AP World History Timeline Semester 1

B.C.E.

"Land Bridge" Migration to Americas

13,000 B.C.E.

The first large wave of migration from Siberia to Alaska probably took place in 13,000 B.C.E. Its possible and likely that some reached the Western Hemisphere by watercraft, sailing, or drifting with the currents.

Neanderthals

10,000 B.C.E.

These people are from the Neander Valley in western Germany. They flourished between 200,000-35,000 years ago. they are part of a group of species known as the Homo Neandertalensis.

Cro-Magnon

10,000 B.C.E.

It's an informal name for early modern humans. It refers to people living alongside the Neanderthals.

Agricultural Revolution

10,000 B.C.E.

The New Stone Age. People began to rely more on cultivation rather than foraging for their food.

Olmecs

8000 B.C.E. - 400 B.C.E.

The Olmecs began cultivation experiments in 8000 B.C.E. and by 3000 B.C.E. agricultural villages appeared. Their diet was full of rich cultivated goods. Their proper name is still unknown, but Olmec means "rubber people".

Çatal Hüyük

7250 B.C.E. - 5400 B.C.E

It was a Neolithic settlement well known for rapid development and specialized labor. Residents then abandoned the site.

Trans Saharan Trade Route

5000 B.C.E.

Islam arrived from west Africa over land by camels and by coastal over sea lanes in the Indian Ocean. This was a part of the trans Saharan trade route. Islam then influenced political, social, economic, development of Africa.

Bronze

4000 B.C.E.

People in Mesopotamia were already discovering that if you alloy tin and copper, it would make a much stronger material. This led to the invention of bronze. They could now create swords, spears, axes, shields, and armor which completely changes military affairs.

Menes

3100 B.C.E

He is sometimes identified with an Egyptian ruler named Narmer, but he was an ambitious minor official from southern Egypt. He rose to power and extended authority to the delta.

Bantu Migration

3000 B.C.E

The Bantu people began to spread as early as 3000 B.C.E. and they spread to the west African forests in the south. By 2000, they had expanded to the Congo river basin and settled onto new territories where they absorbed local populations and routines like hunting and gathering.

Pastoralists

3000 B.C.E.

These people were those who kept traveling like nomads. They kept a herd of animals and built societies based on the ecological conditions of the land.

Settlements of islands throughout Oceania

3000 B.C.E.

Human migrants entered Australia and New Guinea first. They arrived by watercraft, most likely rafts or canoes. But they didn't have to cross many large stretches of open ocean.

Epic of Gilgamesh

2750 B.C.E

This was a set of stories that recount the adventures of Gilgamesh and his friend as they sought fame. They fought a monster, rescued Uruk from a ravaging bull and matched wits with the gods.

Sargon of Akkad

2370 B.C.E - 2315 B.C.E

He was the crerator of an empire in Mesopotamia. He was a talented administrator and brilliant warrior.

Xia Dynasty (Shia)

2200 B.C.E.

It is suggested that they made one of the first efforts to organize public life in china, large scale. It was one of the more vigorous states in this time. They established a precedent for hereditary monarchical rule in china.

Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro

2000 B.C.E.

They were cities with city walls, a fortified citadel, and a large granary. This suggested their political authority and distribution of grain and collection of taxes. They represented a considerable investment of human labor.

Abraham

1850 B.C.E.

Abraham was the Hebrew patriarch. He came from the Sumerian city of Ur, but migrated to Mesopotamia in around 1850.

Hammurabi

1792 B.C.E - 1750 B.C.E.

This was the time that he reigned. He was one of the most prominent conquerors and was Babylonian. He also styled himself "king of the four quarters of the world."

Shang Dynasty

1766 B.C.E. - 1122 B.C.E.

They left written records as opposed to the Xia dynasty. They relied on large corps of political allies. They didn't rule a highly centralized state. They rested on a vast network of walled towns whose local rulers recognized the authority of the Shang Kings.

Vedas

1500 B.C.E - 500 B.C.E.

This was when people used language to transmit works. The earliest of these were the Vedas. There were four Vedas, and the most important was the Rig Veda which was an important collection of 1,028 hymns to the Aryan gods.

Oracle Bones

1200 B.C.E

These bones were used by fortune tellers in ancient china. They forested the future by examining entrails of sacrificed animals, the divining of omens, or celestial events.

Zhou Dynasty

1122 B.C.E. - 256 B.C.E.

Zhou forces beheaded the king of the Shang dynasty and rose to power. The new rulers allowed Shang heirs to continue ruling small districts but reserved the right to themselves to oversee affairs throughout the realm.

Chavín Cult

1000 B.C.E. - 300 B.C.E.

It was a new religion that appeared in the Andes. It spread through most of Peru's territory from 900-800 B.C.E. although there is no known information indicating their significance.

Iron

1000 B.C.E.

Iron was also used to create effective tools and weapons. Early efforts were not successful because of the lack of strength of the iron, but they developed techniques to forging strong iron for tools and weapons. It was much cheaper than the cost to make bronze tools.

Upanishads

800 B.C.E. - 400 B.C.E.

A body of works. It literally means "a sitting in front of". It refers to the practice of disciples gathering before a sage for discussion of religious issues.

Siddhartha Gautama

563 B.C.E. - 483 B.C.E.

He was the man who sat under a large tree and remained in the same spot for 49 days. He waited there until he understood the problem of suffering. We became known as Buddha, meaning "the enlightened one".

Cyrus

558 B.C.E - 530 B.C.E.

He is responsible for launching the Persians imperial venture. He proved to be a tough, wily leader and was an amazing military strategist.

Achaemenid Empire

558 B.C.E. - 330 B.C.E.

This empire kept a tradition of imperial rule in much of southwest Asia. It formed an enormous empire.

Confucius

551 B.C.E. - 479 B.C.E.

The was the first Chinese thinker addressing the problem of political and social order in a straightforward and self-conscious way. His disciples called him "Master Philosopher Kong".

Buddhism

528 B.C.E.

This religion is based on understanding suffering. The Buddhist doctrine was the Dharma, and the core teachings were the Four Noble Truths. It taught that all things in life involve suffering. T escape the incarnation, one had to achieve the state of nirvana, which was perfect spiritual independence.

Darius

521 B.C.E. - 486 B.C.E.

These were the years of Darius's reign. He expanded the empire east and west. His armies pushed as far as the Indus River.

Roman Republic

509 B.C.E.

The monarchy was replaced with an aristocratic republic. There was constant tension between the hereditary elites and the common people. The tension was so high that the plebeians threatened to secede.

Confucianism

500 B.C.E

This was Confucius's thought of fundamentally moral, ethical, and political ideas. Several things emphasized were ren (an attitude of kindness), li (a sense of propriety), and xiao (filial piety).

Laozi

500 B.C.E.

He was the founder of Daoism. He was also a sage. It is almost certain that there were several hands contributing to the Daodejing which was the basic exposition of Daoist beliefs.

Daoism

500 B.C.E.

They were the most prominent critics of Confucian ideas. They found it pointless to waste time and energy on problems that defined solutions. Daoism means "the way of nature" or "the way of the cosmos."

Socrates

470 B.C.E. - 399 B.C.E.

A pivotal man in the development of philosophy. He was a philosopher who had an urge to understand human beings and human affairs. He didn't write down his thoughts, but thankfully he had a disciple who composed dialogues of what Socrates views were.

Plato

430 B.C.E. - 347 B.C.E.

He was a disciple of Socrates. He largely represented Socrates views. After his death, Plato gradually formed his thought into a vision of the world and human society. His cornerstone was his theory of Forms or Ideas.

Era of Warring States

403 B.C.E. - 221 B.C.E

The last few centuries during the Zhou reign. They were the most violent because people ignored the central government and used resources to expand, build and strengthen their state.

Maya(n)

400 B.C.E. - 800 C.E.

The earliest heirs of the Olmecs. Their society reached modern day Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador. Villages began to appear and they flourished mostly in the poorly drained Mesoamerican lowlands. They built terraces to trap silt to enhance the agricultural potential of the region.

Popul Vuh

400 B.C.E

It was a Maya creation myth which taught that the gods had created human beings out of maize and water which became flesh and blood.

Legalism

400 B.C.E.

A third school of thought. They promoted a practical and ruthless, efficient way to approach statecraft. They didn't concern themselves with ethics with was opposite of the Confucists.

Aristotle

384 B.C.E. - 322 B.C.E.

He elaborated a systematic philosophy that equaled Plato's work in its influence. He distrusted the theory of Forms or Ideas. He believed that philosophers could rely on their senses to to provide accurate information about the world.

Mencius

372 B.C.E. - 289 B.C.E.

He was the most learned man of this time. He was also the principle spokesman for the Confucian school. He traveled through china offering advice about political issues.

Alexander the Great

336 B.C.E. - 323 B.C.E.

Also known as Alexander of Macedon. He is the son of Philip of Macedon. The invasion of Persia fell to him. By the age of 20, he had succeeded his father as a ruler.

Mauryan Dynasty

321 B.C.E. - 185 B.C.E.

This was the first state to bring a centralized and unified government to most of the Indian subcontinent. He worked his way inward.

Ashoka Maurya

268 B.C.E. - 232 B.C.E.

This was the period of his reign. Ashoka was Chandragupta's grandson. He began as a conqueror. The only major region during the beginning of his reign was the kingdom of Kalinga. It was not only independent of Mauryan rule, but actively hostile. Ashoka is much better known as a governor than a conqueror.

Qin Shihuangdi

221 B.C.E. - 210 B.C.E.

This was the time of his reign. He proclaimed himself the first emperor and decreed that his descendants would follow him and reign for thousands of generations. His dynasty dissolved 14 years later.

Qin Dynasty

221 B.C.E. - 207 B.C.E.

There was massive development economically, politically, and military. By granting peasants private plots, it increased agricultural production. It dissolved quickly however because of civil insurrections.

Han Dynasty

206 B.C.E. - 220 C.E.

The dynasty was named after the land by Liu Bang. It consolidated the tradition of central imperial rule.

Silk Trade Routes

200 B.C.E.

This was trade that was facilitated through the silk roads built to connect trade between Asia and Europe. There were two main branches. There were also a network of sea lanes that sustained maritime commerce. Silk, spices, textiles, and more were traded along this route.

Indian Ocean trade routes

200 B.C.E.

Monsoon wind education and knowledge helped to navigate these seas. The long distance trade stimulated economies. They brought benefits to local economies all over the empire.

Julius Caesar

70 B.C.E - 44 B.C.E.

A nephew of general Marius. Julius favored liberal policies. In 49 B.C.E. he turned his army toward Rome. He later made himself the master of the roman state and named himself dictator. He was stabbed to death by the roman elite class.

Roman Empire

60 B.C.E.

It was founded by Julius Caesar. He led the roman army to Gaul and conquered them, bringing them into the still growing Roman Empire. He was an active part of roman politics. He named himself dictator and was eventually stabbed to death.

Augustus Caesar

31 B.C.E - 14 C.E.

He is the nephew of Julius. His original name was Octavian. After a naval battle, the name Augustus was bestowed upon him. It had a strong religious connotation. It suggested the divine or semi-divine nature of the holder.

Jesus of Nazareth

4 B.C.E. - 30 C.E.

He was a charismatic Jewish teacher who was recognized as their savior. He was peaceful and taught devotion to God. To roman authorities, his messages carried political undertones which sounded like a threat. They executed him by fixing him to a cross in an effort to forestall a new round of rebellion.

Christianity

4 B.C.E.

Christian communities formed around Jesus of Nazareth who was a Jewish teacher recognized as a savior. He was peaceful and taught devotion of God. They said that his sacrifice was to offset all the sins of those who had faith in him. These followers of Jesus became Christians.

C.E.

Pax Romana

100 C.E. - 350 C.E.

It's an era of "Roman peace" that lasted over two and a half centuries. It facilitated trade throughout the region. Augustus brought this peace.

The Yellow Turban Uprising

200 C.E.

This was a group of rebels who wore yellow turbans (hence the name) and they organized rebellions and also banditry. This was organized by peasants with few opportunities to improve their lot of land.

Germanic Invasions

224

There were multiple military threats in the Roman Empire. Sassanid and roman empires clashed repeatedly with some devastating blows. Migrant germanics posed more of a threat to the Roman Empire.

Diocletian

284 - 305

He tried to deal with the Roman Empire decaying by dividing the empire into separate administrative districts. Coemperors ruled each district. He hoped that four tetrarchs could rule more effectively than an individual emperor. He brought all the forces under control.

Constantine

306 - 337

He was the son of Diocletian's coruler. He had defeated most of his enemies by 313. He ordered the construction of a new capital city at a strategic location overlooking the Bosporus which linked the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara.

Gupta Dynasty

320 C.E. - 550 C.E.

Their state was based in Magadha like the mauryans, which was critical because of its wealth. This arose because of efforts from Chandra Gupta(not the same as Chandragupta). He forged alliances with powerful families in the Ganges region.

Chandra Gupta

320

He laid foundations for a new empire. He forged alliances with powerful families in the Ganges region and established a dynamic kingdom.

Roman capital moved to Constantinople

330

This was the capital and it was moved here so that Constantine could keep watch of over the Sassanid empire in Persia and Germanic people along the Danube River.

Axum

400

Axum was a place in Ethiopia, which was a kingdom where Christianity became established. The first people to convert to Christianity were most likely merchants.

Great Zimbabwe

500

Kings who lived here could control and tax trade between regions. Great Zimbabwe was a city of stone towers, palaces, and public buildings. These places served as a capital of a large kingdom.

Justinian and Theodora

527 - 565

Justinian- The most important of the Byzantine empires reigned from 527-565 B.C.E. known as the sleepless emperor. He was born into a Macedonian peasant family and because of his smarts, he was granted an education.
Theodora- Justinian's wife, a daughter of a bear keeper in a circus. She was ambitious. She was a striptease artist before meeting Justinian.

Justinian's Code

527

This was his most significant political contribution. It was the codification of roman law. Justinian ordered a systematic review of roman law and issued the Body of Civil Law, which won immediate recognition.

Byzantine Empire

527 - 1453

An empire located in a peninsula with a natural harbor which could control everything going through those waters. This empire came after the Roman Empire fell.

Hagia Sophia

530

This was the most notable construction work of Justinian and it meant "holy wisdom". It was a church that was one of Justinian's construction projects. It later turned into a mosque.

Muhammad

570 - 632

Muhammad was a prophet born to reputable merchants in Mecca. By the age of 6, he lost both parents. He had established himself as a merchant by 30. When he turned 40, he reached a transformation. His experience left him with the convictions that there was only one deity and that was Allah. He ruled the universe.

Sui Dynasty

589 - 618

They placed demands on their subjects to build a strong government. It expanded to all of china. They constructed many things including the grand canal

Khadijah

595

Muhammad's wife. When they met, he was working for her. She was a wealthy widow and he married her and he grew more prominent in Mecca society.

The Grand Canal

600

It was a series of artificial waterways to make crops available to other regions. By water was the only economical way to transport large amounts of crops.

Fast ripening Rice

600

The strains allowed for rice to be cultivated twice a year. It rapidly expanded the supply of food.

Tang Dynasty

618 - 907

The Tang Dynasty had organized china into a powerful, productive, and prosperous society. It was seized by a rebel leader. The dynasty was named after Chang'an after his heredity title.

Civil service examinations

620

During the Tang Dynasty, they relied heavily on bureaucracy based on merit. I served the government well with occasional interruption surviving for 13 centuries. It was a test you had to take to become part of the government officials.

Block Printing

620

This was a process when they carved a reverse image of an entire page into a wooden block. Then they would ink the block and press a sheet of paper on top.

Founding of Islam

620

It was founded because of Muhammad and the Quran. He and his followers made trips to Mecca, for a pilgrimage. He preached about his deity and visions that he saw that were from Allah. This spread and grew larger.

The Hijra

622

Hijra means "migration" and that's what this was. Muhammad's followers fled to a new settlement which they named Medina.

Abu Bakar

630

He was one of the prophets closest friends. He was also one of the most devoted disciples. He was chosen to serve as caliph. He also later became the Islamic head of state.

Umayyad Caliphate

632

It was unconceivable for there to be another prophet to succeed Muhammad. One of the prophets closest friends was selected to serve as caliph (deputy). Then he led them as lieutenants or substitutes for Muhammad.

Nara Japan

710 - 794

In Japan, they implemented a Chinese style bureaucracy with an equal field system and moved the capital to Nara. Chinese influence was very prominent during this time.

Battle of Tours

732

This was a battle in which Charles Martel defeated a Muslim army that ventured into Frankish territory after Muslim forces conquered majority of the Iberian peninsula. Charlemagne also fought the Muslims to try to win back Christian rule in northern Spain, but his efforts were unsuccessful.

Abbasid Caliphate

750

Abu al-Abbas founded the Abbasid dynasty which was more cosmopolitan than the Umayyad dynasty. It was not a conquering dynasty. Baghdad was the center of authority.

Charlemagne

768 - 814

Charlemagne was Charles Martel's grandson who reestablished centralized imperial rule. He had enormous energy, but was barely literate.

Vikings

790

Vikings were people who were norse seafarers who were merchants. They raided the British isles from their home at Vik in southern Norway.

Heian Japan

794 - 1185

Local rulers recognized the emperor as the authority. Unlike the Chinese, the Japanese emperors rarely ruled and rather were symbols of authority. There was a powerful clan that did most of the ruling during this time.

"Flying cash"

950

These were letters of credit enabling merchants to deposit goods or cash at. One location and draw the equivalent in cash or goods elsewhere in china. This was created by merchants and further developed economic growth.

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279

Neo-Confucianism

960

The Buddhism and Confucian ideas combined to form a new way of thinking. It illustrates deep influence of Buddhism in Chinese society.

Holy Roman Empire

962

Its a Christian revival of the early Roman Empire. Although its name is ironic because it was not a holy empire, nor roman, or an empire either. Peace wasn't delivered to them so it had no meaning to them.

Bantus

1000

Bantu people were still migrating and expanding and settling. As the populations surged, foragers had a harder time flourishing. Some merged into local life and others returned to the forest to continue sustaining small-scale societies.

Mahmud

1001 - 1027

He was the leader of Turks in Afghanistan. He was a patron of the arts who built Ghazni into a refined capital.

Great Schism

1054

There was a mutual excommunication between the patriarch and the pope and they refused to recognize the other's church as Christian. The eastern church is referred to as Eastern Orthodox and the western as the Roman Catholic Church.

Reconquista

1060

This is also known as the reconquest of Spain. Catalonia, a small Christian state had survived and the kingdom of León resisted Muslim advancements as well. Reconquista began in 1060 from Christian toeholds. It became increasingly Christian and after the first half of the 13th century, there was only one place that was still Muslim. It was conquered in 1492 after Christian forces mounted a campaign. This completed the reconquista.

William the Conqueror

1066

Also known as Duke William of Normandy. He introduced Norman principles of government and land tenure to England. They ruled a much tighter centralized realm than the Capetians.

Norman Conquest of England

1066

Norman lords were in control of a lot, but the dukes pursued their own interests with little consideration of their lords. The lords built castles and had their own disciplined armies to dominate their lands and emerged as powerful and prominent political and military leaders.

Battle of Manzikert

1071

This was a battle between Saljuqs and the Byzantine army. They even took the Byzantine emperor captive. They had a devastating defeat of the people from the Byzantine empire.

Pope Urban II

1095

He is responsible for launching the crusades. He warned church leaders that Muslim Turks were threatening the eastern borders of Christendom. He added emphasis on his appeal by adding "Deus vult" meaning "God wills it!"

Crusades

1096 - 1204

The word crusade refers to holy war. It derives from the Latin word crux meaning "cross" on which Romans had executed Jesus. When crusade was declared, warriors had to take up the cross as a symbol of their faith and venture to fight on behalf of Christianity.

Genghis Khan

1167 - 1227

He is the unifier of the Mongols. His real name is Temüjin. His father was a prominent warrior. When he was 10, his father passed away and he led a precarious existence for a few years.

Fall of Constantinople

1204

In 1204, the crusaders conquered Constantinople and subjected it to a devastating sack. The Byzantine forces reconquered it in 1261, but the humiliating destruction of the city was a large blow to them and because of this, they never fully recovered.

Sultanate of Delhi

1206 - 1526

The sultans of Delhi commanded an army. They built mosques, shrines, and fortresses and were also generous patrons of the arts and literature. They often conducted raids in the Deccan region of southern India.

Marco Polo

1253 - 1324

Marco Polo was the best known long distance traveler of Mongol times. His father and uncle were some of the first European merchants to visit china.

Mongols capture Baghdad

1258

This was done by the Golden Horde and Hülegü (Khubilai's brother). He captured Baghdad after a small siege. It's estimated that 200,000 people were killed. The city was looted, the caliph was executed, and residents were massacred.

Khubilai Khan

1260 - 1294

He is one of Chinggis Khan's grandsons. He unleashed ruthless attacks. He also worked to improve the welfare of his subjects.

Yuan Dynasty

1279 - 1368

Khubilai Khan proclaimed himself the emperor of this dynasty. Resistance was eliminated by Khubilai in china.

Ottoman Empire

1299

Osman declared independence from the saljuq sultan and launched to build a state at the expense of the Byzantine empire. He attracted more and more followers after each successful operation who were known as ottomans. When he gained a foothold in the Balkan Peninsula, they gained a considerable advantage. Ottomans found abundant local support from people in the Byzantine empire.

Ibn Battuta

1304 - 1369

He was the best known Islamic traveler. Rulers who were Islamic ruled some of the lands Ibn Battuta visited, such as India, east Africa, and the Mali empire among other places. He was a man with legal credentials and had no problem finding a military position. He heard cases of the law and strictly enforced the law.

Mansa Musa

1312 - 1325

He was Sundiata's grand nephew. He ruled during the high point in the empire. He was Islam and made a pilgrimage to Mecca with a very large caravan of people.

Bubonic Plague

1330

This was a disease that spread through trade and communications in Eurasia. Later after its expansion it became known as the Black Death killing over half of the infected population. It had serious economic effects.

Tamerlane

1336 - 1405

He was a Turkish conqueror who built an empire that would have rivaled Genghis Khan's himself. The empire died soon after he did and it deeply influenced 3 surviving Turkish Muslim states.

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

This was a series of intermittent campaigns that the warring factions sought control over French land. This was hostility between the kings from England and France.

Yongle Encyclopedia

1370

This was a book of compiled works of significant Chinese literature, history, and philosophy. It almost ran over 23,000 manuscript rolls. Each was equivalent to a medium sized book.

"Fall" of Rome

1400

It is said that there are many reasons for the fall of Rome. Some say lead poisoning, radiation from bricks, immortality, or the rise of Christianity. Actually it was internal problems and external pressures causing the decline of the Roman Empire.

End of Zheng He's voyages

1405 - 1433

The first voyage was 317 ships with almost 28,000 troops. Many of these ships were "treasure ships" and had 4 decks capable of accommodating 500 or more passengers. Ming emperors ended the voyages in the mid 1430's. They argued resources would be of better use in agriculture rather than ships. After his 7th voyage, the expeditions ended. Imperial officials destroyed majority of the naval charts that He had carefully prepared. Chinese forgot the technology of building these large vessels and the decommissioned ships rotted and deteriorated.

Aztec Empire

1425

They had a reputation for making trouble by kidnapping women from other communities and seizing land that has already been cultivated by others. Sometimes their neighbors became sick of this behavior and made them move. Sometimes all they survived on were fly eggs and snakes.

Incan Empire

1438

The Incan people settled in a region of around Lake Titicaca in the mid 13th century. This was after a long period of migration.

Montezuma

1440 - 1469

He and Itzcóatl advanced first upon Oaxaca and the city became a bulwark for the emerging Mexica empire. They conquered many cities of the high plateaus.

Mehmud the Conqueror

1453

He captured the Byzantine empire capital of Constantinople. He made it his own capital and renamed it Istanbul which is a Turkish name. The ottomans quickly captured the rest of the Byzantium empire after the capture of Constantinople.

Michelangelo

1475 - 1564

He was an artist, more specifically a sculptor. He was one of the sculptors of this time to try to depict his subjects in natural poses reflecting actual workings of human muscles rather than awkward and rigid postures.

Bartolomeu Dias

1488

He sailed around the Cape of Good Hope and entered the Indian Ocean. Although he returned quickly, he proved that sailing to the Indian Ocean from Europe was possible.

Christopher Columbus

1492

In 1492, he sailed across the ocean blue. Also he conceived the idea of sailing west to reach Asian markets. He crossed the Atlantic and made it to the Bahamas. He was convinced that he reached Asia, although he never did.

Vasco de Gama

1497

He had intentions to sail to India. He went around the Cape of Good Hope and cruised up the East African coast. From there he was guided and taught how to use monsoon winds to reach India across the Arabian Sea. He brought back peppers and spices to Lisbon when he returned.