AP Euro Timeline

Ch 9-The Middle Ages

Golden Bull

1300

Electoral in the Holy Roman Empire that elected the leader

Avingion Papapcy (Babylonian Captivity)

1309 - 1377

Clement V moves the papacy from Rome to France, giving more power and more economic revenue to France.

The Hundred Years war

May 1337 - October 1453

Causes:
Edward III tried to assert himself on the French throne and tensions were high in general because England and France were both starting to emerge.
French weaknesses and England Superiority:
Internal disunity
Econ troubles- Borrowed a lot of money
Estates Generals- Exploited King
King did not have a lot of leadership and power
still trying to transition from a fuedal society
England Superior militarily and had better royal leadership
Stages:
The conflict during the reign of Edward III
French defeat and the Treaty of Troyes
Joan of Arc and the Wars Conclusion

The Black Death

1346 - 1350

Bubonic plague
Killed about two fifths of the population.
Shrunk labor supply (killed the peasants). Declined the value of the Estates of the nobility.
Helped out Artisans-They had a bigger demand
Peasant revolts- Agriculture prices rose
Cities still somewhat prosperous
Caused a conflict between merchants and artisans (guilds)

John Wycliffe

1350 - 1384

Hated indulgences
Criticized church for it and being hypocritical
Lollards

John Huss

1373 - 1415

Leader of the Hussite's in Prague (Bohemia)
Supporter of John Wycliff
Killed by colleague in 1415

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

The papacy returns to Rome
Pope Urban VI(Rome) vs Clement VII(French)
France tried to retain their power over the Church
England supported Rome

Council Of Constance

1414 - 1417

Socrosancta
Played the game "No body gets to be the Pope!"
Elected Martin V

Ch. 10- Renaissance and Discovey

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

The Italian City-State:
Were prosperous due to geographical location, commerce increased greatly which opened up markets fo them to dominate and monopolize. Became the bankers of Europe. Were independent and expanding. For factions arose: Grandi(old rich), popolo grosso(new rich), the smaller business people, and the popolo minuto.
Humanism:
An educational program built on rhetoric and scholarship for their own sake. Traits: Individualism, classicalism, rhetoric, studying the original sources.
Humanists wanted educational reform.
Lorenzo Valla
Renaissance Art: Mannerism. Portrayed humanism, focus on the individual. Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo
Slavery in the Renaissance:
Prospered greatly

Voyages of Discovery aand the New Empires in the west

1400 - 1550

Northern Renaissance

1450 - 1550

The Printing Press:
Invented by Johann Gutenberg. Was a cheaper and more economical way of making and printing stuff. Mostly produced woks for lay readers. Printed a lot of religious works. Increased literacy.
Erasmus:
With his works he made educational and religious reform. Wanted unite classical ideals of humanity and civic virtue with the Christian ideals of love and peity. Philosophia Christi. Idealist. "Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched"
Humanism and Reform:
Germany: Rudolf Agricola-"father of German humanism". Reinfoced German nationalism.
England: Thomas More-Utopia. Act of Supremacy-Henery VIII
France:Invading caused religious and educational reform. Guillaume Bude and Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples- Leaders of French humanism
Spain:Only one with Catholic, all other countries had protestant reform

Italy's Political Decline: The French Invasions

1494 - 1527

Charles VIII invaded Italy and at was first successful but then the Italian city-states banded together and also with the Help from the League of Venice(Ferdinand of Aragon)
Pope Alexander VI:
Most corrupt pope, openly promoted political careers
Pope Julius II:
"Warrior Pope", raised the papacy to peak of military prows.
France invaded again and defeated Julius around 1515ish

Ch. 11- The Age of Reformation

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Justification by faith alone

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

Pedestination

Act of Supremacy

1534

Made the king of England the head of the English church.
The King needed a male heir

Peace of Ausburg

September 1555

Cuius regio, eius religio- the rler of the region gets to pick the religion
Recognized Lutherism as a religion. Still exclude calvinism

Ch. 12- The age of Religious Was

Edict of Nantes

1598 - 1685

Forced religious toleration in France. Made by Henry IV.