AP Euro Semester 1 Timeline P.5



1265 - 1321

"Italian Shakespeare"
Wrote Divne Comedy and humanist


1304 - 1374

Father of Humanism
Wrote Humanist ideas

Avignon Papacy(Babylonian Captivity

1309 - 1377

College of Cardinals
Gave power to France
Took away Italian power


1314 - 1375

Wrote Decameron
Renaissance writer

Lollards: John Wycliffe:

1324 - 1384

Judgement by merit
Religious movement
Wycliffe dies in 1384

Hundred Years War

May 1332 - October 1453

English King Edward 3 started war by claiming french throne, black plague, territorial power such as the control of Flanders, countries to close, England holding French territories
Effects: It ended feudalism, changed warfare, unified France, destroyed French population, prolonged crisis in Church, strengthened monarchs, defined England/France as nations.

The Black Death


Caused by flies that were carried by rats throughout Europe.
Consequences are decrease in population
Increase in religious services
Church loses political power

The Golden Bull


Holy Roman Empire is elected
Establishes a seven member electoral college
Balances power

Hussites: John Huss:

1369 - 1415

Famous leader of a religious reform
Protestant Reformation leader
He believed in higher morality for priests

Italian Renaissance

1375 - 1527

Rebirth of ancient ideas
"Prototype of the modern world"
Cities are merchant

The Great Schism

1378 - 1416

Pope moved to Avignon
Result of two popes being elected
Supported by different people



Led by Wat Tyler, a massive peasant revolt because of the brunt of the taxes brought on by the Hundred Years War.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

Attempt to control
"maleficium"- harmful magic
formal pact with the devil
80% accussed of witches are women
killed by fire
Decreased because of scientific evidence

Northern Renaissance

1400 - 1500

Printing press which spread new ideas
Religious and educational reform

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Ends the Great Schism
Old popes resign

Commercial Revolution

1450 - 1600

Europeans explored the world
Found the New World
"Age of Discovery"

Printing Press- Guttenberg


Movable type printing press
Humanist spread ideas through printing press to international audiences
Rapidly producing books


1466 - 1536

Religious and educational reformer
Wrote addages
Was banned from the church because he said that they were corrupt

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)

1469 - 1516

They are married, united kingdoms
Limited Nobility's power
promoted exploration overseas

Columbus- Start of the Spanish Empire


Discovered America
Brought military success and wealth to Spain
Spread Catholicism
Led to economic expansion

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

Allied with French but the strong French turned on them
Pope Alexander VI threatened Milan

Columbian Exchange

1500 - 1600

Exploration brought war and disease to America
Rise in European population because of the introduction to potatoes
Trade occurs
American population decreses

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Secured Papal states
Help form second Holy League- made France leave Italy

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

"Defender of the Faith"
Married six times to try to produce male heir
Break away from Church
Act of Supremacy
English Reformation

The Prince: Machiavelli


His views on a good leader were established in this book during the Renaissance

Luther- 95 Thesis, Diet of Worms

October 31, 1517 - 1519

Luther challenged the Church and what it promoted
Was not an asking the people for a Revolution
He was against indulgences by the Church
He wrote 95 Thesis which is 95 complaints about the Church

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Caused by the increase in tax and the revocation of traditional rights
Was not supported by Luther who they thought was their leader


1525 - 1648

Beginning in Germany, the reformation was the rise of Protest against the Catholic Church.

Henry VIII (Eng) - Act of Supremacy - England Reformation

1527 - 1600

Henry VII passed the law, Act of Supremacy, that said the king of England was the ruler of the Church as well. He did this so he could divorce his wife Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn

Jesuits - Society of Jesus - Ignatius of Loyola

1530 - 1556

Ignatius of Loyola organized the group
Jesuits were not recognized by the church until 1540

William of Orange (The Silent)

1533 - 1584

He was the prince of Orange
His small circle of confidants is why he is known as the silent

John Calvin- Geneva

1534 - 1564

He believed in predestination and lived by the Bible's instructions
Money should be made in the name of God
Banned fancy living



Polish astronomer
Heliocentric universe
Full name was Nicolaus Copernicus

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Pope Paul II called a general council of the church
To reassert church doctrine
Three sessions spread over eighteen years
The sale of church offices was ended

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Mentor of Kepler
Planetary observations
Scientific instruments

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558

"Bloody Mary" - hundreds of protestants were killed during her reign
married Phillip II of Spain
restored Catholic doctrine

Peace of Augsburg


"cuius regio, eius religio" - the ruler of a land determines its religion, may only be Lutheran or Catholic
Division of Christiandom becomes permanent

Elizabeth I (England)

1558 - 1603

Established true monarchy after Mary I
Represented religions that were moderate
Passed the Thiry Nine articles

French War of religion- Main events

1559 - 1610

1559- Treaty of Cateau
1559- Francis II takes french throne because of his mother, Catherine de Medicis
1560- Conspiracy of Amboise fails
1562- Vassy, Protestant worship massacre
1572- St. Bartholomew's Day massacre- thousands dead protestants
1589- Henry II assassinated- Henry IV of the Huguenots takes throne
1593- Henry IV takes on Catholicism
1598- Henry IV grants Huguenots religion and civil freedoms through Edict of Nates
1610- Henry IV assassinated

Bacon: Novum Organum:

1561 - 1626

Father of empiricism
Experimentation in science
Novum Organum: attacked the belief that most truth already had been discovered and only required explanation

French war of Religion

1562 - 1598

Huguenots- french protestants
Capture of Francis I, king of France, by Holy Roman Empire
1534- Protestants plastered Paris with anti-catholic placards
Mass arrest of the Protestants resulting from the acts in 1534
Opponent of protestant reformation is France until Henry IV
King Henry II is mortally wounded and France experienced a period of weakness

The Thirty Nine Articles


Originally there was 42 by Thomas Cranmer
These articles were revisions
Official religion of England- Protestantism


1564 - 1616

wrote popular plays
Did not write in vernacular, Latin, but wrote in English

James II

1566 - 1625

Last Catholic king in England
Took over the revolution

Dutch Revolt (against Spain)

1568 - 1648

Dutch- financial aid from England
Fights over the expansion of the Spanish into the Dutch nation

Kepler: The New Astronomy:

1571 - 1630

Tycho Brahe was his mentor
Advocated for a heliocentric model
Came up with the elliptical path that the planets travel on
Established three laws of Planetary Motion

Pacification of Ghent


Spanish Fury kills 7000 civilians in a day
17 Provinces of the Netherlands unite

Union of Utrecht


Southern Netherlands provinces make peace with Spain by breaking away

Mary Stuart executed


Thought to be plotting assassination of Elizabeth
Elizabeth has her executed to eliminate the threat to the throne

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

"Paris is worth a Mass"
Edict of Nantes

Henry IV assassinated

1589 - 1610

He is assassinated
Accomplished many things during his reign

Descartes: Discourse on Method

1596 - 1650

"I think, therefore I am."
Book published in 1637

Edict of Nantes


Granted French protestants civil liberties
Ended French religious wars

James I (Eng)

1603 - 1625

King James bible
Loyalty to protestants
Believed in divine right of kings

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1603 - 1605

Wrote by Cervantes
Appeals to philosophers as well as to students of Spanish literature

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

defeated Spanish over and over again
Chief minister: Richelieu
helped to the rise of the absolute monarchy in France

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Setting: Holy Roman Empire
One of the last destructive wars of religion
Catholics vs. protestants and Calvinists
Four Periods of War-
-Bohemian Period
-The Danish Period
-The Swedish Period
-The Swedish French Period

Blaise Pascal

1622 - 1623

reason should drive people to reliance on divine grace and to faith in God

Charles I (Eng)

1625 - 1649

Needed money to support war
Forced taxes without parliaments consent
Caused English Civil War

Galileo Condemned

1633 - 1642

Condemned for heresy but really because he thought the sun lied motionless at the center of the universe
Thoughts were against the Church
Forced to repent his views

Charles I (Eng) r. Long Parliament/Short Parliament

1640 - 1660

Long parliament- 20 years
Short parliament- few months
divided over religion
Charles I leaves to establish his own army
House of Common raises their own army as well

English Civil War

1642 - 1649

Without an heir to the throne, the King and Parliament fight over the King's absolute power
Cavaliers- King supporters
Roundheads- Parliament supporters
Roundheads defeat the Cavaliers and established a Puritan Republic for a few years

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Centralized government in France established
Built Versailles
'I am the state"
revoked Edict of Nantes

Academies of Science

1650 - 1800

Royal Society of London, Paris Royal Academy of the Sciences, Berlin Academy of Sciences
Focused on practical uses of science

Hobbes: Leviathan


Aimed to provide a philosophical justification for a strong central political authority
Believed human spirits were corrupt and caused chaos

Royal Society of London


Followers of Bacon were the members of the Royal Society of London

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Son of Charles I
After Cromwell, he was invited back to the monarchy

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Russian Emperor
provided "window to the west"
founded Petersburg
made the men shave their beards to look more clean

Newton: Principia Mathematica


also known as the mathematical Principles of natural philosophy
all planets and objects move through mutual attraction and gravity

Fredrick Wilhelm

1688 - 1740

King of Prussia
first elector of Brandenburg
known as "soldier King"

Locke: Treatises on Government


Book supporting natural rights, social contract, and the power of the sovereign people

Agricultural Revolution

1700 - 1800

Beginning in low countries (Netherlands)
Series of innovations, new methods in farming; make it more efficient and more crops
-Fewer people, producing more food; food surplus
-Selective breeding
-Enclosure method: consolidation/fencing in of common land by British landlords to increase production and achieve greaterconsolidation/fencing in of common land by British landlords to increase production and achieve greater commercial profits. This brought economic and social turmoil to the countryside.
-Potato; super crop
-Possibilty to make more
-New jobs (different skills)
-Standard living raised
-New problems; Urbanization/Crime, More poverty, Economic slavery, Textiles
- Jethro Tull : wheat drill-land could be cultivated for longer
- Townsend :crop rotation
- Bakewell : more productive methods of animal breeding


1700 - 1900

a return to figurative and architectural models of the early renaissance

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Spain falls in to French occupation
upsets balance of power in Europe
England, Holland, H.R.E. form Grand Alliance to restore balance

Age of Mercantilism

1713 - 1776

mercantilism-you should export more than you import
The government is involved in the economy
establishes monopolies
Sugar becomes a main economic source

Treaty of Utrecht


Established the boundaries of European empires
Spanish Habsburgs is replaced by the French Bourbons on the Spanish throne

Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction


To ensure Maria Theresa could succeed him as leader of the Habsburgs

Death of Louis XIV


Succeeded by Louis XV
France still a major power in Europe

Mississippi Bubble


John Law issued 625,000 stock shares as money but did not have the gold and silver to cash them out
Bubble pops and left France with inflation

Catherine the Great (Russia)

1729 - 1796

Enlightened despot of Russia
Made friends with nobles
westernized Russia
acquired Polish territory

Fredrick II (The Great) Prussia

1740 - 1786

most embodied enlightened absolutism
"first servant of the state"
increased education
codified laws
promoted religious freedom and tolerance
admired philosophes

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1800

Spinning Jenny: mass-produce thread
Water Frame: water device to produce purer more durable cotton fabric
Steam Engine: Engine driven with water, coal, and or wood
associated with rise in consumerism

Consumer Revolution

1750 - 1800

increase in consumption of various goods
Fashion changed and goods were made more easily available

Seven Years' War: (Treaty of Paris)

1756 - 1763

ended the Seven Years' War
Territories in America are gained by the British
Also called the French Indian War

Voltaire- Candide


Famous satire of European society
promoted religious tolerance, deism, and reality vs. blind optimism

American Revolution

1775 - 1780

British colonies vs. England
British colonies won and broke free
Established themselves as the United States of America
Government without a king is possible is deminstrated

Smith- Wealth of Nations


book supporting laissez faire
opposition to Mercantilism and free trade
self interest in economics

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


David Ricardo
English banker
argued wages "naturally" tended towards the minimum level corresponding to the subsistence needs of the workers