Believed man should be able to question the church.
The Hundred Years War
1337 - 1453
Gave France a nationality broke from England.
The Black Death
1347 - 1352
Plague hit Europe taking power from the church.
The Golden Bull
A German committee to elect a emperor.
Peasant rebellions during 100 year war.
1370 - 1414
Killed for speaking against church.
Renaissance in Italy
1375 - 1527
New art rose in Italy.
The Great Schism
1378 - 1417
Two popes trying for the church.
1400 - 1700
People burned for being "witches".
1403 - 1414
Followers of John Huss beliefs.
Council of Constance
1414 - 1417
Ended The Great Schism.
1430 - 1700
Allowed for knowledge to be spread through text much easier.
1455 - 1480
Art rising in the north. Carving of blocks was popular.
Decline of Gothic Art
Renaissance replaced Gothic Art.
Ferninand and Isabella
1469 - 1516
Aargon and Castile came together over their marriage.
1484 - 1536
Humanist that disagreed with church, forced to recant.
1492 - 1800
Trade from Europe to Americas.
Columbus and the Spainish Empire
Found Americas, leading to destruction of the Incas/Aztecs.
Early Exploration-Portugal and Spain
Exploration overseas. Lead to discoveries of new trade routes.
Italy's decline by invasions
1494 - 1527
Italy falling due to french invasion, ended Italian renaissance.
1500 - 1540
Pope Julius II reign
1503 - 1513
Got the french out of Italy.
1509 - 1547
King of England created the English Church.
The Prince by Machiavelli
1513 - 1527
Wrote the Prince, how to be a good leader.
Mary I of England
1516 - 1558
Converted England back to Catholicism.
Luther- 95 Thesis and Diet of Worms
1517 - 1519
Letter towards the church showing them their wrongs.
1517 - 1648
Ended Holy Roman Empire, created more religions.
Diet of Worms
A group trying to make Luther recant, eventually outlawing him.
German Peasant Revolts
1524 - 1525
Revolts due to Luther's idea of religion.
Act of Supremecy
Ended popes control over the church thus giving it to the king.
1534 - 1555
Founder of Calvinism
Catholic sub group, against the reformation.
William of Orange
1540 - 1584
Leader of Netherlands army.
On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres
Copernicus wrote about the heliocentric model.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
A council of church for counter reformation.
1550 - 1650
An art style with immense detail.
Peace of Augsburg
Allowed ruler to chose the religion of the state.
1558 - 1603
Had religious tolerance, executed Mary of Scots.
French Religous Wars
1562 - 1598
Huguenots vs France led to religious tolerance.
Thirty Nine Articles
Made protestant the religion of England.
1564 - 1616
Very popular English play writer.
Duke of Alba
Sent to end protestant movement in Netherlands.
Revolt in Spanish Netherlands
1568 - 1648
Spanish Netherlands began to revolt against Spain.
1571 - 1630
Brahe's assistant, explained planets orbit.
Rise of the Netherlands
1572 - 1702
Had best sea trade, and a stable country.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
during french wars, French killed 20k Huguenots.
Pacification of Ghent
Massacre by Spanish, lead to rebellion towards Spain.
Union of Utrecht
Response to Union of Arras
1580 - 1626
Father of empiricism
Tried to invade England to impose Catholicism, failed.
1588 - 1679
Philosopher that supported absolute monarchy.
1589 - 1610
Leader of France created Edict of Nantes.
1590 - 1800
Demand for goods and supply evened out allowing for a easier life.
1594 - 1650
Mathematician. Said don't need god to think.
Edict of Nantes
Gave religious freedom to France.
Was a art style used by Michelangelo.
1601 - 1646
Scientist that helped support earth centered galaxy.
Found enlightenment in Catholicism.
1603 - 1625
King of England, caused religious problems.
The New Astronomy
Book written by Kepler proved orbit of planets.
Henry IV Assisnated
Killed by radical Catholic.
1613 - 1662
Mathematician, Influenced social sciences.
30 Years War
1618 - 1648
Destruction of Holy Roman Empire.
Book written by Bacon.
1624 - 1642
Believed absolute monarchy was the best
1625 - 1649
Ignored parliament, ended up being killed in English revolution.
In trouble with church for supporting heliocentric model.
Discource on Method
Written by Descartes in which he rejected scholastic philosophy.
1640 - 1660
Parliament met for 20 years.
Charles called them for 1 month to raise funds but disbanded them for wanting to much power.
English Civil War
1642 - 1645
Parliament took full control over English throne.
1649 - 1652
French nobility rebelled against royalty, failing.
1650 - 1750
Improved of farming techniques to increase production.
1650 - 1750
Period when Europe began to change it ways to the individual.
Hobbes writings about the revolution him supporting the monarchy.
Restoration of English Monarchy
Charles II took back the throne.
Royal Society of London
Place for scientists to discus and share ideas.
1660 - 1685
Gained English throne after Cromwell.
Peter the Great
1682 - 1725
Introduced Modern ideas into Russia.
James II reign
1685 - 1688
Fought with parliament being dethroned.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV revocted the Edict of Nantes
English Bill of Rights
Gave citizens rights that could not be taken.
William of Orange took the Throne.
Treatises of Governent
Locke believed government was meant to protect.
1694 - 1778
Philosopher that believed in religious tolerance. Wrote Candide.
The Great Northern War
1700 - 1721
Peter the Great trying to get a port to the sea. Failing
1700 - 1810
Art style using Greek and Roman styles.
War of Spanish Succession
1701 - 1714
started because Phillip V became leader of England.
Decline of Netherlands
After William Orange, they had no military leader.
1712 - 1778
Philosopher, believed in the common good.
Should make Charles VI daughter ruler, failed due to her being a woman.
Frederick Wilhelm reign
1713 - 1740
Made Prussia strong through its army.
Treaty of Utretch
Ended Spanish War of Succession.
Death of Louis XIV
Left France weak.
An art style emerging.
France economy crashes due to loans.
1721 - 1741
Control over House of Commons.
1723 - 1790
Believed in Laizze-faire.
Improved production of cotton.
War of Jenkins's Ear
1739 - 1748
Between Spain and English, over merchants.
Federick II Reign
1740 - 1786
Reformed and modernized Prussia.
1740 - 1780
Took Austrian throne.
War of Austrian Succession
1741 - 1748
Prussia and France vs Austria and England. Over Austria territory.
1750 - 1850
Creation of technology to allow factory's and mass production.
Seven Years War
1756 - 1763
France lost all its territory in North America.
England allied with Prussia and France with Austria.
1759 - 1797
Defender of women rights.
Catherine the Great
1762 - 1796
Enlightened leader of Prussia.
Rousseau's perfect government guidelines.
1763 - 1800
Used the concept of Mercantilism in colonies.
Treaty of Paris
Ended seven years war.
1765 - 1790
Absolute monarch of Austria.
1766 - 1834
Economist, believed middle class would lower.
1775 - 1783
Rebellion of American colonies for England.
Wealth of Nations
Economic book written by Adam Smith.
1789 - 1799
The French Revolution was common people of the third estate rebelling due to lack of food and a poor leader. Through many acts of change Louis XVI was killed and eventually a new monarch was put into place.