Ch 6 and 7

Main

Council of Nicea

315

Made Arianism -- religion of Visigoths, Ostrogoths and Vandals -- heresy. Franks became Catholic ('Nicene") early on and helped convert everybody else when they conquered territory

Constantine builds Constantinople, new capital

324

Moved capitol from Rome, new imperial residence and center of administration: "new Rome". Gained power as West fell to political/economic disarray

influx of Visigoths

376

pushed by Huns. Settled in Southern Gaul and Spain, Eastern Emperor Valens hires to protect eastern border, treats badly

Visigoths defeat Valens at Battle of Adrianople

378

After that, barbarians basically take over. Vandals come in 406, take over Mediterranean and Africa; Franks take northern/central Gaul. Romans stretched, tried to "barbarize army'. Nope.

Visigoths sack Rome

410

Huns invade Italy

452

Vandals sack Rome

455

Fall of Rome

476

Odovacer deposed last Roman emperor Romulus Augustus

Theodoric (king of Ostrogoths) takes Rome

493

has acceptance of Roman people, emperor in Constantinople, and Christian Church

Nika Revolt

532

Pepin II seized Frankish Crown

751

Carolingians had been gaining power as "mayor of the palace", took over kingships with help of Pope Zacharias

Franks defeat Lombards, give Papal States

755

Reign of Charlemagne

768 - 814

Created Frankish Christian Empire. In 790s, created Libri Carolini = "no compromise on iconoclasm

Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne emperor in Rome

800

Seljuk Turks take over Asia Minor

1071

Alexius 1 Comnenus calls for Western aid, First Crusade

1092

Fourth Crusade

1204

Started to rescue Jersualem, actually hurt Constantinople

Time Periods

Late Antiquity

250 - 800

Period between end of ancient world and birth of Middle Ages

Byzantine Empire

324 - 1453

Period 1: city built - Arab/Islamic expansion

324 - 632

Constantinople/Byzantium sole imperial capital

476 - 700

Rome was falling and barbarians were taking over West
*Byzantine refers to Hellenistic Greek/Roman/Judaic culture

Reign of Justinian and Theodora

527 - 565

Expected everyone to obey him absolutely, co-ruled with wife, who convinced him to re-establish power after Nika Revolt. "One God, one empire, one religion" He wrote law textbooks including The Code, which is still basis of European law, and oversaw building of Hagia Sofia (Church of Holy Wisdom) Tried to reconquer territory.

Islamic armies attack Constantinople

632 - 670

Period 2: 632 - fall to Western Crusaders

632 - 1204

Asia minor conquered by Seljuk Turks in 1071

1204 -- fall to Ottoman Turks, End of empire in East

1204 - 1453

Islam History

Muhammed born

570

Muhammed's Hegira (flight) to Medina

622

beginning of Islamic calendar

Muslim conquests: Spain, south and east of Mediterranean

622 - 670

Muhammed conquers Mecca and makes it center of new religion

624

Muhhamed died

632

Qur'an compiled

650 - 651

Franks defeat Arabs st Poitiers, stop Arab expansion to West/Central Europe

732