Wrote "The Divine Comedy" which locked in the place of hell, made huge impact on Italy.
1304 - 1374
Seen as the "father of Humanism" so he himself was very significant durning the renaissance for individualistic view of life.
The Avignon Papacy
1309 - 1377
Moves to Versailles, France had all the political power and cardinals.
1313 - 1375
Harsh social critic associated with Petrach.
Lollards: John Wycliffe
1328 - 1384
Writings gave Loolards in England some backing for their demands, preached in vernacular, writings were a place to justify himself.
The Hundred Years war
1337 - 1453
Strengthened monarch, weakened the nobles.
Population of France is desamated.
Prolonged crisis in the church.
destabalized the banking system.
Starting to get nations.
1347 - 1350
Hits Sicali in 1347, large cities hit the worst. Peasants, being malnurished, were hit with the dieace the hardest. After Effects: Shook up the economy, peasant farmers move to towns, began formation of the middle class.
June 1358 - August 1358
French nobles made peasants pay increasing-taxes, became too much so in some places the peasants rose upand rebelled, Was significant because peasants finally stood up for themselves.
Hussites: John Huss
1369 - 1416
Hussites followed John Huss who was one of the head leaders of the Protestant Reformation.
Reniassance in Italy
1375 - 1527
People began to become fore humanistic by thinking for themselves and questioning authority, huge growth in city-states.
The Great Schism
1378 - 1417
When ther pope moved to Avignon, Rome wanted more funding so they elected another pope, but neither pope would back down so the monarch became more powerful.
Early Exploration- Portugal and Spain
1394 - 1521
Portugal started exploring North America, Spain sailed over and started to colonize the new found land.
1400 - 1695
People believed there were witches, some people took advantage of this group by getting rid of enemies they don't like.
Council of Constance
1414 - 1418
Wanted a new council in Constance, council showed its supremacy by electing a new pope.
Printing Press- Johannes Gutenberg
Printing press allowed ideas to be spread a lot more quickly, Luther used this to benefit him.
Columbus/ Start of the Spanish Empire
1451 - 1506
Brought the Spanish empire into the America, which got them lots of resources.
1466 - 1536
Wanted to mix humanity and religion into one.
Ferdinand and Issabella
1474 - 1504
Marriage united Spain, some lutheran ideas, but for the most part was mainly catholic.
1480 - 1550
Began from Italian learning, leaders consisted of northern humanists, people began looking back to ancient thinkers.
Luther- 95 thesis
1483 - 1546
Posted 95 thesis which were all the things wrong with the catholic church according to the bible which he read and copied to german. After reading the bible he believed that faith alone is all you need.
1492 - 1619
When the Europeans got to america they exchanged diseases killing Native Americans.
Italy's decline by invasions
1494 - 1527
Church in Italy began to lose power, therefore France invaded.
1500 - 1750
Economy plateaued so there came a desire for trade,,, mercantilism.
1500 - 1553
King declared himself in charge of Spiritual affairs along with temporal ones.
Pope Julius II
1503 - 1513
Warrior pope, because he he fought many wars, fully secured the Papal States.
1509 - 1564
Calvin was a figure who believed that if god knew all then everything was already predetermined.
1509 - 1547
Establishe a seperate religion in England, need an heir to the thrown, but did not have any male sons. Therefore he declared the Act of Supremacy which always made it to where a Habsburg was always on the thrown.
The Prince: Machiavelli
Huge roll in politics, put down in writing what a successful monarch needed to do.
Martin Luther's 95 thesis
1517 - 1518
Luther uses printing press to spread his controversial packet as an attack of the catholic church. Sent to the Diet of Worms to see what his punishment would be, but fled to the nobles.
1520 - 1580
Type of art characterized by extreme colors and abnormal muscularity.
Diet of Worms
Meeting to discuss the reformation, Luther was excommunicated.
German Peasant Revolts
1524 - 1525
Peasants took on Lutheranism because they didn't have to pay taxes then, but Luther was hiding with the nobles so he didn't take the peasants side.
William of Orange
1533 - 1585
Lead the Netherlands against Spain, was a politique because he wanted the betterment of the state.
1533 - 1603
One of the first politiques because she put englands economy in front of it's religion.
The Golden Bull
An electoral college to decide who the HR Emperor should be, showed that that poition is weak.
1540 - 1555
Highly valued education, wanted to convert everyone into catholics.
Found that the earth revolves around the sun.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Wanted to get rid of corruption in the Catholic church and then because of that, get their followers back.
1546 - 1601
Very rich, took careful data of movements of stars and the sun, when he died his partner Kepler took his data and proved the heliocentric model.
Mary I of England
1553 - 1558
Was a Catholic ruler in a protestant region, was looked down upon and made to be seen as a terrible person... i.e. bloody Mary
Peace of Augsburg
The ruler decides the religion
Revolt in Spanish Netherlands
1559 - 1608
Duke of Alba goes to Netherlands to try and supress the revolt.
Bacon: Novum Organum
1561 - 1626
This is the work Bacon published sharing his Baconian method, this consisted of empiricism and the 4 idols.
French Religious Wars
1562 - 1598
Primarily fought between Catholics and Protestants, the conflict was between the Bourbon's and the Guise's families, in the end the Huguenots were granted freedom by the Edict of Nantes.
1564 - 1616
Codified English language, sometimes making up words to fit in his writings.
1566 - 1625
Took over Elizabeth, but was not liked because of his religious conservatism.
Rise of the Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age
1572 - 1702
The Dutch Golden Age was when the Netherlands was the time when the Netherlands was having a great economy, science advancements, and were religiously tolerant.
St. Barts Day Massacre
August 22, 1572
3000 Huguenots were killed in Paris, within 3 days 20,000 were killed which angered a lot of protestants.
1576 - 1609
Ten protestant province unified against Spain which is refered to as the Pacification of Ghent, this let the provinces choose their religion, the Union of Utrecht gave the Netherlands independence from Spain.
Mary Stuart Executed
Elizabeth believed Mary was going to kill her so Elizabeth killed her first.
The Spanish Armada
May 30, 1587
130 ship carrying 25,000 men was completly wiped out by the British and Netherlands.
1589 - 1610
Lead protestants, but when he became the ruler he switched to Catholicism... "Paris is worth a mass"
1590 - 1800
This stage let the middle class indulge in things that only the nobles knew before.
Edict of Nantes
April 13, 1598
Gave religious toleration, ended religious wars, gave Huguenots rights.
1600 - 1800
New methods which increased food production, transitioning crops, new inventions.
1600 - 1740
More realistic than art before, less religious than paintings before.
Kepler: the new Astronomy
Kepler took Tycho's data and proved the heliocentric model.
1610 - 1643
Established Royal Absolutism
Henry VI Assassinated
After killed the Edict of Nantes was removed.
The Thirty Years War (Treaty of Westphalia)
1618 - 1648
Started as religious fight, ended with a fight for power, Treaty of Westphalia ends the war and germany is fragmented, Austria and Prussia arise as powers.
1623 - 1663
French Mathmatician, believed that for religion you need to take a leap of faith.
1625 - 1650
Forced taxes to collect money for war, sparked english cival war.
1633 - 1642
Believed people should find their own meanings in the bible, and that it was written metaphorically, because of the he was put under house arrest.
Descartes: Discourse on Method
Supports deductive reasoning where you must doubt everything.
1643 - 1715
Absolute ruler, moved to Versailles, that way if nobles wanted anything, they needed to ask him on his terms.
1649 - 1652
Series of widespread rebellions which convinced the king to protect his throne.