n the early 17th century, a bid for independence by Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone and the last of the great Irish chieftains, was ultimately defeated by the armies of Elizabeth I in the Nine Years War.
O'Neill's surrender at Mellifont in 1603 was followed by his flight to Rome with many other Irish nobles
legislation that allowed those who helped defeat the Irish a share in confiscated lands
William of Orange defeated James II
the Catholic Association was formed under the leadership of Daniel O'Connell, who turned it into a national movement to campaign for Catholic emancipation