AP Euro Timeline:

McAvoy 8th period. Notes.

General/Political History (Wars, Rulers, treaties...)


Specific Religious Wars

1095 - 1648

These wars were scattered throughout history. The major ones include:
The Crusades : 1095-1291
French Religious Wars: 1562-1598
Thirty Years War: 1618-1648

The Black Death

1200 - 1353

A plague swept across Europe known as the Bla Plague or the Black Death. It killed many people and made some living conditions worse. People didn't know very much about health then, so they tried many cures such as sweet smells.

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

A series of conflicts between England and France and their allies. It lasted one hundred years.



A French revolt that took place during the Hundred years war.

Columbian Exchange

1400 - 1600

A time of trading with asia and eurasia. New ideas, goods, slaves, and diseases.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

Organized by the Roman Catholic Church. The council ended the controvercy with the three popes and made it so there was only one again.


1500 - 1600

Started with Henry VIII when he broke away from the Catholic church after he couldn't divorce his wife for not bearing him a son.
It was also related to religous matters and changes within England.

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1700

When Europeans used trading (mercantilism) and new forms of trading to get goods such as silk, minerals, and other goods. This was followed by the Industrial Revolution.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Ruled from 1509 until his death in 1547. He came up with the Act of Supremacy and the English Reformation also took place during his rein.

Henry VIII's Rule

1509 - 1547

King of England, he had six wives three of which gave him children. He divorced many or had them killed for treason and other things.
He broke away from the Catholic Church when he couldn't divorce his first wife. He established the Church of England.

German Peasants Revolts

1524 - 1526

German peasants were angry about the way they were treated by their Landlords (nobles) so they revolted causing fear and chaos throughout the German region of Europe.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Deciding of religous and social matters.
They decided during this meeting that:
1. The Church was the ultimate decipherer of Scripture
2. To condem Protestantism and declare their morals wrong.
3. To define that Luther's morals were wrong as well.

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

A conflict between the Huguenots and the rest of France. It was ended when Henry IV issued the Edict of Nantes and caused religious toleration.

The Dutch Revolt

1568 - 1648

Pacification of Ghent
Union of Utrecht
The Dutch revolt was caused by violence against the Habsburg crown. (Spain) Spain wanted more control of the Netherlands, so they began telling the Dutch what to do. The Dutch didn't like this, so they began to start uprisings against the Spanish. This lasted for quite a while, and peace was finally made with the treaties of Westphalia and Utrecht.

Pacification of Ghent


This treaty agreed to religious tolerance, and made it so all the nations of the Netherlands could get up and fight against Spain.

Union of Utrecht


This took place on January 23, 1579 when William of Orange signed this treaty which further united states of the Netherlands against Spain and its allies.

Spanish Armada


The Spanish Armada was known as "The Invincble Fleet" and on 1588 they sailed into England hoping to capture the port cities. (They were at war with England during the time)

Agricultural Revolution

1600 - 1800

The period of the Agricultural Revolution was scattered throughout time because it happened in different places at different times. The enclosure method was developed at the time(a way of farming) and there where many small innovations to technology to make farming easier. All these new techniques caused more food to grow, which caused the population to increase and become healthier.

Henry IV Assassinated


Henry IV was assassinated on May 14, 1610 by a Catholic fanatic. He wrote the Edit of Nantes which forced religious toleration in France. He was considered a Politique.

English Civil War

1642 - 1651

Stuarts, Cromwell, Puritan Rep.
Restoration, Glorious Rev.
Eng. Bill of Rights

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

The industrial revolution took place in different places at different times. It changed the living styles of many families and people. There were now jobs opening in factories, and the working class became "wage slaves."



The Great Schism

1100 - 1400

The Great Schism was named so because there was a great duspute amongst the church which split it. This schism also lasted a number of years. Hence the "great" at the beginning of its title.

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1320 - 1384

John Wycliffe was an English philosopher who had religious ideas, and his followers were called Lollards. They had radical ideas.

Hussites and John Huss

1420 - 1434

During 1420-1434 the Hussites fought a political war trying to defend their beliefs. They were lead by John Huss who formed the religion and who had his followers named after him.

The English Reformation

1500 - 1600

The English Reformation was a time of change in religion that started with Henry VIII breaking away from the Catholic Church. Then over the years, his chlidren all made various changes in what England's religion would be until Elizabeth I came along. During her rein, there was no specific religion; there was a toleration for religion.


1517 - 1521

In 1517 he posted 95 thesis on the Church doors, and 1521 is when he was exiled by the H.R.E Emperor.

Act of Supremacy


The Act of Supremacy made it known that the Churhc of England was to be the new church, and that the monarch of England would be in charge of the church. This was created by Henry VIII after he found that he couldn't divorce his wife with the Catholic Church.

John Calvin and Geneva

1541 - 1549

John Calvin (founder of Calvinism) did an experiment to see how people would live with set laws (strict) from the bible and the ten commandments. He set it up in a German town called Geneva.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Targeted Huguenots and a leader. At least 1,200 people were killed. The "Mother" Queen (Catherine) supported this act and even one of her advisors was killed in the act.


Authors, and books, and philosophs.

Printing Press


Invented in Guttenburg (Germany)
It made printing easier, so more people had books, and copies of popular books were more prevelent.

Machiavelli: The Prince


Published in 1532 and written by Machiavelli. The Prince is a book about how a Prince must go about ruling his state. IT gives instructions and examples of the most important concepts to running a kingdom.

Cervantes: Don Quixote


Written by Migel Cervantes in 1605, a book about a man who thinks that he's a knight.

Newton: Principia Mathematica


Published on July 5, 1687 and written by Sir Issac Newton. This was actually three books that he wrote compiled into one. It's about Newton's laws of motion, and other theories he came up with during that time.



Decline of Gothic Art

1100 - 1350

Gothic art was heavily bent on death because of the amount of death during that time. (The Black Death)

Renaissance in Italy

1300 - 1500

Began through trading ports along Italy near the sea. Ideas were coming in from all over the world and this sparked a time of great realization. Many artists, song writers, and great thinkers emerged at this time. The Italian Renaissance also produced most of the art we see today. The Northern Renaissance mostly involved thinking and Humanism.

Northern Renaissance

1450 - 1550

Ideas from Italy spread all across Europe and sparked the Renaissance in England, France, Germany, and other regions of Europe. Humanism was a bug part of the Northern Renaissance; although there was some art.


1520 - 1600

(until Baroque) A form of art where people's bodies were greatly exaggerated. It was a form of art during the Renaissance. It ended in Italy during 1580, but was continued in Northern Europe through the 1600's.

Baroque Art (catholic Nations)

1560 - 1700

This form of art was heavily used by the Catholic Church. It was fancy.

French Revolution


Nobles Renounce Feudal Priv.


On August 4, 1789 the French Nobles renounced the privileges of feudalism to make everyone equal in the eyes of the law.

Storming of the Bastille


The storming of the Bastille began on July 14 1789 when a mob broke into the Bastille (a prison) and freed all seven prisoners. People were killed including guards and rioters.

Estates General Meets/called


They met because of certain problems arising in France that they needed to address. The Estates General is composed of representatives from all classes.