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Dante

1265 - 1321

Humanist thinker, wrote divine comedy

Petrache

1304 - 1374

The "father of humanism."

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1376

The papacy was moved to Avignon, France. Money that was being sent to the church, was not being sent to Avignon. With that resulted in the Great Schism

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Boccaccio was a pioneer of humanist studies.

Lollards, John Wycliffe

1328 - 1384

John's writings and ideas gave Lollards in England ideas to justify their demands. Lollards preached in the vernacular disseminated translation of Holy Scripture. Lollards prominent aamong the groups that had something tangible to gain from.

The Hundreds Years War

1337 - 1453

The Hundreds Years War occurred because problems had arrose between the English King trying to intervene in the French throne. The Hundreds Years War was a battle for national Identity and control of territory.

Black Death

1348 - 1350

one third of the population was dead, it shook up the economy, and the feudal system was cracking because of the plague.

Jacquerie

June 1358 - July 1358

Wanted to secure their rights, French privileged classes froced the peasants to pay every increasing tax. Being to much to handle the peasants rose up in rebellions called Jacqueries.

Hussites, John Huss

1369 - 1415

Christian movement following the teachings of Czech reformist John Huss.

Rennissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

Changed the ways of thinking into, rational and statistical apporach to reality, and rediscover the individual.

The great schism

1378 - 1417

As a result in the moving of the papacy, Rome elected another Pope of their own. Neither Popes were willing to step down from power. As a result of the Great Schism kings are not beginning to draw power.

Early Exporaltion(Portugal and Spain)

1394 - 1521

Portugal began exploring North Africa because of trade for new spices and capturing slaves. Spain sailed to America and colonized and monopolized the American lands

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

Witch hunts began as an excuse for the poorer economy at the time. Eventually the witch hunts stopped because the economy was once again restored to it's "original beings."

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

the council asserted its supremacy and elected a new pope, Marvin V. The success of the council was the election of Marvin V.

Printing Press, Guttenberg

January 1, 1440 - January 2, 1440

Due to the printing press the idea of one and others could spread faster. it was a key factor in the reformation.

Columbus

1451 - 1536

Columbus brought back to Spain the Americas empire. The Spanish colonies supplies goods for Spain

Erasmus

1466 - 1504

Erasmus wanted to combine the ideas of humanity and civic virtue with the Christian ideal of love piety. Believed people were more reliable than the Theologians thought. Disliked the scholatics

Ferdinand and Issabella

1474 - 1504

The marriage of these two united all of Spain. Protestant reformation never occurred.

Northern Ren

1480 - 1550

In the northern renaissance, it was a time of transition from medieval to modern times.more free thinking, and rebirth of the older thoughts of philosophers. Humanism was present in the Northern Renaissance

Luther

1483 - 1546

Wrote 95 theses to discuss his view on the current day religion (Christianity). Which later led to the creation of a new religion. Faith alone

Colombian Exc.

1492 - 1619

In the Americas, the encountering of Europeans caused wide spread diseases throughout America

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

Church in Italy loses power= France invading weak Italy

Commerical Rev.

1500 - 1750

Replaced by indus. rev. created new desire for trade

English Ref.

1500 - 1553

Henry VIII declared himself supreme ruler. Creation of parliament, changes in religion must go through parliament.

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

"Warrior Pope." Fought many wars.

Henery VIII

1509 - 1547

Established separate religions within England. Imposed six articles.

John Calvin, Geneva

1509 - 1564

Creator/ leader of new religion called Calvinism. Predestination.

The Prince Machiavelli

January 1513 - February 1513

Political guide of how to rule, for rulers

95 Theses

1517 - 1518

Discussion on the ideas of Christianity, which resulted in creation of new religion and reformation.

Mannerism

1520 - 1580

Style of art discovered in the later Renascence period: multi-colored, definition of muscle, not very secular. More realistic

Diet of Worms

1521 - 1522

Assembly held in Worm by the HRE. In response to Luther and Pros. ref. excommunicated Luther.

German Peasants Revolts

1524 - 1525

Luther's ideas influenced the uprising and revolts of peasants against the nobles. Luther was against this because he had to take the nobles sides for they kept him safe from the Church. Condemned the peasants

Dutch Golden Age

1527 - 1702

Reformation

1529 - 1558

Reformation=creation of many other religions. After Reformation, pluralism steadily became a fact of Western religious life. The Reformation= many religion appearing.

Elizabeth I

1533 - 1603

Stabilized England by preventing religious differences from destroying England= putting the state first not religion. (Current religion under Elizabeth= Protestant.

William of Orange

1533 - 1584

Leader of the Neterlands, protecting them against Spain. Cared about bettering the state. Did not care too much about religion.

Act of Supremacy

January 1, 1534 - January 2, 1534

Made Henry VIII supreme ruler/head

The Golden Bull

1536

Jesuits

1540 - 1556

Copernicus

1543

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Cervantes

1547 - 1616

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Peace of Agsburg

1555

Revolts(Spanish Netherlands)

1559 - 1608

Bacon, Novum Oragnum

1561 - 1626

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

39 Articles

January 1563 - December 1563

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

James I

1566 - 1625

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 22, 1572 - August 23, 1572

Dutch Revolt

1576 - 1609

Mary Stuart

1587

Spanish Armada

May 30, 1587 - May 31, 1587

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Edict of Nates

April 13, 1589 - April 14, 1589

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

Baroque Art

1600 - 1740

Agr. Rev

1600 - 1800

Kepler

1609

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Henry IV Assassination

May 1610 - June 1610

Thirty Years War (Treaty of Westphalia)

1618 - 1648

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1663

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Galileo Condemned

1633 - 1642

Descartes

1637

Short Parliament

April 13 1640 - May 5 1640

Long Parliament

November 1640 - 1660

English Civil War

1642 - 1689

Lousi XIV

1643 - 1715

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

Hobbes, Leviathan

1651

Royal Society of London

1660

Academies of Science

1660 - 1700

Charles II (England)

1660 - 1685

Peter the Great

1682 - 1696

Revocation of Edict of Nates

1685

James II (England)

1685 - 1688

Newton, Principia Mathematica

January 1687 - February 1687

Fredrick Willhelm

1688 - 1713

Steam Engine

January 1689

Locke, Treaties of Government

1689

The Great Northern War (Russia/Sweden)

1700 - 1721

Neoclassicism

1700

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Act of Settlement

1701

Robert Walpole

1701 - 1730

Death of William of Orange II

1702

Decline of Netherlands

1702 - 1750

Rococo

1710 - 1750

Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Mercantilism

1713 - 1776

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

Charles VI Pragmatic Sanction

1713

Death of Louis XVI

1715

Mississippi Bubble

1718 - 1748

War of Jenkins Ear

1739 - 1748

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

Fredrick II the Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

War of Austrian Sucession

1740 - 1748

Industrial Revelution

1750 - 1850

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Diplomatic Rev.

January 1756

Voltaire

1759

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

American Rev.

1763 - 1783

Spinning Jenny

January 1764

Joseph II of Austria

1764 - 1790

Water Frame

January 1768

Smith (Wealth of Nations)

1776

Estates Generals

1789

Storming of Bastille

July 14, 1789

Nobles renounce feudal priv.

August 4, 1789

Malthus Principle of Population

1798

Ricardo Iron Law of Wages

1817