AP Euro Timline

BDoston McAvoy:P8

Main

Dante

1265 - 1321

Dante co-defined Italian and locked in place about hell. To co-define Italian was significant and for obvious reasons, made a large impact on Italian.

Petrach

1304 - 1374

Petrach was seen as the “father of Humanism”. Humanism was a significant idea in the Renaissance, and for him to be the father of it is significant.

Avingnon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1376

The Avignon Papacy was when the papacy was moved to Avignon, France. All the money that went to church now went to Avignon. Because of the moving of the papacy to France caused the Great Schism.

Baccaccio

1313 - 1375

Boccaccio was a harsh social critic and wrote Decameron and was associated with Petrach, the father of humanism. He was a significant author and poet who many others based their works off of his.

Lollards:John Wycliffe

1328 - 1384

John Wycliffe’s writings gave the Lollards in England a place to look to justify their demands. The Lollards preached in the vernacular disseminated translations of Holy Scripture. Lollards were prominent among groups that had something tangible to gain from confiscating clerical properties or that had suffered most under the current church system. His writing’s were a place to look, and justify themselves.

Hundred years War

1336 - 1453

A series of war between England and France and their various allies.

Black Death

1348 - 1350

A massive spread of disease from rats that caused a sudden decrease in population.

Jacquerie

june 1358 - july 1358

In order to secure their rights, the French privileged classes forced the peasantry to pay ever-increasing taxes. The bullying became too much to handle and they rose up in several regions in a series of bloody rebellions known as the Jacquerie. It was important because the peasantry finally acted out and showed the Nobles they had done too much.

Hussities: John Huss

1369 - 1415

The Hussites were a Christian movement following the teachings of Czech reformer John Huss, who became one of the forerunners of the Protestant Reformation

Renissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

The Renaissance was seen as the prototype of the modern world. The Renaissance impacted the European Thought, as people began to adopt a rational and statistical approach to reality and to rediscover the worth and creativity of the individual. There also was a growth of the city states in the Renaissance.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Because the papacy was moved the Avignon, Rome wanted the funding that was previously there so they elected their own pope. The council of Pisa elected another pope, but neither previous popes would step down. Because of the great Schism, kings are beginning to become more powerful than pope.

Early Exploration- Portug

1394 - 1521

Portugal began to explore in North Africa where they began to trade for new spices and capture slaves. Eventually they sailed down the coast of Africa and rounded the cape of good hope. The Spain’s sailed to the Americas and took over to colonize and monopolize the Americas.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

People believed there really were wtiches and they needed to be eliminated. They did it for economic reasons- kill the cat lady that you have to supply. political reasons- blame a competing group as being witches to “win”. Also, they killed witches as scape gates. They ended, because stability returned, as scientific knowledge disseminates, and as the state grows in power, it

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

Emperor Sigismund prevailed on John XXIII to summon a new council in Constance which the roman pope gregory XIII also recognized. In the famous declaration Sacrosanota, the council asserted its supremacy and elected a new pope, Marvin V. The sucess of the council was the election of Marvin V.

Printing Press- Guttenberg

January 1 1440 - January 2 1440

Because of the Printing Press, ideas could now be transported much faster and easier. The printing press hosted the reformation. The printing press is one of the most important inventions, because of its ability to get out writings much faster.

Columbus- Start of the Spanish Empire

1451 - 1506

Columbus’s travels brought Spain the Spanish empire in the Americas. The empire brought them many goods.

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

Erasmus aspired to unite classical ideals of humanity and civic virtue with the Christian ideals of love and piety. He believed people could do more than what the theologians believed. Didn’t like the scholastics because their dogma and argument overshadow the Christian piety and practice.

Fernidad and Isabella

1474 - 1504

Their marriage united all of Spain, and even though they had a large amount of power, a Protestant Reformation never occurred there. Also, although there was religious reform in Spain, genuine protestant groups were persecuted for “Lutheranism,” this show the unnecessary religious persecutions they had, that effected the overall religions of Spain

Northern Renissance

1480 - 1550

The Northern Renaissance was stimulated by the importation of Italian learning. In the Northern Renaissance, the leaders were those of Northern Humanist’s. In the northern renaissance, it was a time of transition from medieval to modern times. The thought was much more free, and there was also a rebirth of the older thoughts of philosophers. Humanism was present in the Northern Renaissance, and the European Thought was effected because of it.

Luther 95 Thesis, Diet of Worms

1483 - 1546

Wrote his 95 Thesis on the Church doors accusing them of hersey upon hersey. Diet of Worms precheing.

Luther

1483 - 1546

Martin Luther posted the 95 theses in order to have discussions, which eventually led to Lutheranism and also the Reformation. Lutheranism was simpler, less formal and more individual form of Christianity. The main belief was that faith alone would get you into heaven. The form of a new religion was significant and affected the lives of those who chose to take on Lutheranism.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1619

The European Encounter with the Americas produced large amounts of disease in the Americas due to the men and animals that carried disease. This caused many Native Americans to die.

Italy's Decline (Invasions..)

1494 - 1527

Once the church in Italy begins to lose power, France started to invade Italy because of their lack of centralized monarchy.

English Reformation

1500 - 1553

Henry VIII hoped for an annulment, which the pope wouldn’t give him. Then, the King declared himself supreme in English spiritual affair as he was in English temporal affairs. There also was the reformation parliament that established a precedent that would remain a feature of English government: Whenever fundamental changes are made in religion, the monarch must consult with and work through Parliament. The reformation eventually came to English’s primarily protestant religion views that are still seen today.

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1750

The Commercial Revolution was what the Industrial Revolution replaced. In it, the economy of a province or a country might grow, but growth soon reach a plateau. The revolution was slow, and was a period of economic expansion, colonialism, and mercantilism. This revolution created a new desire for trade.

Pope Julius 2nd

1503 - 1513

Pope Julius us seen as the warrior pope, because of the many wars he fought. He drove the Venetians out of Romagna in 1509 and fully secured the Papal States

John Calvin- Geneva

1509 - 1564

Calvin was the principal figure that lead the forming of the religion called Calvinism. Without Calvin, Calvinism would not had formed. Calvinism’s main belief was in “predestination,” and the individual’s responsibility to reorder society according to God’s plan.

Henry 8th

1509 - 1547

Henry VIII established a separate religion in England, as well declared himself the only supreme head in earth of Curch of England. His significance was that because of him, the pope has ceased to be head of the English church and English Bibles were placed in English churches. In his ruling he imposed the Six Articles- a clear warning that religious reform would not race ahead in England during his reign. While he was in charge, England had to wait to become largely protestant.

The Prince- Machiavelli

January 1513 - February 1513

The Prince had a large impact on Politics, for it put into words the best tactics for rule. It largely affected how rulers would rule in the future. The Prince still even holds truth in today’s politics.

Reformation

1517 - 1564

Began by Martin luther who changed papal authority and questioned the Catholis church.

Mannerism

1520 - 1580

Mannerism was a style of art found in the later Rennasaince. It was characterized by extreme colors, abnormal muscularity, and drifted from church ideals being the focal point. I impacted culture, because it grew painting techniques and made them appear more realistic.

Diet of Worms

1521 - 1522

The diet of worms was an assembly of the Holy Roman Empire held in Worms, Germany. In it, it addressed Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation. Because they felt threatened, the church excommunicated Luther. Luther was brought before the diet of worms, and Luther denied the infallibility of the pope and he said to rely on the scriptures alone. He was order to recant, which was the major effect of the diet.

German Peasant Revolt

1524 - 1526

Peasants demanded agranian rights and freedom from opression by landlords and nobles.

William of Orangle

1533 - 1584

William of Orange was significant for giving the Netherlands a leader fallowing their protesting with Spain. He also was a politique, showing that he cared more for the betterment of the state rather than his religious views.

Elizabeth 1st of England

1533 - 1603

Elizabeth set a religious settlement through Parliament that prevented religious differences from tearing England apart. Elizabeth was a politique, which meant she put the state first. Under Elizabeth is when England became primarily protestant

Act of Supremacy

January 1 1534 - January 2 1534

The Act of Supremacy declared Henry the only supreme head in earth of the Church of England. It was appealed by Henry VIII, and it proved the absolute power he strived for.

The Golden Bull

1536

In the Holy Roman Empire this decree established an electoral college, they also formed an administrative body where they elected the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire

Jesuits-Society of Jesus-Ignatius of Loyola

1540 - 1556

The Jesuits highly viewed education, as well they were missionaries and made efforts to convert the new world into Catholics.

Copernicus:On the Rev. Of Heavenly Spheres

1543

Copernicus’s hypothesis found tremendous opposition from religious leaders such as Martin Luther of course, and Copernicus chose to only reveal his findings after his death

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The council of Trent was an official meeting that hoped to eliminate the corruption in the Catholic Church. There were some changes because of the council. Because of the meeting, corruption was reduced. Also in the Council of Trent reasserted the Church doctrine. It reformed the Catholic religion, and hoped to improve the religion. Its hopes were to keep their followers support strong, and gain more followers as well. Also, to remove any corruptness.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

He came from a rich family, and spent his life finding the data that proved a geocentric model. Kepler took his findings after his death and found a heliocentric model.

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1547 - 1616

Throughout Don Quixote, Cervantes juxtaposes the down-to-earth realism of Sancho Panza with the old fashioned religious idealism of Don Quixote. The impact of the novel was that it showed the reader attitudes necessary for a happy life. In this respect, it had an impact on European Thought.

Mary 1st of England

1553 - 1558

Mary is seen very negatively, because she was a Catholic ruler in a predominately protestant state fallowing her rule. She wanted to revert England back to Catholicism, however despite her efforts, England is predominately protestant.

Peace of Ausburg

1555

The peace brought the idea that the ruler determined the religion, cuius regio, eius religio. This was significant because for the first time it all wasn’t uniform.

Revolt in the Spanish Netherlands

1559 - 1608

The Duke of Alba went to the Netherlands to help suppress the revolt and eventually the pacification of Ghent joined together in revolt.

Bacon:Novum Organum

1561 - 1626

The Novum Organ was where Bacon explains the Baconian method. This was technically empiricism, which Bacon highly viewed. It also included the four idols- of the tribe, cave, market and theatre.

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

These wars were primarily fought by French Catholics and Protestants. The conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, such as the House of Bourbon and House of Guise, and both sides received assistance from foreign sources. At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes. The impact on Religion was that it gave the French Protestants more rights in the future.

Thirty Nine Articles

January 1563 - December 1563

The Thirty-Nine Articles was a revision of the original forty-two, and made a moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England. This is when England became protestant, the primary religion of the future England.

Shakesphere

1564 - 1616

Shakespeare codified the English language through his major works.

James 1st of England

1566 - 1625

James took over after Elizabeth. He was not liked too much due to his religious conservatism.

Rise of the Netherlands

1572 - 1702

The Dutch Golden Age was seen as the time where their trade, science, military, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. Also, they were great ship builders, religiously tolerant; first stack market, and the tulip bubble. All these aspects made their economy great, and caused the Dutch Golden Age.

Sait Bartholomew's Day Massacure

August 22 1572 - August 23 1572

Coligny and 3,000 Huguenots were killed in Paris. Within three days across France 20,000 Huguenots were killed. This angered Protestants, and made some more devout and radical.

Dutch Revolt

1576 - 1609

The ten largely Protestant Northern provinces came together in unified opposition to Spain, called Pacification of Ghent. It declared internal regional sovereignty in matters of religion. The provinces of the Union of Utrecht met in The Hague and formally declared Philip no longer their ruler. The impact of these efforts of the Union of Utrecht and the Pacification of Ghent was they gave the Netherlands independence from Spain, and proved that it is possible to gain independence in the future.

Mary Stuart Executed

1587

Mary was thought to be planning the executing of Elizabeth, so Elizabeth ordered her execution in order not to have a threat to her throne.

The Spanish Armada

May 30 1587 - May 31 1587

130 ships carrying 25,000 sailors and soldiers set sail for England. The swifter English and Netherlands’’ ships dispersed the waiting Spanish fleet, over one third of which never returned to Spain. This defeat not only gave heart to Protestant resistance everyone, but also was the start of smaller boat warfare.

Henry 4th(France)

1589 - 1610

Henry of Navarre led the Protestants. When he rose to the throne in France, many were outraged. However, being a politique he viewed the state more important, therefore he embraced Catholicism, the traditional and majority religion of his country. Henry laid the foundations for the transformation of France into the absolute state it would become in the future. Henry was a great ruler of France.

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

The Consumer Revolution refers to the period of an increase in consumption of various goods. The revolution allowed individuals who were not necessarily wealthy to indulge. This also benefited the society, and related to Adam’s smith idea of improving the government.

Edict of Nantes

April 13 1598 - April 14 1598

The Edict of Nantes proclaimed a formal religious settlement. The Edict of Nantes gave Huguenots rights that had not previously been given. It was significant because it finally started to give the Huguenots rights.

Baroque Art

1600 - 1740

Baroque Art is seen as being more naturalistic rather than an idealized, manner. It was also seen as having harp contrasts between light and darkness. Baroque painters often portrayed scenes from the Bible. Artists used the same style of painting to present objects and scenes of everyday life in new realistic detail. This style art influenced later art to come from his extensive detail.

Agricultural Revolution

1600 - 1800

This agricultural revolution saw increase in productivity, new crops and new methods, and a population expansion. The new methods included he enclosure method, and also rotation of crops. The agricultural revolution also was a series of innovations that made farming more efficient. Causes of the revolution were an increase in bread prices. The new methods caused an increase in the production of food that fostered the population growth that came with it.

Kepler: New Astronomy

1609

His mentor, Tycho Brahe, taught him all he knew and when he passed away gave Kepler his data. In the New Astronomy, he not only advocated for a heliocentric model but explained that the planets traveled in ellipses.

Louis the 13

1610 - 1643

Louis was instrumental in establishing royal absolutism. Also, Cardinal Richelieu was his chief minister.

Henry 4th Assasinated

May 1610 - June 1610

A Catholic fanatic assassinated Henry IV. Henry IV was remembered for the Edict of Nantes, and his political economic policies that laid the foundations for the transformation of France into the absolute state it would become.

The Thirty Year's War( Treaty of Westphalia)

1618 - 1648

What began as a religious struggle in Prague, turned to a political power struggle. The Princes rebel against the Hapsburgs, Spain joins Hapsburg because they are related, French joins the Lutherans because they don’t like the Hapsburgs and doesn’t want any land to be taken from them. The Treaty of Westphalia ends the war and Austria and Prussia emerge as states. States move to professional armies and nation state is emerging

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1663

Pascal was a French mathematician, and also allied himself with the Jansenists Pascal believed hat in religious matters, only the reasons of the heart and a “leap of faith” could prevail. He also saw to essential truths in the Christian religion: A loving God exists, and human beings are corrupt by nature, and utterly unworthy of God. He had ideas on Reason and Faith that others used to question and create their own ideas

Charles 1

1625 - 1649

Charles needed money to support the war, so he went behind
Parliaments back and forced taxes without parliaments consent. This sparked the English Civil War. His reign was also characterized by religious conflicts

Galileo Condemned

1633 - 1642

Galileo believed that individuals should intemperate the bible, and also that it was written in metaphors. Galileo was found “vehemently suspect of heresy,” namely of having held the opinions that the Sun lies motionless at the center of the universe, that the Earth is not at the center and moves, and that one may hold and defend an opinion as probable after it has been declared contrary to Holy Scripture. Then when a new pope came he let Galileo write freely again but Galileo offends the new Pope and is then condemned to his house and forced to renounce his views.

Descartes: Discourse on Method

1637

In this book, he supports deductive reasoning. In this idea, he explains that one must doubt everything to find the truth. Opposite of Bacon.

Short Parliment

April 13 1640 - May 5 1640

The Parliament was called by the king to raise money for the war but parliament wouldn’t raise money until the king agreed to redress the list of political and religious grievances. Because Parliament wouldn’t raise the money Charles dissolved them.

Long Parliment

November 1640 - 1660

Puritans in Parliament resented Charles’s religious policies and distrusted his Roman Catholic wife. Parliament resolved that a max of three years can go in between meetings; they also made it so that the king could not dissolve them without their own consent. They abolished all of Charles’s taxes and raised an army to fight Charles with

English Civil War

1642 - 1689

The English Civil war was between Cavaliers and Roundheads. Constitutionally, the war established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament’s consent. The Parliament gained more power, even though they did not have complete control. The Stuarts was a line of rulers, and when Queen Anne reigned, she was the last of the Stuarts. Oliver Cromwell was significant to the winning over the royalist in the Civil War. Cromwell ruled as a dictator, and became just as hated. England officially became a Puritan Republic because of the Civil war. The restoration of the Monarchy occurred when Charles II returned to England. Things became as they were before in respect to the relationship between Parliament and Monarchy. The Glorious Revolution was the bringing of William II and Mary II to the monarch’s. Under them, the Bill of Rights was passed that gave England’s monarch subject to law and would rule by the consent of the Parliament. The major impact of the Civil War was the deciding of the relationship between Parliament and Monarch’s.

Louis 14th

1643 - 1715

Louis XIV was considered an absolute ruler of his time because of how he could control the nobles. His Chief Minister was Mazarin also called the minority, but when he died he didn’t select a new minister to lessen the revolts against him. During his years of personal rule he was able to control the nobility. He did so by moving to Versailles and so he trapped the nobles there because if they wanted anything they would have to suck up to him. Everything revolved around Louis; therefore he was called the sun king.

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

The centralizing policies of Richelieu and then of Mazarin provoked a series of widespread rebellions among the French nobles. The rebellions convinced Louis XIV that heavy-handed policies could endanger the throne.

Hobbes: Leviathan

1651

His aim was to provide a rigorous philosophical justification for a strong central political authority. Hobbes portrayed human beings and society in a thoroughly materialistic and mechanical way. He traced all psychological processes to bare sensation and regarded all human motivations as egoistical, intended to increase pleasure and minimize pain.

Royal Society of London Founded

1660

The Members of the Royal Society of London consciously saw themselves as following the path Bacon had laid out almost a half century earlier.

Academies of Science

1660 - 1700

The academies started in London, Royal Society of London, then preceded by the Academy of Experiments in Florence, and was followed by the French Academy of Science in 1666. The new science was discussed and experiments were carried out in many local societies and academies.

Charles 2nd of England

1660 - 1685

Charles II returned to England after the civil war and Oliver Cromwell’s ruling. Charles set a refreshing new tone after eleven years of somber Puritanism. England returned to the status quo of 1642, with a hereditary monarch, a Parliament of Lords and Commons that met only when the king summoned it, and the Anglican Church, with its bishops and prayer book, supreme in religion.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1696

Peter had come to power on the shoulders of the streltsy. Peter westernized Russia, and copied shipyards docks and the manufacture of military hardware in England and the Netherlands.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1685

Under the reign of Louis XIV he renounced the Edict of Nantes, and declared Protestantism illegal. This revocation had many damaging results for France, as would be predicted.

James 2nd of England

1685 - 1688

When James II became king he immediately repealed the Test Act, and issued another Declaration of Indulgence suspending all religious tests and permitting free worship. The Parliamentary opposition invited William to invade to preserve its “traditional liberties”.

Newton: Principia Mathematica

January 1687 - February 1687

In this novel, Newton explained that the planets and all other physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction, or gravity. The idea of gravity is extremely significant, and Newton had an extremely large impact by finding gravity

Fredrick Willhelm r.

1688 - 1713

Fredrick Wilhelm was the first king Prussia. He also organized his bureaucracy along military lines. Military was the most important thing to him and also Prussia for the many years to follow

Locke: Treatises on Gov't (1st and 2nd)

1689

The First Treatise is an extended attack on Sir Robert Filmer’s Patriarcha. In the Second Treatise Locke develops a number of notable themes. It begins with a depiction of the state of nature, wherein individuals are under no obligation to obey one another but are each themselves judge of what the law of nature requires. It also covers conquest and slavery, property, representative government, and the right of revolution.

Steam Engine

January 1698 - December 1698

The steam Engine was a powerful force that could power large things. It significantly changed how we would power things in the future, and would even power trains. It gave inventors more energy to invent larger things that could now be powered

Neoclassicism

1700

Neolocalism was an art style that returned to figurative and architectural models drawn from the Renaissance and the ancient world. It recalled republican virtues that implicitly criticized the Old Regime. Also, the art was usually concerned with public lives or public morals and scenes of heroism and self-sacrifice.

The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

Thirty Years War, Sweden has consolidated its control of the Baltic, preventing Russian possession of a port Following the on that sea and permitting Polish and German access to the sea only on Swedish terms. Peter the Great began a drive to the west again Sweden. Charles XII led a vigorous campaign, defeating the Russians at the Battle of Narva. The War came to a close, the Peace of Nystad confirmed the Russian conquest of Estonia, Livonia, and part of Finland. Russia possessed ice-free ports.

Act of Settlement

1701

The Act of Settlement was the parliamentary measure closing the century of strife, which provided for the English crown to go to the Protestant House of Hanover in Germany if Queen Anne the second daughter of James II and the heir to the childless William II, died without issue. The act was to decide who would succeed the Children-less William III and Queen Mary II.

Emergence/ Dominiance of Robert Walpole

1701 - 1730

Robert Walpole took over the helm of government. His ascendancy was based on royal support, his ability to handle the House of Commons, and his control of government patronage. He maintained peace abroad and promoted the status quo at home. Great Britain became a world power.

War of Spanish Succesion

1701 - 1714

When Phillip was given Spain, it looked as though Spain had fallen into French hands. In 1701, England, Holland, and the HRE assembled the Grand Alliance to preserve the balance of power in Europe. The English duke of Marlborough defeated Louis’s soldiers at every major battle. France made peace with England at Utrecht in July 1713. Philip V remained king of Spain but renounced his place in the line to throne in France.

Death of William 2nd of Orange

1702

William died of pneumonia, a complication from a fall from his horse. William’s death brought an end to the Dutch House of Orange. The five provinces of which William III was stadtholdor all suspended the office after his death. During William’s reign, the conflict of the power struggle between monarchy and parliament was settled in Parliament’s favor by the Bill of Rights 1689, the Triennial Act 1694 and the Act of Settlement 1701.

Decline of Netherlands

1702 - 1750

After William II of Orange’s death, the bursting of the tulip bubble, and the decline in their ship production, there was a decline in their economy. Also, their lack of centralized Authority led to the decline as well.

Emergence of Rococo

1710 - 1750

Rococo art was classified as Lavish, lighthearted decoration, Pastel colors and the play of light, and was associated with the aristocracies of the Old Regime.

Rosseau- Emile, Social Contract

1712 - 1778

Emile In, the idea of separate spheres for men and women is introduced, and in the Social Contract explains the group is more important than the individual

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

The Treaty of Utrecht established the boundaries of empire during the first half of the eighteenth century. It also ended the war of Spanish Succession by deciding that Spain and France cannot unite.

Age of Mercantilism

1713 - 1776

Mercantilism believed that you should export more than you import. The Gov’t is involved in the economy and has monopolies to gain more money for their country. Sugar becomes the most labor intensive crop and one of the crops that all of Europe wants to have as a monopoly

Charles 6th Austria- Pragmatic Sanction

1713

In the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles VI secured the thrown for his daughter Mother Theresa, so Austria wouldn’t’ fall to the other powers around Austria and fall apart.

Death of Louis 14th

1715

Following the death of Louis XIV, France mainly remained a great power. Louis XIV was succeeded by his five-year-old great grandson Louis XV. The duke of Orleans became regent and remained so until his death in 1720.

Mississippi Bubble

1718 - 1720

John Law established a bank in Paris that issued paper money, organizing a monopoly called the Mississippi Company. The Company took over the management of the national debt. The stock continued to rise until, the bubble had burst.

War of Jenkins Ear

1739 - 1748

Due to the massive amounts of illegal smuggling, one of the smugglers cut of Jenkins ear. Jankin went to parliament, and then eventually war. This event was significant for the emergence of Public Opinion.

Fredrick the Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

Fredrick forged a state that commanded the loyalty of the military, the junker nobility, the Lutheran clergy, a growing bureaucracy recruited from an education middle class, and university professors. Fredrick declared himself “the first servant of the state”, and imposed promotion by merit. Fredrick had extensive religious toleration in high predominately Lutheran state, and there was economic growth due to his importation of workers outside Prussia.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

The pragmatic sanction had secured Maria Theresa’s rule, and she preserved the Hapsburg Empire as a major political power. She gained loyalty by granting new privileges to the nobility whenever they were about to turn on her. She was much decentralized but she was able to keep the support of the Magyars.

War of Austrian Succesion

1740 - 1748

Fredrick II seized the Austrian province of Silesia and shattered the provision of the Pragmatic Sanction and disrupted the balance of power in Central and Easter Europe. Maria Theresa rallied her empire to resist pressure from Prussians and other rivals. In 1744, the British-French conflicted expanded into the New World when France began to support Spain’s efforts against Britain. The war ended in a stalemate in 1748 with the Treaty of Aix-la- Chappell. With this treaty, Prussia retained Silesia, and Spain renewed Britain’s privilege from the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 to important slaves to the Spanish colonies.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

In this period there was a large amount of growth in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology that had a large effect on the social, economic and cultural conditions of the times, and times to fallow

Diplomatic Revolution

January 1756

The Diplomatic Revolution refers to the shift of alliances between Austria and Prussia and Great Britain and France. Britain made an alliance with Prussia to prevent foreign troops from entering the German states. Now France makes an alliance with Austria. To them, they only cared about a balance in powers.

Seven Year's War

1756 - 1763

Fredrick II opened the war by invaded Saxony, considering this as a preemptive strike against a conspiracy by them. There was a global due between Britain and France, a continental struggle between Prussia and Austria, and professional armies fought this war. The war ended with the Treaty of Paris, and Britain received all of Canada, the Ohio River Valley, and the eastern half of the Mississippi valley. Britain returned Pondicherry and Chandernagore in India and the West Indian sugar islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique to the French

Voltaire- Candide

1759

Voltaire was one of the most influential of the philosophes. In Candide, he used satire to attack the war, religious persecution, and unwarranted optimism about human condition. He believed human society could and should be improved, but not certain that reform would be permanent

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Catherine was seen as an Enlightened Despot. However, during her rule the nobles controlled them because she felt she owed them for their support during peasant revolts. Catherine hoped to revise law in Russia, and gained access to ports in the Black Sea.

American Revolution

1762 - 1783

The revolt of the British colonies marked the beginning of the end of European colonial domination of the American continents. Charles Townshend passed a series of revenue acts relating to colonial imports, and the colonists resisted. The colonists organized the First Continental Congress in Philadelphia after the Intolerable Acts were passed. The congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.