Ap Euro 1st Semester Timeline



1265 - 1321

-Vita Nuova
-Divine Comedy


1304 - 1374

Father of Humanism
-Letters to the Ancient Dead
-Lives of Illustrious Men

Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity)

1309 - 1377

Money diverted away from Rome


1313 - 1375


The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

France v. England
-Long bow
-peasants in army
-Joan of Arc

The Black Death

1346 - 1350

started in Constantinople
-a bunch of stupid things
-farms decline
-peasants revolt

The Golden Bull


established a 7-member electoral college
elected emperor



bloody peasant rebellions over increasing taxes

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

transition from medieval to modern

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

between 70,000-100,000 people sentenced to death
-cunning folk
-people who claimed abilities of changing weather and such
-political rivalries
-clergy wanted power

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

ended Great Schism
created a council to elect the pope

Early Exploration

1415 - 1530

Printing Press (Guttenberg)


allowed easier distribution of ideas and writings
-major help to humanists


1466 - 1536

most famous northern humanist
-wrote Colloquies
-Adages (proverbs)
-anti clerical dialogues and satires on religious dogmatism and superstition

Ferdinand and Isabella (Married)


united Castile and Aragon
-still separate countries
-almost total control over the Spanish church

Ferdinand r.

1474 - 1504

Isabella r.

1479 - 1516

Columbus/Start of the Spanish Empire


-mistook first landfall for Japan
-natives gave all the corn, yams, and sexual favors they desired
-easy to enslave

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

Pope Julius II r.

1503 - 1513

Warrior Pope
-raised papacy to peak of military prowess
-Concordat of Bologna gave French king control of French clergy in return for recognition of Pope's superiority and right to collect annates

Henry VIII r.

1509 - 1547

created Anglican church
-broke off from catholic church
-same doctrine
-needed male heir
-unhappy with current marriage
-ironically he was the reason he couldn't have the heir

John Calvin

1509 - 1564

created Calvinism
-converted to Protestantism
-originally exiled from Geneva for being too radical

The Prince (Machiavelli)


-a satire on the way rulers actually rule
-recommended unprincipled despotic rule and tyranny
-legitimately advised rulers to pursue the advantages of fraud and brutality

Luther- 95 Thesis


posted grievances of indulgences
-posted to start debate on doctrine
-hated on Tetzel
-did not intend to start a religion


1517 - 1600

-sought to reform Catholic church
-Protestantism emerged

Diet of Worms

April 1521

explained views
-refused to recant as it would go against Scripture, reason, and his conscience
-placed under imperial ban (both secular and church outlaw)

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

revolted against landlords
-invoked Luther's name
-he condemned them as "un-Christian"
-70-100,000 peasants slaughtered



William of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1588

-changed religions
-organized Dutch nobility
-resisted Spanish attempt to enforce Council of Trent decision in Netherlands
-lead Neth. fight to independence
-became leader

Act of Supremacy


declared Him the only supreme leader on earth over the English church
-wanted his marriage annulled
-needed an heir

Calvinist Geneva


church separated into 4 parts
1 pastors
2 teachers or doctors
3 elders
4 deacons
-home to exiled protestants
-women were given a lot more rights

On The Revolution of Heavenly Spheres (Copernicus)


Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

reaffirmed traditional Scholastic education of clergy, the role of good works in salvation, the authority of tradition, the seven sacrements, transubstantiation, withholding of the Eucharist cup from laity, clerical celibacy, purgatory, the veneration of saints, relics, and sacred images, and indulgences.
-strengthened power of bishops and had new rules requiring them to be more visible

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

advocated geocentric model
-made more intensive observations of space than anyone had
-vast body of astrological data

English Reformation

1547 - 1553

-Henry VIII broke off from Catholic church
-retained Catholic doctrine
-Edward VI
-England became protestant
-instituted Book of Common Prayer
-Mary I
-ruins it all but whatevs

Baroque Art

1550 - 1750

-heavy and dark ornamentation
-associated with Catholic Counter-Refomration
-flashy as hell with massively decorated architecture and statues

Mary I r.

1553 - 1558

restored Catholic Doctrine
-completely changed the current religious status of England
-killed protetant leaders
-only 287 were actually killed
-Bloody Mary (my ass)

Peace of Augsburg


Cuius regio, eius religio
-ruler of land determined the religion
-made split of Christendom official
-Lutherans permitted to retain land attained by force before 1552

Elizabeth I r.

1558 - 1603

-Created Anglican Church
-Protestant doctrine with Catholic practices
-Act of Supremacy made her supreme governor over church and made it possible for her to reverse what Mary I had done
-Thirty-Nine articles

-moderate Protestantism the official religion of England

Dutch Revolt

1561 - 1577

Spain wanted to impose its power over Netherlands
-Netherlands rebelled
-Duke of Alba took power by suppressing rebellion
-thousands killed
-imposed taxes
-William of Orange leads Neth to independence
-Pacification of Ghent

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598
  • Huguenots given the right to public practice and to retain fortified towns in an officially Catholic country

Thirty Nine Articles


made moderate Protestantism the official religion of the English church


1564 - 1616

wrote tragedies, comedies, and histories including Richard III, Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, and Romeo and Juliet
-member of the King's Men

Rise of the Netherlands/ Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1700

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

August 22, 1572

-Attempt at an assassination on the king caused belief of a Protestant coup
-3000 huguenots butchered on aug 22, and 20000 more were killed within 3 days
-turned fight between Bourbons and Guises to a fight between Protestants and Catholics

Pacification of Ghent


declared internal regional sovereignty over religion
-similar to Peace of Augsburg

Union of Utrecht


northern provinces of Netherlands united


1585 - 1642

centralized French government

Mary Stuart Exacuted


Spanish Armada

May 30, 1588

sent to invade England but majorly failed
-over 1/3 never returned to Spain

Henry IV r.

1589 - 1610

-issued Edict of Nantes
-ended French religious wars

Edict of Nantes

April 13, 1598

Huguenots given the right to public practice and to retain fortified towns in an officially Catholic country

Mazarin r.

1602 - 1661

attempted to impose direct royal administration on France

James I r.

1603 - 1624

the people constantly worried that he was Catholic because he did mostly necessary things and made intelligent decisions that happened to have a sentiment of Pro-Catholicism

Don Quixote (Cervantes)


satirized the chivalric romances prevalent in Spain

The New Astronomy (Kepler)


Henry IV Assassinated


killed by Catholic fanatic

Louis XIII r.

1610 - 1643

laid groundwork for an absolute monarchy

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

fragmentation in Germany and religious division caused the war
-4 periods
1 bohemian period
-Ferdinand revokes protestant rights. Definistration of Prague goes down
-Bohemia re-Catholicized
2. Danish period
-denmark enters and is easily killed
-wallenstein enters and becomes his own power
-peace of augsburg re emphasized
3. Swedish period
-Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden enters for Protestants
-germany and Ferdinand ally
-Netherlands and France ally with Sweden
4. Swedish-French period
-germany ransacked
-1/3 of Germans killed

Novum Organum (Bacon)


-believed Scholastics were wrong and that there was still knowledge to gain
-knowledge could be used for human gain

Charles I (Eng.)

1625 - 1649

Blaise Pascal

1633 - 1662

-allied with Jansenists
-against Jesuits, atheists, and deists

Discourse on Method (Descartes)


Long Parliament

1640 - 1660

English Civil War

1642 - 1646

Louis XIV r.

1643 - 1715

Treaty of Westphalia


Cromwell r.

1649 - 1660

The Fronde

1649 - 1652


1650 - 1700

Leviathon (Hobbes)




Royal Society of London


Charles II (Eng)

1660 - 1685

Short Parliament

April 1660 - may 1660

Peter The Great

1682 - 1725

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


James II (Eng)

1685 - 1688

Principia Mathematica (Newton)


Glorious Revolution


English Bill of Rights


Treatise on Government 1st & 2nd (Locke)


The Great Northern War

1700 - 1721



1700 - 1730

Consumer Revolution

1700 - 1720

Age of Mercantilism

1700 - 1800

Act of Settlement


War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Death of William III (Eng)


Decline of the Netherlands

1702 - 1800

Charles VI r.

1711 - 1740

Frederick Wilhelm

1713 - 1740

Prussian Militarism

1713 - 1740

Treaty of Utrecht


Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

Robert Walpole r.

1721 - 1742

War of Jenkin's Ear


Maria Thresa r.

1740 - 1780

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1800

Diplomatic Revolution


Seven Year's War

1756 - 1763

Candide (Voltaire)


Social Contract (Rousseau)


Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Treaty of Paris


Spinning Jenny


Joseph II r.

1765 - 1790

Water Frame


Steam Engine


American Revolution

1775 - 1776

Wealth of Nations (Smith)



1780 - 1800

Vindication of Rights of Women (Wollstonecraft)


Convention Meets (Monarch Abolished)

Sept. 21, 1792

Louis XVI Executed

Jan. 21, 1793

Principle of Population (Malthus)


Iron Law of Wages (Ricardo)


French Revolution

Estates General Meets

July, 1788

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

-National Assembly vows to meet until a Constitution is made

Storming of the Bastille

July 14, 1789

Great Fear

July 20, 1789 - Aug. 1, 1789

Nobles Renounce Feudal Privelages

August 4, 1789

-proves equality
(they had already lost them anyway)

Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen

Aug 27, 1789

March of the Fishwives

Oct. 5, 1789

Civil Constitution of Clergy

July 12, 1790

Legislative Assembly Meets

Oct. 1, 1791

War with Austria

April 20, 1792

Tuileries Stormed

Aug. 10, 1792

Reign of Terror

July 1793 - July 1794

Levee en Masse

Aug. 23, 1793

Cult of Reason

nov 10, 1793

Danton Executed

April 6, 1794

Cult of the Supreme Being

May 7, 1794

Fall of Robespierre

July 27, 1794

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Constitution of the Year III (The Directory Established)

Aug 22, 1795

Napoleon- coup Brumaire

Nov 9, 1799