AP Euro 1st Semester Timeline

General/Political History

Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The English King was fighting over the French throne. Territorial problems emerged.

Black Death

1347 - 1350

Infection came from China. Caused by bad harvests, exploding population, and poor sanitation. Killed 30-60% of Europe's population. Result was increase in peasant revolts, artisans and declining farms.

The Golden Bull


Agreement that established an electoral college of seven German princes that voted on the Holy Roman Emperor.



French nobility forced peasants to pay increased taxes. Peasants revolted against French Nobility.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Ended Great Schism when Pope Martin V was elected over 3 other popes and when supremacy was asserted.

Early Exploration-Portugal and Spain

1415 - 1550

Prince Henry tells Columbus where to sail, and it leads him to North America.


1466 - 1536

First humanist who wrote Julius excluded from Heaven.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)


Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille got married. They married to better the efficiency of which they ruled Spain.

Jesuits- Society of Jesus

1491 - 1540

Dedicated Catholics who are dedicated to the pope.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1698

An exchange of culture, disease, livestock, agriculture and religion between Europe and the New World.

Columbus/ Start of Spanish Empire


Beginnning of Colonial Empire when Columbus sailed to America.

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

Italian princes began to fight with each other. France came in to stop it.

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1700

Succeeded by Industrial Revolution. Revolution in consumer goods by mercantilist trading.

Witch Hunts

1500 - 1600

Captruing and killing of withces that casted magic and curses. They were said to be more powerful than God.

Consumer Revolution

1500 - 1700

More products made for consumption.

Henry VIII of England

1509 - 1547

Had 6 wives in order to have a son, and had a son Edward VI. While trying to divorce wife Catherine of Aragon, became king of both the state and church with the Act of Supremacy.


1517 - 1563

Religious movements in 16th century that led to a reform of the Catholic church. Established Protestantism.

German Peasant Revolt

1524 - 1525

Poverty stricken peasants didn't want their traditional laws to be overridden. Had many thoughts in common with Luther. Tens of thousands of peasants died.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Council under popes control and strengthened power of bishops, church and and Pope. Voting only allowed by high clergy.

Agricultural Revolution

1550 - 1850

Landlords replaced open field method with closed field method which increased crop production a lot. People learned how to raise crops more efficiently.

Elizabeth I of England

1553 - 1558

Established true monarchy after ruins of Mary I. Passed the Thirty-nine Articles and represented moderate religions.

Mary I Of England

1553 - 1558

Married to Phillip II of Spain, she was known as Bloody Mary. Feared by many Protestants, she killed many Protestants during her reign.

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

French War between Huguenots and Catholics. Huguenots in France became very aggressive. This alarmed Catherine Medici and she killed many Protestants on St. Bartholomew Day's Massacre. Henry Navarre and Henry III made peace between Protestants and Catholics.

Thirty Nine Articles


Revision of Thomas Cranmer's original 42. Made Protestantism official religion of England. Issued by Elizabeth I of England.

Dutch Revolt


When Philllip II of Spain tried to spread Catholics to the Netherlands, the Dutch revolted against him.

Rise of Netherlands- Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1702

Dutch economy increases and so does the trade with Tulips. Creates a new fom of still life art.

Pacification of Ghent


Union of Arras made peace with Spain. Phillip II declared William of Orange an outlaw.

Union of Utrecht


Declared Phillip II no longer the ruler.

Mary Stuart Executed


Elizabeth I is threatened by Mary Stuart and her plans, so she executes Mary.

Spanish Armada


"Invincible-Army" Tried to overthrow Elizabeth I and failed.

Henry IV of France

1589 - 1610

Henry Navarre helped Henry III to protect France from catholic radicals. Henry Navarre took over as Henry IV when Henry III died. He then made amends with the Catholic Church. "Pariis is worth a mass."

Edict of Nantes


Gave French protestants liberty but ended with a Civil War.

James I of England

1603 - 1625

Son of Mary Queen of Scotts. Ruled England with a divided court and created a new Bible.

Henry IV Assassinated


Was killed by Catholic after writing the Edict of Nantes.

Louis XIII (Richlieu)

1610 - 1643

French King with advisor Cardinal Richlieu. Made up leading power of Europe and defeated the Spanish on many different occasions.

Revolt in Spanish Netherlands


Successful revolt of Protestant Seventeen Provinces against the policies of the Roman Catholic Church.

Charles I of England

1625 - 1649

Divine right, taxed without Parliaments consent. He was executed.

James II of England

1633 - 1701

Rule was taken away after Glorious Revolution. William of Orange became leader and he was the last Catholic ruler.

Long Parliament/ Short Parliament

1640 - 1648

King can't get rid of Parliament without their consent.

English Civil War

1642 - 1646

Charles I declined his rule and the Parliament and Cromwell take over making England a Puritan Government.

Louis XIV: Mazarin

1643 - 1661

Tried to tax the nobles. The nobles then rioted against them.

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

Civil War in France which moved the government to Versailles.

William of Orange (The Silent)

1650 - 1702

William of Orange ruled Holland. He led the European coalition against France. William III gained dominant leadership. Died 1702.

Age of Mercantilism

1650 - 1750

Time when government regulated trade. Colonies served motherland and resources were limited.

Academies of Science (London First)


Philosophers had meetings to talk about their thoughts on science.

Charles II of England

1660 - 1665

Made first monarch after Puritan Republic.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1775

Westernized Europe, took power from nobles, imporved taxes and bettered life for people.

Restoration and Glorius Revolution


William of Orange took the throne and signed the English Bill of Rights with Mary II.

English Bill of Rights


William of Orange signed the Bill of Rights and which gave civil liberties to classes and limited the government.

End of Witch Hunts


Ended because of declining wars and famine and advances in science.

Decline of Netherlands


Netherlands fall because of political problems.

Great Northern War: Russia/Sweeden

1700 - 1721

Russia wins and gains territory on Black Sea.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

War included Louis XIV of France, Maria Teresa of Austria, Leopold I of Holy Roman Empire, and Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria. Charles II was dying and had no male heir.

Act of Settlement (GB)


Passed by Parliament to settle succession of the English throne to Sophia of Hanover.

Death of William III of England


The Orange dynasty is over.

Treaty of Utrecht


Peace treaties that ended war of Spanish Succession. Duke of Anjou became king and France and Spain still aren't united.

Charles VI Austria Pragmatic Sanction


Passed by Holy Roman Empire. Possessions of Hapsburgs could be inherited by daughters.

Frederick Wilhelm/ Prussian Militarism

1713 - 1740

Increases Prussia's military.

Death of Louis XIV


He died in the Palace of Versailles.

Mississippi Bubble


John Law didn't have the money to cash out gold and silver. Bubble burst which put France in trouble.

Emergence of Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

First Prime Minister of Britain and he influenced Parliament.

War of Jenkin's Ear

1739 - 1742

War based on public opinion that government can't stop.

Frederick II The Great of Prussia

1740 - 1786

Enlightened Despot of Prussia. Expanded his territory, made religious toleration, freedom of press, educational and agricultural reforms. The First Servant of the State.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussia and France wanted to take over Austria to stop Maria Theresa from taking the throne. Great Britain sided with Austria.

Maria Theresa Austria

1745 - 1765

Gained throne after War of Austrian Succession. She was Catholic and had no religious tolerance.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1800

Diplomatic Revolution


War of Austrian Succession where Great Britain sides with Austria and France sides with Prussia.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

Balance of power. Stopped France from expanding.

Catherine the Great (Russia)

1762 - 1796

Enlightened Despot. Peasants rebelled against her so she had to give up reforms. Expanded Russia.

Treaty of Paris


Ends Seven Years War and Britain gains global power.

Joseph II of Austria

1764 - 1790

Was an Enlightened Despot who was religious tolerant, freed the serfs, tied church to state, stripped nobles of their power, and had better taxation.

Spinning Jenny


Invented to be able to spin 16 to 120 spools of thread at same time. (Industrial Revolution)

Water Frame


Richard Arkwright invented it to produce pure cotton fabric instead of cotton with linen. (Industrial Revolution)

Steam Engine


Scottish engineer, James Watt invented first steam engine. Invented to improve transportation, textile making and factory work.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

American colonies gain their own freedom when they break away from Britain.


Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1376

Time when pope lived in Avignon and another in France creating the Great Schism.

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1350 - 1384

Lollards were followers of Wycliffe. Translated bible and was popular with the nobility. Against secularism of the papacy. Wanted to get rid of political presence in church and for priests to be judged on merit not rank.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Two popes at the same time. Urban VI of Rome and Clement VII of Avignon. England supported Urban, France supported Clement. With two different popes, the council couldn't despose of either of them. Then a third pope, Alexander V, was elected. No papal authority during this time.

Hussites: John Huss

1403 - 1415

Hussites were followers of John Huss. Followers supported vernacular translation of the bible and criticized sacraments like the Eucharist. Doubted the clergy and was executed in 1415. His followers revolted and gained control over the Bohemian Church.

Pope Julis II

1503 - 1515

Made an active foreign policy during his reign and was patronage of the arts.

Luther- 95 Thesis


Luther complained about how corrupted the Roman Catholic Church was.

Diet of Worms


Meeting of the Roman Catholic Church that banned Luther's ideas. Luther was put under the protection of German nobles.

Catholic Counter Reformation


Movement in Roman Catholic Church in reaction to Protestant Reformation during the 16th Century.

English Reformation

1527 - 1600

Reformation during the time in which Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine in order to marry Anne Boyle. Anglican church was made.

Act of Supremacy


Declared Henry VIII king of both the state and church.

John Calvin- Geneva


Was chief reformer of Geneva. Supported two sacraments: the elect and ideas of simplicity. Geneva then became a theocracy.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Meeting to eliminate corruption of Catholic Church and to reassert church doctrine. Meeting was to keep religion strong and keep followers happy.

Peace of Augsburg


Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire made the rule that the ruler could choose whatever religion as long as it was Protestant or Catholic. cuius regio, eius religio

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Power of the Huguenots grew, Catherine Medici decided it needed to stop and tried to kill them all. Several thousand peasants died.

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire

Galileo Condemned


People thought he was violating the church and put him under house arrest.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


Rights taken away from Hugenots. Louuis XIV had centralized power so everyone was Catholic.

Thinkers, Authors/Books


1265 - 1321

Humanist during Italian Renaissance and wrote the Divine Comody.


1304 - 1374

Used secularism and was known as the Father of Humanism.


1315 - 1375

Renaissance writer that wrote Decameron.

Printing Press-Guttenberg


Invention of a cheap way to make paper and moveable type to broaden content of books.

The Prince: Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Wrote the book The Prince. The book was a guide on how to rule a government using absolute rule.

Copernicus: On Rev. of Heavenly Spheres


Heliocentric model of universe. Opposite of Ptolemy's geocentric model.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Said Mercury and Venus revolve around Sun and the rest of the planets revolved around Earth.


1564 - 1616

Greatest play writer of all time.

Cervantes: Don Quixote


Cervantes is an author of a story about a man named Don.

Kepler: The New Astronomy


Used Brahe's data to prove retro grade motion and heliocentrism.

Bacon: Novum Organum


Advocated empirical thinking and logic.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Tried to better relationship between Christianity and reason.

Descartes: Discourse on Method


Doubted everything and used rational deduction to prove everything.

Hobbes: Leviathan


Wanted a strong central goevernment, absolute rule and a social contract.

Newton: Principia Mathematica


Newton wrote articles on gravitation and movemnet on celestial bodies.

Locke: Treatises on Government (1st&2nd)


Critisizes 1st Patriarchial system and sets a society based off of natural rights.

Voltaire: Candide


Book talks about French satire, critisizes philosphy, government and the idea of optimism.

Rousseau- Emile, Social Contract


Emile: Men and women live in seperate spheres.
Social Contract: General will means that citizens give up rights for better good of the state.

Smith Wealth of Nations


Focused on economy and came up with the idea of capitalism.

Malthus: Principle of Population


Said over population would kill resources, but production passed the consumption of people.

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


Made economy ideas like rent and minimum wages.


Renaissance in Italy

1304 - 1550

Rebirth of art using the ideas of secularism, humanism, and classicism.

Northern Renaissance

1427 - 1580

Expansion of art in Northern Europe where they tried to reconnect the church with the world.


1520 - 1580

Art in Europe that included intellectual ideas and represented neutralism.

Baroque Art (Catholic Nations)

1600 - 1700

Popular in Catholic Church. Art was overexaggerated and expressed a lot of emotion.

Decline of Gothic Art

1600 - 1800

Replaced by Neoclassicism in 16th Century.


1700 - 1800

Art based on Enlightenment and influenced by Greeks and Romans.

Emergence of Rococo

1710 - 1750

Very elaborate art style that uses many pastel colors.

French Revolution

Estates General called and Meets


1st Estate is Clergy, 2nd Estate is Nobles, 3rd Estate is bourgeoisie. Solved financial problems from Louis XIV.

Storming of Bastille


Peasants stormed Bastille to free prisoners. Revolution started when people told government what to do. July 14.

March of the Fishwives


Peasant women marched to Versaille when there was a shortage of bread and they demanded change.

Nobles renounce feudal priv.


2nd Estate renounces feudal power which makes everyone equal.

Legislative Assembly Meets


June 17. Middle class meeting.

Rights of Man and Citizen


National Assembly states that all men are free and equal. Women were put in their own spheres. Jobs given by merit, taxes were fair.

Tennis Court Oath


June 20. National Assembly met in Tennis Court to write a constitution. First revolutionary act.

Great Fear


Peasants rebelled when they thought the government was goign to send troops to stop revolution.

Reign of Terror


March 24. Anyone who disagreed with government was executed.

Fall of Robespierre


July 27. Was executed before they made the Directory.

Civil Constitution of Clergy


Took all of clergy's land and sold it back to them in bonds.

Tuileries Stormed- King captive


30,000 peasants stormed Tuileries Palace. Took king as prisoner in Paris.

Convention meets- Monarch Abolished

1792 - 1795

National convention meets to abolish monarchy.

War with Austria


April 20. Austria threatens to have war with France after killing King and Queen. France attacked first.

Cult of Reason


Belief system to make people not be Christian in France during Revolution.

Wolstonecraft- Vind. of rights of Women


Rousseau was criticized on thoughts of seperate sphers. Within sphere, education was limited.

Lousi XIV executed


Tried for treason and was executed. Started reign of terror. January 17.

Levee en Masse


August 16. French citizens drafted to fight in war.

Cult of the Supreme Being


Deism was religion of France when Robespierre was ruler.

Danton Executed


Aprill 5. People thought he was counter- revolutionary and was executed. Bagen the thermidorian reaction.

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Established Constitution of Year III. Was overturned by Napolean.

Constitution of Year III- Directory established


September 22. The Directory became the official government of France.

Napolean- coup Brumaire

1799 - 1800

Napolean creates Consulate and then creates an Empire while he's Emperor.