Believed in the essence of being a good person. Religion.
The Hundred Years War
1337 - 1453
This war was a struggle between France and England because England made a claim to the French throne and France and England have never gotten along due to land quarrels and etc. It impacted politics in France, making them realize the need of a strong centralized government.
Peasant revolts in France.
Renaissance in Italy
1375 - 1527
Merchant Cities, Humanism, Art, Despotism.
1400 - 1500
New forms of art and thinking arrived.
1400 - 1700
Capturing and torture of people suspected as witches and supposedly holding and performing magic.
1466 - 1536
He was a "Brother of Common Life"
A humanist who wrote about humanistic ideals.
Columbus/Start of the Spanish Empire
Took a voyage for exploration and discovery. Discovered America and began the Spanish Colonial Empire
1500 - 1600
The reformation was a new idea that there should be "justification by faith alone" brought about my Martin Luther. It was the spread of Lutheranism and other religions like Calvinism and made them become recognizable religions such as Catholicism. It made a huge impact on religion and European thought as it made people realize there are other ways besides what the catholic church saw fit.
Henry VIII r.
1509 - 1547
Ended up switching religions so he could divorce his wife so it could lead to him having a male heir. (Catholicism= no divorce)
Luther- 95 Thesis, Diet of Worms
1517 - 1519
95 Thesis- Written by Luther
Diet of Worms- Luther challenged the Catholic church and their sale of indulgences saying it was wrong.
This impacted Religion
1520 - 1590
More freedom of expression and less realistic. Derived from the Renaissance.
German Peasant Revolts
1524 - 1525
The German Peasants agreed with Luther and his ideas on taxes and religion so they revolted.
1534 - 1564
Predestination and the belief that God has already chose where you are meant to go, but regardless you should be good and helpful and wise to make it seem like you are going to Heaven.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
During the Council of Trent the Catholic Church decided to induct changes to better Catholicism and to get their followers back. Impacted Religion.
1546 - 1601
A scientist who still supported the geocentric model and was the mentor to Johannes Kepler.
Peace of Augsburg
"cuius regio, eius religio" the ruler chooses the religion.
But only Catholicism or Lutheranism.
Bacon: Novum Organum:
1561 - 1626
Father of empiricism and experimentation in science
French Religious Wars
1562 - 1598
Huguenots(French Protestants) needed to be contained and a war broke out.
1564 - 1616
Wrote in English, had incredibly popular plays, and wrote about all subjects (romance, humor, tragedy)
Dutch Revolt (Against Spain)
1568 - 1648
The Dutch fight back at the Spanish trying to expand.
Pacification of Ghent- unification of netherland colonies
Union of Utrecht- Some colonies in Netherlands break away and join Spain
Henry IV (Fr.) assasinated
1589 - 1610
He created forced religious toleration, put in place mercantilism and limited power in parliament before being assassinated.
Cervantes: Don Quixote
1603 - 1605
Cervantes wrote a book called "Don Quixote" that was popular in Spain due to the Satire.
James I (Eng.)
1603 - 1625
succeeded Elizabeth I
Wasn't very well liked and believed in the absolute power of kings and summoned Parliament as least as possible.
Louis XIII: r (Richelieu)
1610 - 1643
Cardinal Richelieu was chief minister.
"raison d'etot" Reason of State
Continued the policies of Henry IV
English Civil War
1642 - 1649
The King and Parliament fight over the King's power and also what the religion should be overall for the country. Stuarts wanted to rule absolutely, Cromwell tried to rule but he was just as bad. The English Bill of Rights are basically the rights of parliament.
Louis XIV r.
1643 - 1715
Centralized the Government in France.
"l'etat c'est moi" I am the State.
Louis believed in divine right of kings and that he could rule all of France without assistance.
1676 - 1745
Newton: Principia Mathematica
Discovered the mathmatical principles of the universe and how/why gravity works and planets move
Locke: Treatises on Gov’t (1st & 2nd)
Wrote a book on natural rights, and popular sovereignty.
War of Spanish Succession
1701 - 1714
Spain falls under France's jurisdiction and it offsets the balance of power in Europe. England, Holland, and H.R.E join together to take back Spain and they win.
Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract
1712 - 1778
Believed in Enlightenment.
The General Will- Individuals sarcifice themselves for the common good.
Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction
Pragmatic Sanction- To ensure that his daughter Maria Theresa could rule the Hapsburg house.
Treaty of Utrecht
The end of the War of Spanish Succession. Established boundaries of European Empires.
Death of Louis XIV
Louis XIV dies. Louis XV succeeds him.
Frederick II (The Great) (Prussia) r.
1740 - 1786
referred to himself as "servant of the state"
An enlightened despot.
Joseph II (Austria) r
1741 - 1790
equity in taxation
punishment = crime
Diplomatic Revolution (Seven Years' War)
1756 - 1763
Fredrick the Great starts the war.
Prussia + Great Britain vs. France + Austria
Wrote famous satire "Candide."
Wanted religious tolerance and agreed with Deism.
Treaty of Paris
Franch loses all land in America and makes France realize they need to make changes to their gorvernment
1789 - 1800
3 phases of French Revolution:
Phase 1- Start of the Revolution/ Moderate Stage
Phase 2- Radical Phase
Phase 3- Reaction Phase