WCT I/II - Final Exam


Mycenean Minoan Civilization

02000 BC - 01200 BC


1800 BC - 1700 BC

Mesopotamia --> Canaan

Descent of Jacob family into Egypt

1700 BC - 1600 BC

(Ends with period of enslavement)

The Exodus

1280 BC

The story of Moses and the 10 Commandments - ends with the "wilderness wanderings" period of 40 years.

Israelite conquest of Canaan

1250 BC - 1200 BC

Occurs from the crossing of the Jordan River to the death of Joshua (who succeeded Moses).

"Dark Age"

01200 BC - 0750 BC

Period of the Judges

1200 BC - 1020 BC

Conflict with the Philistines

Fall of Troy

01183 BC


1020 BC - 1000 BC

Saul = anointed as first king --> United Kingdom


1000 BC - 961 BC

Reign of Solomon

961 BC - 922 BC

Divided Kingdom - North (Israel) + South (Judah)

922 BC

The founding of Rome

753 BC


0750 BC - 0700 BC

Start of Assyrian expansion and dominance

745 BC


742 BC - 700 BC

Samaria (N capital) falls to Assyrians; end of Kingdom of Israel (North)

721 BC

Ends with period of Judah alone (former South).

Start of Babylonian expansion and dominance

640 BC

(Prophesied by Jeremiah)


626 BC - 587 BC

Deuteronomic reform of Josiah king of Judah

621 BC

Jerusalem (Judah) falls to Babylonians; first deportation

597 BC


The Babylonian Exile - major edit of the Torah

597 BC - 538 BC


593 BC - 573 BC

Jerusalem falls again; second deportation

587 BC

Start of Persian expansion and dominance

550 BC

Isaiah II

540 BC

Babylon fals to Persians; end of Babylonian Empire

539 BC

Edict of Cyrus (Persian) allowing return to Palestine

538 BC

Cyrus called a "messiah" by the Hebrews for this action.

Expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus - *Republic

509 BC

"Time of the Kings" until the creation of a Republic. The word "king" often had a very negative connotation. Leaders instead referred to as "imp." meaning army commander. They also used "tribune."

Reforms of Cleisthenes and establishment of democracy in Athens

508 BC - 507 BC

Birth of Socrates

470 BC

Aeschylus, Orestia

458 BC

The Twelve Tables

451 BC

The first law code

Beginning of the Parthenon

447 BC

Sophocles, Antigone

441 BC

Peloponnesian War

431 BC - 404 BC

Pericles' Funeral Oration

431 BC

"The close of a golden age of fully developed democracy under personal guidance of disinterested statesmen." Athens loses the empire to Sparta.

Birth of Plato

428 BC

Sophocles, Oedipus the King

427 BC

The Melian Dialogue

416 BC

Euripedes, Bacchae

407 BC

Execution of Socrates

399 BC

Birth of Aristotle

384 BC

Death of Plato. Aristotle's departure from Athens

348 BC

Reign of Alexander the Great; Greek dominance

336 BC - 323 BC

Conflict of opposing lifestyles (ex. gymnasium)

Aristotle's Return to Athens

334 BC

Ptolemaic (Greco-Egyptian) dominance

323 BC - 200 BC

Death of Aristotle

322 BC

First Punic War

264 BC - 241 BC

Rome vs. Carthage

Second Punic War

218 BC - 202 BC

Battle of Cannae in 216 BC (Hannibal with his elephants) - first example of a "double envelopment" in which Carthage surrounded the Romans, leading to catastrophic results. Rome lost about 20% of its total male population, starting the drive to raise a whole new army.

Seleucid (Greco-Syrian) dominance

200 BC - 167 BC

Revolt led by the Maccabees (intense Hebrews)

168 BC - 167 BC

Third Punic War

149 BC - 146 BC

Destruction of Carthage; Roman control of Greece

146 BC

Tribunate of Tiberius Gracchus

133 BC

Tribunate of Gaius Gracchus

122 BC

Slave rebellion of Spartacus

73 BC - 71 BC

Pompey captures Jerusalem; Roman dominance

63 BC

Triumvirate of Julius Caesar, Pompey, Crassus

60 BC

Death of Catullus

54 BC

Caesar assassinated (15 March)

44 BC

Triumvirate of M. Antony, Octavian, Lepidus

43 BC

Civil War between M. Antony and Octavian, Octavian emerges as victor and becomes known as Augustus. Augustus was the adopted son (nephew) of J. Caesar. His reign marked the beginning of forty years of Pax Romana and thus the time of Virgil.

Principate of Octavian (Augustus)

27 BC - 14 AD

Death of Virgil

19 BC

Death of Horace

8 BC

Birth of Jesus of Nazareth

6 BC - 4 BC