European Semester 1 Timeline

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Unam Sanctam was issued

November 18, 1302

Boniface issued the Unam Sanctam which declared that temporal authority was needed for the spiritual power of the church.

One Hundred Years War

May 1337

A war between England and France

Alliance with England

1340

Flemish cities allied with England stating that Edward was the King of France.

Bay of Sluys

June 23, 1340

Edward defeated France in the first battle of the war at Bay of Sluys.

Calais

1346

Edward attacked Normandy and won Port of Calais.

Black Death

1348

A series of plagues that sweep across Europe

Statute of Laborers

1351

English Parliament passes the Statute of Laborers that states that peasants are restricted from leaving their master's land and that wages will be limited to pre-plague levels.

Estates General called

1355

The French King turned to the Estates General in hopes of securing funds.

England's greatest victory

1356

England beat the French nobles' Cavalry and captured King John the Good. (John II)

Golden Bull

1356

German rulers passed the Golden Bull which made a seven member electoral college to pick an emperor.

Peace of Brétigny- Calais

May 9, 1360

England forced the Peace of Brétigny- Calais on the French that stated Edward's authority in France territories and England agreed to stop holding King John captive.

Decameron

1375

Giovanni Boccaccio wrote the Decameron.

The Great Schism

1378

Problems between the church

Ciompi Revolt

1378

The poor revolt in France.

Peasant revolt in England

1381

Peasants revolt in England due to the Statute of Laborers.

English victory

1415

English defeated the French at Agincourt.

End of Schism

1417

The Great Schism ended within the churches.

Treaty of Troyes

1420

The Treaty of Troyes recognizes that England is an heir to the French throne.

King of France

1422

Henry VI is announce the King of France as well as England.

Aztecs

1428

Aztecs began imperial expansion in the New World.

Joan of Arc

1429

Joan of Arc leads France to Orléans where they beat the English.

Four Articles of Prague

1432

Hussites of Bohemia passed the Four Articles.

Cosimo de' Medici

1434

Medici established the Cosimo de' Medici to stabilize rule in Florence.

Council of Basel

1449

The Council Of Basel collapsed.

End of the One Hundred Years War

1453

The English win the Hundred Years War but they only keep their land on Calais.

March through the Castantinople

1453

Turks marched through the Castantinople and towards the west.

Treaty of Lodi

1454

Treaty of Lodi formed an alliance between Milan, Naples, and Florence.

Bible

1454

Gutenberg published a printed Bible.

Paupers

1457

One third of the Florence population was listed as pauper. (People with no wealth at all)

Invention of printer

1468

Johann Gutenberg invented a printer with movable type.

Estates General

1484

The Estates General was suspended.

Pico's Oration

December 1486

Pico's Oration was published in Rome to start a public debate on life's important topics.

Columbus

October 12, 1492

Christopher Columbus landed in San Salvador.

Evasion of Italy and Savonarola

1494

Charles VIII evades Italy and Savonarola controls Florence.

League of Venice

1495

League of Venice unites Venice, Milan, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire, and Spain againist France.

Loses control

1498

Savonarola loses control of France.

Invasion of Milan

1499

Louis XII invades Milan.

Conquer of Romagna

1500

Borgias conquers Romagna

The Holy League

1512

The Holy League defeats France.

The Prince

1513

Machiavelli writes The Prince.

Third attempt into France

September 1515

Francis I leads France into Italy for the third time.

The Concordat of Bologna

August 1516

The Concordat of Bologna is made between France and the Papacy.

Ninety-Five Theses

October 31, 1517

Luther posted his Ninety-Five Theses against indulgences onto the door of the Castle Church in Wittenburg.

Holy Roman Emperor elected

1519

Charles I (Spain) was elected as the Holy Roman Emperor.

Leipzig Debate

1519

Luther challenged the Pope's authority and ability of the church councils at the Leipzig Debate.

Peasant revolt

1524

Peasants revolt in Germany

Sack of Rome

1527

Imperial soliders protect Rome.

Diet of Augsburg

1530

The Diet of Augsburg didn't settle religious differences.

Submission of the Clergy

1532

Parliament passes the Submission of the Clergy which said that the Church of England gave up their power to make laws without the King's consent.

Act of Supremacy

1534

The Act of Supremacy declares that Henry VIII was the head of the church of England.

Act of Succession

1534

The Act of Succession allowed Anne Boleyn's children to be the heir of the English throne.

Six Articles

1539

HenryVIII writes the Six Articles.

Edward takes throne

1547

Edward VI takes throne under the protectorships in Somersot and Northumberland.

First Act of Uniformirty

1549

The First Act of Supremacy imposes the Book of Common Prayer on the English churches.

Catholic doctrine

1553

Mary Tudor restores the Catholic Doctrine.

Anglican

1558

Elizabeth I makes an Anglican religious settlement.

Thirty Years War

1618

The Thirty Years War begins and it is the worst of the religious wars.

English Civil War

1642

James II fights against Parliament while the puritans were against the anglicans.

Treaty of Westphailia

1648

This is the treaty that ends the Thirty Years War.

Fronde

1649

The French noble rebellion.

Versailles

1682

Louis XIV moved the government to Versailles and this action made the nobles less powerful because they had to ask the King to do everything.

Revokes the Edict of Nantes

1685

Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes because it allowed religious toleration and he wanted France to be Catholic.

Gravity

1687

Newton discovers the formula for gravity.

Glorious Revolution

1688

William III and Mary take over the English throne so James II doesn't rule anymore.

Old Regime

1700

The Old Regime was established and it gave nobles more privileges, it established churches, it made an urban work force, and rural peasantry on the land.

Spanish Succession

1701

The War of the Spanish Succession began because Spain wanted Europe to be Catholic.

Nietherlands economy

1702

When William of Orange died the Netherlands economy declined because they didn't have a ruler to control it.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

The Treaty of Utrecht ended the Spanish Succession.

Mississippi Bubble

1720

The financial crisis in France.

War of Jenkins' Ear

1739

The War of Jenkins' Ear between Spain and England because Spain had cut off an English citizens ear.

Pragmatic Sanction

1740

Charles VI (Spain) made sure that his daughter, Maria Teresa, got heir to the Spanish throne.

War of the Austrian Succession

1740

The War of the Austrian Succession began because of the Pragmatic Sanction.

Treaty of Aix- la- Chapelle

1748

The Treaty of Aix- la- Chapelle made peace between England and France.

Industrial Revolution

1750

The Industrial Revolution started a better standard of living.

Enlightenment

1750

The Enlightenment was a new way of thinking that introduced rationalism, and deism. The influences of the Enlightenment were Locke, Newton, the British because of their liberal ideas, and the printing press.

Encycolpedia

1751

Diderot made the Encycolpedia which was a book of ideas and essays.

Dipolmatic Revolution

1756

France and Austria made an alliance against England and Prussia.

Seven Years War

1756

The Seven Years War began and it was also known as the first world war.

Treaty of Paris

1763

Ends the Seven Years War.

Utilitarianism

1764

Utilitatianism, in Becarria's eyes, said to sacrifice the greater good for the grater number.

Stamp Act

1765

When England taxed legal documents and paper.

Spinning Jenny

1769

The machine that spun clothing faster than it did by hand and it was invented by James Hargreaves.

Steam Engine

1769

James Watts enhanced the steam engine by makingnit work faster and more effiecent.

Water Frame

1769

The Water Frame is a machine that was water powered and made weaving faster, this was invented by Richard Arkwright.

Boston Massacre

1770

A revolt of American patriots against the British.

Boston Tea Party

1773

When American patriots attacked a British ship and dumped out all of the tea.

Intolerable Acts

1774

Declaration of Independence

1776

American declared its independence from England.

Iron Production

1784

Henry Cort introduced new methods of melting iron.

Doubling the Third

December 1788

The King declared that the Third Estate would have double the amount of votes as the First and Second Estates.

Doubling the Third

December 1788

The King declared that the Third Estate would have double the amount of votes as the First and Second Estates.

Estates General

1789

Louis XVI called the Estates General in hopes of bringing stability to France's economy.

National Assembly

June 17, 1789

The Third Estate and First Estate join together to make up the National Assembly.

Tennis Court Oath

June 20,1789

The first revolutionary act where the National Assembly met in a tennis court and wrote the first Constitution of France.

Fall of Bastile

July 14, 1789

Parisians went to Bastile to collect weapons and free political prisoners against the King.

The Great Fear

August 1789

The people in France were afraid of the uprising of a war and being killed and the nobles said that everyone was equal, on paper.

Declaration of Rights of Men and Citizen

August 26, 1789

This document said that all men were equal and this idea was based off of John Locke.

March of the Fishwives

October 5, 1789

Parisian women armed themselves and invaded Versailles to get the King to give them more food.

Constitution of 1791

1791

The Constitution of 1791 stated that the new government of France was unicameral and was a constitutional monarchy.

Flight to Varennes

June 1791

Louis and his family dressed up as servants and try to escape to Varennes but they get caught and brought back to Paris.

Declaration of Pillnitz

August 1791

The Declaration of Pillnitz was passed in Austria to protect the royal family.

Legislative Assembly

October 1, 1791

The Legislative Assembly meets.

Mary Wollstonecraft

1792

Mary Wollstonecraft opposed Rousseau's idea of women and men being in different spheres and she challened him.

War with Austria

August 20, 1792

France goes to war with Austria because Austria was seen as a threat to the revolution.

September Massacre

September 1792

The National Guard shot into a crowd of Parisians.

Republic

September 21, 1792

France declared itself a Republic.

Execution of Louis XVI

January 21, 1793

Louis XVI was beheaded.

The Directory

August 22, 1795

The Directory was made up of five men who wrote the Constitution of Year III.

Overthrow of the Directory

1799

Napolean gets rid of the Directory to spread Enlightenment ideas.

Concordat of 1801

1801

Napolean makes peace with the Pope and the church but the church is still under the state. "Confidence from below, power from above."

Emperor

1804

Napolean crowns himself the Emperor of France.

Reign of Terror

1994

Robespierre and the Common of Public Safety executed anyone who was believed to be a counter revolutionary; but they didn't have to run a trial anymore.