Mesopotamia --> Canaan
(Ends with period of enslavement)
The story of Moses and the 10 Commandments - ends with the "wilderness wanderings" period of 40 years.
Occurs from the crossing of the Jordan River to the death of Joshua (who succeeded Moses).
Conflict with the Philistines
Saul = anointed as first king --> United Kingdom
Ends with period of Judah alone (former South).
(Prophesied by Jeremiah)
Cyrus called a "messiah" by the Hebrews for this action.
"Time of the Kings" until the creation of a Republic. The word "king" often had a very negative connotation. Leaders instead referred to as "imp." meaning army commander. They also used "tribune."
The first law code
"The close of a golden age of fully developed democracy under personal guidance of disinterested statesmen." Athens loses the empire to Sparta.
Conflict of opposing lifestyles (ex. gymnasium)
Rome vs. Carthage
Battle of Cannae in 216 BC (Hannibal with his elephants) - first example of a "double envelopment" in which Carthage surrounded the Romans, leading to catastrophic results. Rome lost about 20% of its total male population, starting the drive to raise a whole new army.
Civil War between M. Antony and Octavian, Octavian emerges as victor and becomes known as Augustus. Augustus was the adopted son (nephew) of J. Caesar. His reign marked the beginning of forty years of Pax Romana and thus the time of Virgil.