The English King was fighting over the French throne. Territorial problems emerged.
Infection came from China. Caused by bad harvests, exploding population, and poor sanitation. Killed 30-60% of Europe's population. Result was increase in peasant revolts, artisans and declining farms.
Agreement that established an electoral college of seven German princes that voted on the Holy Roman Emperor.
French nobility forced peasants to pay increased taxes. Peasants revolted against French Nobility.
Ended Great Schism when Pope Martin V was elected over 3 other popes and when supremacy was asserted.
Prince Henry tells Columbus where to sail, and it leads him to North America.
First humanist who wrote Julius excluded from Heaven.
Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille got married. They married to better the efficiency of which they ruled Spain.
Dedicated Catholics who are dedicated to the pope.
An exchange of culture, disease, livestock, agriculture and religion between Europe and the New World.
Beginnning of Colonial Empire when Columbus sailed to America.
Italian princes began to fight with each other. France came in to stop it.
Succeeded by Industrial Revolution. Revolution in consumer goods by mercantilist trading.
Captruing and killing of withces that casted magic and curses. They were said to be more powerful than God.
More products made for consumption.
Had 6 wives in order to have a son, and had a son Edward VI. While trying to divorce wife Catherine of Aragon, became king of both the state and church with the Act of Supremacy.
Religious movements in 16th century that led to a reform of the Catholic church. Established Protestantism.
Poverty stricken peasants didn't want their traditional laws to be overridden. Had many thoughts in common with Luther. Tens of thousands of peasants died.
Council under popes control and strengthened power of bishops, church and and Pope. Voting only allowed by high clergy.
Landlords replaced open field method with closed field method which increased crop production a lot. People learned how to raise crops more efficiently.
Established true monarchy after ruins of Mary I. Passed the Thirty-nine Articles and represented moderate religions.
Married to Phillip II of Spain, she was known as Bloody Mary. Feared by many Protestants, she killed many Protestants during her reign.
French War between Huguenots and Catholics. Huguenots in France became very aggressive. This alarmed Catherine Medici and she killed many Protestants on St. Bartholomew Day's Massacre. Henry Navarre and Henry III made peace between Protestants and Catholics.
Revision of Thomas Cranmer's original 42. Made Protestantism official religion of England. Issued by Elizabeth I of England.
When Philllip II of Spain tried to spread Catholics to the Netherlands, the Dutch revolted against him.
Dutch economy increases and so does the trade with Tulips. Creates a new fom of still life art.
Union of Arras made peace with Spain. Phillip II declared William of Orange an outlaw.
Declared Phillip II no longer the ruler.
Elizabeth I is threatened by Mary Stuart and her plans, so she executes Mary.
"Invincible-Army" Tried to overthrow Elizabeth I and failed.
Henry Navarre helped Henry III to protect France from catholic radicals. Henry Navarre took over as Henry IV when Henry III died. He then made amends with the Catholic Church. "Pariis is worth a mass."
Gave French protestants liberty but ended with a Civil War.
Son of Mary Queen of Scotts. Ruled England with a divided court and created a new Bible.
Was killed by Catholic after writing the Edict of Nantes.
French King with advisor Cardinal Richlieu. Made up leading power of Europe and defeated the Spanish on many different occasions.
Successful revolt of Protestant Seventeen Provinces against the policies of the Roman Catholic Church.
Divine right, taxed without Parliaments consent. He was executed.
Rule was taken away after Glorious Revolution. William of Orange became leader and he was the last Catholic ruler.
King can't get rid of Parliament without their consent.
Charles I declined his rule and the Parliament and Cromwell take over making England a Puritan Government.
Tried to tax the nobles. The nobles then rioted against them.
Civil War in France which moved the government to Versailles.
William of Orange ruled Holland. He led the European coalition against France. William III gained dominant leadership. Died 1702.
Time when government regulated trade. Colonies served motherland and resources were limited.
Philosophers had meetings to talk about their thoughts on science.
Made first monarch after Puritan Republic.
Westernized Europe, took power from nobles, imporved taxes and bettered life for people.
William of Orange took the throne and signed the English Bill of Rights with Mary II.
William of Orange signed the Bill of Rights and which gave civil liberties to classes and limited the government.
Ended because of declining wars and famine and advances in science.
Netherlands fall because of political problems.
Russia wins and gains territory on Black Sea.
War included Louis XIV of France, Maria Teresa of Austria, Leopold I of Holy Roman Empire, and Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria. Charles II was dying and had no male heir.
Passed by Parliament to settle succession of the English throne to Sophia of Hanover.
The Orange dynasty is over.
Peace treaties that ended war of Spanish Succession. Duke of Anjou became king and France and Spain still aren't united.
Passed by Holy Roman Empire. Possessions of Hapsburgs could be inherited by daughters.
Increases Prussia's military.
He died in the Palace of Versailles.
John Law didn't have the money to cash out gold and silver. Bubble burst which put France in trouble.
First Prime Minister of Britain and he influenced Parliament.
War based on public opinion that government can't stop.
Enlightened Despot of Prussia. Expanded his territory, made religious toleration, freedom of press, educational and agricultural reforms. The First Servant of the State.
Prussia and France wanted to take over Austria to stop Maria Theresa from taking the throne. Great Britain sided with Austria.
Gained throne after War of Austrian Succession. She was Catholic and had no religious tolerance.
War of Austrian Succession where Great Britain sides with Austria and France sides with Prussia.
Balance of power. Stopped France from expanding.
Enlightened Despot. Peasants rebelled against her so she had to give up reforms. Expanded Russia.
Ends Seven Years War and Britain gains global power.
Was an Enlightened Despot who was religious tolerant, freed the serfs, tied church to state, stripped nobles of their power, and had better taxation.
Invented to be able to spin 16 to 120 spools of thread at same time. (Industrial Revolution)
Richard Arkwright invented it to produce pure cotton fabric instead of cotton with linen. (Industrial Revolution)
Scottish engineer, James Watt invented first steam engine. Invented to improve transportation, textile making and factory work.
American colonies gain their own freedom when they break away from Britain.
Time when pope lived in Avignon and another in France creating the Great Schism.
Lollards were followers of Wycliffe. Translated bible and was popular with the nobility. Against secularism of the papacy. Wanted to get rid of political presence in church and for priests to be judged on merit not rank.
Two popes at the same time. Urban VI of Rome and Clement VII of Avignon. England supported Urban, France supported Clement. With two different popes, the council couldn't despose of either of them. Then a third pope, Alexander V, was elected. No papal authority during this time.
Hussites were followers of John Huss. Followers supported vernacular translation of the bible and criticized sacraments like the Eucharist. Doubted the clergy and was executed in 1415. His followers revolted and gained control over the Bohemian Church.
Made an active foreign policy during his reign and was patronage of the arts.
Luther complained about how corrupted the Roman Catholic Church was.
Meeting of the Roman Catholic Church that banned Luther's ideas. Luther was put under the protection of German nobles.
Movement in Roman Catholic Church in reaction to Protestant Reformation during the 16th Century.
Reformation during the time in which Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine in order to marry Anne Boyle. Anglican church was made.
Declared Henry VIII king of both the state and church.
Was chief reformer of Geneva. Supported two sacraments: the elect and ideas of simplicity. Geneva then became a theocracy.
Meeting to eliminate corruption of Catholic Church and to reassert church doctrine. Meeting was to keep religion strong and keep followers happy.
Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire made the rule that the ruler could choose whatever religion as long as it was Protestant or Catholic. cuius regio, eius religio
Power of the Huguenots grew, Catherine Medici decided it needed to stop and tried to kill them all. Several thousand peasants died.
Conflict between Protestants and Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire
People thought he was violating the church and put him under house arrest.
Rights taken away from Hugenots. Louuis XIV had centralized power so everyone was Catholic.
Humanist during Italian Renaissance and wrote the Divine Comody.
Used secularism and was known as the Father of Humanism.
Renaissance writer that wrote Decameron.
Invention of a cheap way to make paper and moveable type to broaden content of books.
Wrote the book The Prince. The book was a guide on how to rule a government using absolute rule.
Heliocentric model of universe. Opposite of Ptolemy's geocentric model.
Said Mercury and Venus revolve around Sun and the rest of the planets revolved around Earth.
Greatest play writer of all time.
Cervantes is an author of a story about a man named Don.
Used Brahe's data to prove retro grade motion and heliocentrism.
Advocated empirical thinking and logic.
Tried to better relationship between Christianity and reason.
Doubted everything and used rational deduction to prove everything.
Wanted a strong central goevernment, absolute rule and a social contract.
Newton wrote articles on gravitation and movemnet on celestial bodies.
Critisizes 1st Patriarchial system and sets a society based off of natural rights.
Book talks about French satire, critisizes philosphy, government and the idea of optimism.
Emile: Men and women live in seperate spheres.
Social Contract: General will means that citizens give up rights for better good of the state.
Focused on economy and came up with the idea of capitalism.
Said over population would kill resources, but production passed the consumption of people.
Made economy ideas like rent and minimum wages.
Rebirth of art using the ideas of secularism, humanism, and classicism.
Expansion of art in Northern Europe where they tried to reconnect the church with the world.
Art in Europe that included intellectual ideas and represented neutralism.
Popular in Catholic Church. Art was overexaggerated and expressed a lot of emotion.
Replaced by Neoclassicism in 16th Century.
Art based on Enlightenment and influenced by Greeks and Romans.
Very elaborate art style that uses many pastel colors.
1st Estate is Clergy, 2nd Estate is Nobles, 3rd Estate is bourgeoisie. Solved financial problems from Louis XIV.
Peasants stormed Bastille to free prisoners. Revolution started when people told government what to do. July 14.
Peasant women marched to Versaille when there was a shortage of bread and they demanded change.
2nd Estate renounces feudal power which makes everyone equal.
June 17. Middle class meeting.
National Assembly states that all men are free and equal. Women were put in their own spheres. Jobs given by merit, taxes were fair.
June 20. National Assembly met in Tennis Court to write a constitution. First revolutionary act.
Peasants rebelled when they thought the government was goign to send troops to stop revolution.
March 24. Anyone who disagreed with government was executed.
July 27. Was executed before they made the Directory.
Took all of clergy's land and sold it back to them in bonds.
30,000 peasants stormed Tuileries Palace. Took king as prisoner in Paris.
National convention meets to abolish monarchy.
April 20. Austria threatens to have war with France after killing King and Queen. France attacked first.
Belief system to make people not be Christian in France during Revolution.
Rousseau was criticized on thoughts of seperate sphers. Within sphere, education was limited.
Tried for treason and was executed. Started reign of terror. January 17.
August 16. French citizens drafted to fight in war.
Deism was religion of France when Robespierre was ruler.
Aprill 5. People thought he was counter- revolutionary and was executed. Bagen the thermidorian reaction.
Established Constitution of Year III. Was overturned by Napolean.
September 22. The Directory became the official government of France.
Napolean creates Consulate and then creates an Empire while he's Emperor.