides religion.
Wrote about Richard III, referenced political events in his plays, political conservative, wrote histories, comedies and tragedies, many universal themes rooted in religious traditions.
Catherine convinced Henry of Navarre to execute 3,000 (And later 20,000) huguenots creating religious tension.
Usually were Bible scenes with realistic detail to show religious truths.
Defeat at Cadiz encouraged Protestant resistance
Mary plotting to take England throne, tried to kill Queen Elizabeth but was caught by Walsingham, execute for it, Catholic hopes killed for Protestant England.
Forced religious toleration of minority religions (Huguenots).
Strange/abnormal individual perception/feelings style of art.
Used Copernicus and Brahe's data to find that planets moved all elliptical like.
Columbus brought diseases from Europe to America, and took some of their animals and crops.
Believed in Copernican system but condemned wrongfully for it led to conflict of new science and authority of the roman catholic church.
Had religious division. 4 periods of war, and Treaty of Westphalia ended it in 1648. I think it was the last religious war.
Says all truth hasn't actually been found and attacks reverence for authority in intellectual life.
Known for trying to combine faith and new science, wrote Pensees (Thoughts), believed in "leap of faith", "What do you have to lose if God doesn't exist?"
Rejected all forms of intellectual authority, believed in a mathematical model.
Rebellions among nobles caused by the policies of Richelieu and Mazarin
Published his beliefs of all people, government. (Naturally egotistical people, consent of the governed)
Wrote how everything in universe is affected and affects through gravity.
Wrote his beliefs on government (Role is to be responsible and responsive to the people.), people (Naturally having good morals), and natural rights (Life, Liberty, and property)
Witches began to take down everybody that they could as they were being put on trial, and people began using more scientific reasoning.
Portrayed a playful, light-hearted, pastel theme and associated with Old Regime Aristocracy
Made it so that if Queen Anne died, the Elector of Hanover would become King
No heir to Hapsburg throne, Phillip V becomes king, France has bad military, English better, France beats Spain, France made peace with England at Utrecht 1713 and Holland at Rasttat in 1714.
Government regulates trade/commerce to help wealth, not approved by Adam Smith
France makes peace with England after Spanish Succession
Shares stock in exchange for government bond, not enough money/gold to back it up, economic crash.
Jenkin shows ear to Britain Parliament, and starts war between Britain and Spain.
1765- Spinning Jenny spins 16 spindles of thread, mass thread spinning
1769- Water Frame able to create a 100% cotton fabric
1769- Steam Engine uses portable industrial power
Embodied enlightened absolutism, put Enlightenment ideas into effect, religious toleration
Pitt get most NA territory, Treaty of Paris 1763 gives Britain less than what they deserve. Pitt replaced.
Satire focusing on religious persecution and the optimism of humans' condition. Revealed a darker side of the Enlightenment.
Innovations in farm production. Low Countries had no change, Charles Turnip introduces fertilizers, crop rotation, enclosure method (fences in) replaces open field (animals graze)
Gave nobles rights and privileges, decreased imports, increased exports, expanded,
Emile- Tradition values of women. Men and women in different spheres.
Social Contract- Outlined Rousseau's beliefs of a political structure that overcomes evil
Criticized Old Regime, inspires Napoleon and republican values, involved heroism and political criticism.
Rationality, wanted to help the people, ended up starting Aristocratic/peasant rebellions from Hungary to Austrian Netherlands.
Wanted the Mercantile System in England to be abolished, didn't want much government participation in the economy, and supported a four stage theory.
Estates General called to make new taxes, bullied with block votes from clergy and nobles, leaves and makes National Assembly.
Louis XVI attempts to stop National Assembly, unable to control them, they form a pact to meet until France has a Constitution, clergy and nobles join NA, Louis loses power.
Louis XVI sends royal troops into Paris, troops create tension and anxiety, storms Bastille for weapons to protect National Assembly, Bastille falls, turn of revolution, great fear begins.
Anxiety and fear in countryside over rumors of royal troops, peasants want to reclaim property/ possessions, leads to August 4th.
Clergy and Nobles give up feudal rights, idea spreads, equal laws for everyone.
Foundation to constitution, all men equal, government must protect natural rights, due process, innocent until proven guilty, freedom of religion, tax percentage, and not applied to women.
Parisian women march over to Versailles with passionate complaints of high taxes and high bread prices, forces Louis XVI and family to leave Versailles and go to Paris.
National Constituent Assembly makes France Catholic Church under the state, conflict between state and church, still happens today.
Completely new members try to solve the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, King's runaway, and Declaration of Pillnitz problems.
Accused traditional gender role thinkers of limiting women so that they become sensual slaves of men.
Hostilities rise, aggressive country protection by government, executes many people.
Girondists lead Legislative Assembly, Prussia, and Francis II into battle with Austria which ended in defeat at Waterloo.
Crowd invades Tuileries, fights with troops, King recalls troops, King imprisoned.
Convention makes France a Republic, no monarch and elected assembly.
Revolutionary calendar replaced old calendar, celebrates French Revolution.
Constitution rejecting constitutional monarchy and democracy. A two house legislation.
5 person executive body from the Constitution of Year III.
King killed for threatening the freedom and security of state.
Requires all males to join military and large sums of money goes to the military.
Robespierre accuses Danton of only wanting money out of the French Revolution, executes Danton and Robespierre make law to convict people without trials.
Robespierre replaces worship of reason with "cult of the supreme being" a deistic idea portraying civic religion inducing citizen morality.
Robespierre arrested and killed for making too many speeches that took down several leaders in the government. Created the convention that killed him.
Napoleon's troops do a coup de'etat under the leadership of Abbé Sieyes.