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General/Political History (Wars, rulers, treaties...)

100 years war

1337 - 1453

cause: english king claims right to French Throne
effect: made monarchs stronger, decreased french pop., helped make england/france become noticeable nations.

the black death

1347 - 1350

causes: overpopulation, bad hygiene, famine
-disease came from rats that entered from ports
-first hit in Sicily
effects: people died so laborers got paid more
-middle class (artisans) rises
-people start moving into cities



peasants tired of paying taxes because they're broke
so they revolt

council of constance

1414 - 1418

council that solved the great schism
-one pope

commercial revolution

1450 - 1600

-"age of discovery"
-europeans explore the world
-find the new world

columbian exchange


disease and war brought to the new world
corn and other resources brought back to europe
-also sharing of ideas

pacification of ghent

1503 - 1513

provinces in netherland join together and gang up on spain because they're tired of spain's s*** (the spanish fury)

pope julius ii

1503 - 1514

-called the "warrior pope"

henry viii

1509 - 1547

-married catherine of aragon
-act of supremacy
-king has power and control over church

henry viii

1509 - 1547

was a pimp
had many wives and exciting nights in order to create a male heir to the throne

the reformation

1517 - 1563

a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

german peasant revolts

1524 - 1525

german peasants were trying to revolt against the nobles
luther said noooooooooo because he was being protected by the nobles

william of orange (the silent)

1533 - 1584

-dutch leader
-changed religion to unite his people

council of trent

1545 - 1563

redefined roman catholic doctrine, strengthened papacy

mary I (england)

1553 - 1558

-married phillip of spain
-killed lots of protestants

elizabeth i

1558 - 1603

-unity of state > religion
-created anglican church
-reintroduced act of supremacy
- rewrote the 39 articles

french religious wars

1562 - 1598

wars fought over religion

thirty years war

39 articles


made protestantism a religion

dutch revolt against spain

1568 - 1648

the dutch fight spain because spain is all up in theyz grillz

england gives them money in order to do so

henry iv assassinated

1572 - 1610

assassinated 1610
-limited power of parlemants
-helped start mercantalism
-religiously tolerant

union of utrecht


netherland provinces unified under william of orange

spanish armada


the spanish try to be sneaky by trying to sneak into england but the english see them and they're like

"hell nah son get out of here" and set fire to their boats

edict of nantes


-recognized rights of different religions
-big impact on religion

english civil war

1642 - 1646

-elizabeth I has no kid and dies
-king and parliament fight over the power
-king supporter = cavalier
-parliament supporter = roundhead
-roundheads won, had puritan republic for a while

the restoration

1660 - 1685

monarchy comes back
parliament controls taxes and gov't

agricultural revolution

1674 - 1795

-more food
-less plague
-less war
-less famine
-raised standard of living
-enclosure method
-making cows do each other to get bigger babies

the glorious revolution

1685 - 1689

william of orange and wife mary take english throne

toleration act- non-protestants allowed to practice their religion but not allowed to hold office

english bill of rights


limits power of king, guarantees rights of parliament

industrial revolution

1750 - 1850

-new produce
-new innovations
-raised standard of living
-new jobs
-factories are built

essentially people were becoming healthier

spinning jenny


made yarn faster

steam engine


powered machines faster

water frame


used water to power machines
-factories built near rivers


avignon papacy (babylonian captivity)

1309 - 1377

-pope moved to avignon
-became powerful
-tried to return to italy


1328 - 1384

-followed teachings of john wycliffe
-followed franciscan ideas


1369 - 1415

-followed teachings of john huss

the great schism

1379 - 1416

-the period in which there were 3 different popes elected

luther's 95 thesis


-posted his ideas on church door for public to see
-against indulgences
*made people think

luther - diet of worms


-made luther an outlaw

act of supremacy


-the king has all control over church
-decides religion of the state



-genevan church organized into 4 offices

saint bartholomew's day massacre


20,000 huegunots killed in france

edict of nantes


recognized rights of different religions