A political treatise by the Italian diplomat, historian and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. Although it was written as if it were a traditional work in the mirrors for princes style, it is generally agreed that it was especially innovative. This is only partly because it was written in the Vernacular (Italian) rather than Latin, a practice which had become increasingly popular since the publication of Dante's Divine Comedy and other works of Renaissance literature. The Prince is sometimes claimed to be one of the first works of modern philosophy, especially modern political philosophy, in which the effective truth is taken to be more important than any abstract ideal. It was also in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time concerning how to consider politics and ethics. Although it is relatively short, the treatise is the most remembered of his works and the one most responsible for bringing the word "Machiavellian" into wide usage as a pejorative term.
Published in two volumes a decade apart, in 1605 and 1615, Don Quixote is considered the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age and the entire Spanish literary canon. As a founding work of modern Western literature, and one of the earliest canonical novels, it regularly appears high on lists of the greatest works of fiction ever published.
Sir Francis Bacon's novel which solidifies his opinions on empiricism and inductive reasoning. Includes the four idols -- of the cave, market, theater, and tribe.
English king Edward III, the grandson of Philip the Fair of France, made a claim to the French throne after the French king Charles IV, the last of Philip’s surviving sons, died without a male heir.
The French nobles named the first cousin of Charles IV, Philip VI of Valois, king and his dynasty would rule into the sixteenth century.
The bubonic plague struck Europe (starting in Italy) in time of over population and malnutrition.
-Guilds and Monarchies gain power
Henry VIII is known for his role in the separation of the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church. Henry's struggles with Rome led to the separation of the Church of England from papal authority, the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and establishing himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Yet he remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, even after his excommunication from the Catholic Church.
The Council issued condemnations on what it defined as Protestant heresies at the time of the Reformation and defined Church teachings in the areas of Scripture and Tradition, Original Sin, Justification, Sacraments, the Eucharist in Holy Mass and the veneration of saints. It issued numerous reform decrees. By specifying Catholic doctrine on salvation, the sacraments, and the Biblical canon, the Council was answering Protestant disputes.
The capture of the king of France, Francis I, by the forces of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Battle of Pavia ion 1525 provided a basis for the first wave of Protestant persecutions in France. The French monarchy remained a staunch opponent of Protestants until the ascension to the throne of Henry IV of Navarre in 1589.
France experienced a period of weakness when King Henry II was mortally wounded when he was accidentally pierced by a lance during a tournament. Three powerful families in France saw the chance to control France and plotted to take the throne. The crown, wary of the power of the Guise family, supported the Catholic side of the conflict.
Known as the beginning of the reformation. Martin Luther posts ninety five "grievances" with the Church. He did not intend to start a new religion, but to reform the Catholic faith.
Enacted by Parliament under King Henry VIII of England, separated England from the Roman Catholic Church and named the king the head of the Church of England.