Believed in the essence of being a good person. Religion.
This war was a struggle between France and England because England made a claim to the French throne and France and England have never gotten along due to land quarrels and etc. It impacted politics in France, making them realize the need of a strong centralized government.
Peasant revolts in France.
Merchant Cities, Humanism, Art, Despotism.
New forms of art and thinking arrived.
Capturing and torture of people suspected as witches and supposedly holding and performing magic.
He was a "Brother of Common Life"
A humanist who wrote about humanistic ideals.
Took a voyage for exploration and discovery. Discovered America and began the Spanish Colonial Empire
The reformation was a new idea that there should be "justification by faith alone" brought about my Martin Luther. It was the spread of Lutheranism and other religions like Calvinism and made them become recognizable religions such as Catholicism. It made a huge impact on religion and European thought as it made people realize there are other ways besides what the catholic church saw fit.
Ended up switching religions so he could divorce his wife so it could lead to him having a male heir. (Catholicism= no divorce)
95 Thesis- Written by Luther
Diet of Worms- Luther challenged the Catholic church and their sale of indulgences saying it was wrong.
This impacted Religion
More freedom of expression and less realistic. Derived from the Renaissance.
The German Peasants agreed with Luther and his ideas on taxes and religion so they revolted.
Predestination and the belief that God has already chose where you are meant to go, but regardless you should be good and helpful and wise to make it seem like you are going to Heaven.
During the Council of Trent the Catholic Church decided to induct changes to better Catholicism and to get their followers back. Impacted Religion.
A scientist who still supported the geocentric model and was the mentor to Johannes Kepler.
"cuius regio, eius religio" the ruler chooses the religion.
But only Catholicism or Lutheranism.
Father of empiricism and experimentation in science
Huguenots(French Protestants) needed to be contained and a war broke out.
Wrote in English, had incredibly popular plays, and wrote about all subjects (romance, humor, tragedy)
The Dutch fight back at the Spanish trying to expand.
Pacification of Ghent- unification of netherland colonies
Union of Utrecht- Some colonies in Netherlands break away and join Spain
He created forced religious toleration, put in place mercantilism and limited power in parliament before being assassinated.
Cervantes wrote a book called "Don Quixote" that was popular in Spain due to the Satire.
succeeded Elizabeth I
Wasn't very well liked and believed in the absolute power of kings and summoned Parliament as least as possible.
Cardinal Richelieu was chief minister.
"raison d'etot" Reason of State
Continued the policies of Henry IV
The King and Parliament fight over the King's power and also what the religion should be overall for the country. Stuarts wanted to rule absolutely, Cromwell tried to rule but he was just as bad. The English Bill of Rights are basically the rights of parliament.
Centralized the Government in France.
"l'etat c'est moi" I am the State.
Louis believed in divine right of kings and that he could rule all of France without assistance.
Discovered the mathmatical principles of the universe and how/why gravity works and planets move
Wrote a book on natural rights, and popular sovereignty.
Spain falls under France's jurisdiction and it offsets the balance of power in Europe. England, Holland, and H.R.E join together to take back Spain and they win.
Believed in Enlightenment.
The General Will- Individuals sarcifice themselves for the common good.
Pragmatic Sanction- To ensure that his daughter Maria Theresa could rule the Hapsburg house.
The end of the War of Spanish Succession. Established boundaries of European Empires.
Louis XIV dies. Louis XV succeeds him.
referred to himself as "servant of the state"
An enlightened despot.
equity in taxation
punishment = crime
Fredrick the Great starts the war.
Prussia + Great Britain vs. France + Austria
Wrote famous satire "Candide."
Wanted religious tolerance and agreed with Deism.
Franch loses all land in America and makes France realize they need to make changes to their gorvernment
3 phases of French Revolution:
Phase 1- Start of the Revolution/ Moderate Stage
Phase 2- Radical Phase
Phase 3- Reaction Phase