Electoral in the Holy Roman Empire that elected the leader
Clement V moves the papacy from Rome to France, giving more power and more economic revenue to France.
Edward III tried to assert himself on the French throne and tensions were high in general because England and France were both starting to emerge.
French weaknesses and England Superiority:
Econ troubles- Borrowed a lot of money
Estates Generals- Exploited King
King did not have a lot of leadership and power
still trying to transition from a fuedal society
England Superior militarily and had better royal leadership
The conflict during the reign of Edward III
French defeat and the Treaty of Troyes
Joan of Arc and the Wars Conclusion
Killed about two fifths of the population.
Shrunk labor supply (killed the peasants). Declined the value of the Estates of the nobility.
Helped out Artisans-They had a bigger demand
Peasant revolts- Agriculture prices rose
Cities still somewhat prosperous
Caused a conflict between merchants and artisans (guilds)
Criticized church for it and being hypocritical
Leader of the Hussite's in Prague (Bohemia)
Supporter of John Wycliff
Killed by colleague in 1415
The papacy returns to Rome
Pope Urban VI(Rome) vs Clement VII(French)
France tried to retain their power over the Church
England supported Rome
Played the game "No body gets to be the Pope!"
Elected Martin V
The Italian City-State:
Were prosperous due to geographical location, commerce increased greatly which opened up markets fo them to dominate and monopolize. Became the bankers of Europe. Were independent and expanding. For factions arose: Grandi(old rich), popolo grosso(new rich), the smaller business people, and the popolo minuto.
An educational program built on rhetoric and scholarship for their own sake. Traits: Individualism, classicalism, rhetoric, studying the original sources.
Humanists wanted educational reform.
Renaissance Art: Mannerism. Portrayed humanism, focus on the individual. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo
Slavery in the Renaissance:
The Printing Press:
Invented by Johann Gutenberg. Was a cheaper and more economical way of making and printing stuff. Mostly produced woks for lay readers. Printed a lot of religious works. Increased literacy.
With his works he made educational and religious reform. Wanted unite classical ideals of humanity and civic virtue with the Christian ideals of love and peity. Philosophia Christi. Idealist. "Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched"
Humanism and Reform:
Germany: Rudolf Agricola-"father of German humanism". Reinfoced German nationalism.
England: Thomas More-Utopia. Act of Supremacy-Henery VIII
France:Invading caused religious and educational reform. Guillaume Bude and Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples- Leaders of French humanism
Spain:Only one with Catholic, all other countries had protestant reform
Charles VIII invaded Italy and at was first successful but then the Italian city-states banded together and also with the Help from the League of Venice(Ferdinand of Aragon)
Pope Alexander VI:
Most corrupt pope, openly promoted political careers
Pope Julius II:
"Warrior Pope", raised the papacy to peak of military prows.
France invaded again and defeated Julius around 1515ish
Justification by faith alone
Made the king of England the head of the English church.
The King needed a male heir
Cuius regio, eius religio- the rler of the region gets to pick the religion
Recognized Lutherism as a religion. Still exclude calvinism
Forced religious toleration in France. Made by Henry IV.