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Dante

1275 - 1321

Italian poet.

Petrach

1304 - 1374

Father of humanism.

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

The pope lived in Avigon.

Boccaccio

1313 - 1375

Italian Humanist, talked about Human behavior.

John Wycliffe and Lollards

1320 - 1378

Believed man should be able to question the church.

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

Gave France a nationality broke from England.

The Black Death

1347 - 1352

Plague hit Europe taking power from the church.

The Golden Bull

1356

A German committee to elect a emperor.

Jacquerie

1358

Peasant rebellions during 100 year war.

John Huss

1370 - 1414

Killed for speaking against church.

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

New art rose in Italy.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Two popes trying for the church.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1700

People burned for being "witches".

Hussites

1403 - 1414

Followers of John Huss beliefs.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Ended The Great Schism.

Commercial Revolution

1430 - 1700

Began mercantilism.

Printing Press

1450

Allowed for knowledge to be spread through text much easier.

Northern Renaissance

1455 - 1480

Art rising in the north. Carving of blocks was popular.

Decline of Gothic Art

1460

Renaissance replaced Gothic Art.

Ferninand and Isabella

1469 - 1516

Aargon and Castile came together over their marriage.

Erasmus

1484 - 1536

Humanist that disagreed with church, forced to recant.

Early Exploration-Portugal and Spain

1492

Exploration overseas. Lead to discoveries of new trade routes.

Columbus and the Spainish Empire

1492

Found Americas, leading to destruction of the Incas/Aztecs.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1800

Trade from Europe to Americas.

Italy's decline by invasions

1494 - 1527

Italy falling due to french invasion, ended Italian renaissance.

Copernicus

1500 - 1540

Pope Julius II reign

1503 - 1513

Got the french out of Italy.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

King of England created the English Church.

The Prince by Machiavelli

1513 - 1527

Wrote the Prince, how to be a good leader.

Mary I of England

1516 - 1558

Converted England back to Catholicism.

Reformation

1517 - 1648

Ended Holy Roman Empire, created more religions.

Luther- 95 Thesis and Diet of Worms

1517 - 1519

Letter towards the church showing them their wrongs.

Diet of Worms

1521

A group trying to make Luther recant, eventually outlawing him.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Revolts due to Luther's idea of religion.

John Calvin

1534 - 1555

Founder of Calvinism

Act of Supremecy

1534

Ended popes control over the church thus giving it to the king.

William of Orange

1540 - 1584

Leader of Netherlands army.

Jesuits

1540

Catholic sub group, against the reformation.

On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres

1543

Copernicus wrote about the heliocentric model.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

A council of church for counter reformation.

Baroque Art

1550 - 1650

An art style with immense detail.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Allowed ruler to chose the religion of the state.

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Had religious tolerance, executed Mary of Scots.

French Religous Wars

1562 - 1598

Huguenots vs France led to religious tolerance.

Thirty Nine Articles

1563

Made protestant the religion of England.

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Very popular English play writer.

Duke of Alba

1567

Sent to end protestant movement in Netherlands.

Revolt in Spanish Netherlands

1568 - 1648

Spanish Netherlands began to revolt against Spain.

Kepler

1571 - 1630

Brahe's assistant, explained planets orbit.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

during french wars, French killed 20k Huguenots.

Rise of the Netherlands

1572 - 1702

Had best sea trade, and a stable country.

Pacification of Ghent

1576

Massacre by Spanish, lead to rebellion towards Spain.

Union of Utrecht

1579

Response to Union of Arras

Bacon

1580 - 1626

Father of empiricism

Spanish Armada

1587

Tried to invade England to impose Catholicism, failed.

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Philosopher that supported absolute monarchy.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Leader of France created Edict of Nantes.

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

Demand for goods and supply evened out allowing for a easier life.

Descartes

1594 - 1650

Mathematician. Said don't need god to think.

Edict of Nantes

1598

Gave religious freedom to France.

Mannerism

1600

Was a art style used by Michelangelo.

Brahe

1601 - 1646

Scientist that helped support earth centered galaxy.

James I

1603 - 1625

King of England, caused religious problems.

Cervantes

1603

Found enlightenment in Catholicism.

The New Astronomy

1609

Book written by Kepler proved orbit of planets.

Henry IV Assisnated

1610

Killed by radical Catholic.

Blaise Pascal

1613 - 1662

Mathematician, Influenced social sciences.

30 Years War

1618 - 1648

Destruction of Holy Roman Empire.

Novum Organum

1620

Book written by Bacon.

Louis XIV

1624 - 1642

Believed absolute monarchy was the best

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Ignored parliament, ended up being killed in English revolution.

Galileo Condemed

1633

In trouble with church for supporting heliocentric model.

Discource on Method

1637

Written by Descartes in which he rejected scholastic philosophy.

Short Parliment

1640

Charles called them for 1 month to raise funds but disbanded them for wanting to much power.

Long Parliment

1640 - 1660

Parliament met for 20 years.

English Civil War

1642 - 1645

Parliament took full control over English throne.

The Fonde

1649 - 1652

French nobility rebelled against royalty, failing.

Enlightenment

1650 - 1750

Period when Europe began to change it ways to the individual.

Agricultural Revolution

1650 - 1750

Improved of farming techniques to increase production.

Leviaton

1651

Hobbes writings about the revolution him supporting the monarchy.

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Gained English throne after Cromwell.

Royal Society of London

1660

Place for scientists to discus and share ideas.

Restoration of English Monarchy

1660

Charles II took back the throne.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Introduced Modern ideas into Russia.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1685

Louis XIV revocted the Edict of Nantes

James II reign

1685 - 1688

Fought with parliament being dethroned.

Glorious Revolution

1689

William of Orange took the Throne.

English Bill of Rights

1689

Gave citizens rights that could not be taken.

Treatises of Governent

1690

Locke believed government was meant to protect.

Voltaire

1694 - 1778

Philosopher that believed in religious tolerance. Wrote Candide.

Neoclassicism

1700 - 1810

Art style using Greek and Roman styles.

The Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Peter the Great trying to get a port to the sea. Failing

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

started because Phillip V became leader of England.

Decline of Netherlands

1702

After William Orange, they had no military leader.

Rousseau

1712 - 1778

Philosopher, believed in the common good.

Treaty of Utretch

1713

Ended Spanish War of Succession.

Frederick Wilhelm reign

1713 - 1740

Made Prussia strong through its army.

Pragmatic Sanction

1713

Should make Charles VI daughter ruler, failed due to her being a woman.

Death of Louis XIV

1715

Left France weak.

Mississippi Bubble

1720

France economy crashes due to loans.

Rococo emergence

1720

An art style emerging.

Robert Walpole

1721 - 1741

Control over House of Commons.

Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Believed in Laizze-faire.

Spinning Jenny

1730

Improved production of cotton.

War of Jenkins's Ear

1739 - 1748

Between Spain and English, over merchants.

Marie Theresa

1740 - 1780

Took Austrian throne.

Federick II Reign

1740 - 1786

Reformed and modernized Prussia.

War of Austrian Succession

1741 - 1748

Prussia and France vs Austria and England. Over Austria territory.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

Creation of technology to allow factory's and mass production.

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

England allied with Prussia and France with Austria.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

France lost all its territory in North America.

Wollstonecraft

1759 - 1797

Defender of women rights.

Social Contract

1762

Rousseau's perfect government guidelines.

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1796

Enlightened leader of Prussia.

Treaty of Paris

1763

Ended seven years war.

Mercantilism

1763 - 1800

Used the concept of Mercantilism in colonies.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Absolute monarch of Austria.

Malthus

1766 - 1834

Economist, believed middle class would lower.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

Rebellion of American colonies for England.

Wealth of Nations

1776

Economic book written by Adam Smith.

Rights of Man and Citizen

1789

States all men are born free and Equal.

French Reveloution

1789 - 1799

The French Revolution was common people of the third estate rebelling due to lack of food and a poor leader. Through many acts of change Louis XVI was killed and eventually a new monarch was put into place.