Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

this is where the selling of indulgences started were originally sold because the church had been cut off from its houses in rome because the pope had moved to france. gave early reformers ammunition to start reformation

The Black Death

1315 - 1358

started by famine throughout europe due to crop failure. killed many throughout europe entered europe through the port cities such as vinace. crippled the population and made items that were considered luxary rose dramatically in prices. thus creating a great increase in population in the cities due to artisans.

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

mainly was between england and france and was a power struggle for land. english archer were part of the main reason why england did so well in the war. france brought peasants into fighting the war was different. ended up making france a monarchy.

Golden Bull


was the deciding factor that said the holy roman empire would be ruled by a 7 member college where the rules of the many (6 princes had the amoount of power as did the emperor who they elected. equal in power.


1375 - 1527

this art form broke away from traditional form of art which were very bad looking not real, these artist included raphael da vinci and michalengleo obeyed classical ideal such as realism.

Rennisance in Italy

1375 - 1527

was a rebirth after the Black plague. many scholars believe it was a time of transformation from medival times to modern times. merchant cities in italy saw the greatest transformations. entailed the idea of humanism which was the study of greek and latin clasics of the ancient church fathers. classicalism.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

this was a timm where there were two popes of the head cathloic church. each pope thought himself legitamate and would not give up power was even 3 popes after council of constance

Lollards and the Hussites

1384 - 1415

were two people who took luthers teaching and brought them too a new level part of the religious movements, basically leaders.

Northern Rennisance and the printing press

1468 - 1527

northern rennisance was more devoted to religious refom rather than political reform such as in italy. the printing press created by johannes gutenberg created a very easy way to spread ideal such as translations of protestant reforrmation ideal and thus the reformation spread faster in northern europe.

Nicolas Copernicus


was the very first advocate for a heliocentric universe and was also the first to reject the earth centered ideals of the church.


1513 - 1563

began with luther posting his 95 theses and ended at the council of thrent. was a time which people began to question the church and broke off into different sanctions of christanity.

Martin Luther

1513 - 1525

created new idea of religion the one was granted salvation by faith alone. posted 95 these on church door in order to get people talking. was originally angered by the selling on indulgences. john tetzel

Diet of the Worms


was luthers meeting with the church where he tried to convince them of their wrong doings and tried to convince them why his religion was legitimate. ended up him being excommunicated by the church

Henery VIII


created the Act of Supremecy which declared the state having more power than the church. didnt make much acutal changes to the church other than power struggle.


1536 - 1563

geneva became the home of calvanism, predestination, created the ideal that people were chosen the elect to go to heaven and there was nothing to do about it.

society of jesus

1540 - 1556

were a major factor of the counter reformation went around spreading the teachings of ignatious who was their leader. brought many people back to catholicism.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

was part of the counter reformation where the church better trained their clergy, actually followed celebit as well as eliminating alot of corruption within the church. biggest part of the counter reformation, brought most people back.

Peace of Augsburg

september, 1555

created the idea that the ruler of the land pick the religion, either lutheranism or catholisism. curios regio eras religio

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

the arrests on many french protestants lead to revolts by people such as john calvin and many of these revolts lead into the saint barts day massacre. this rose the power of henry of navarre.

St. Bart's day Massacre


on this one day over 3000 heugonots and over three days across france nearly 20,000.the popes then granted this day with celebration in winning over the protestant reformation.

tycho brahe


was the teacher of kepler and was a strong advocate of the eath centered universe and was against copernicus's views.

Johanes Kepler


just after his master tycho brahe died he took his work and changed much of his data and thus advocated for a heliocentric universe.

Edict of Nantes


Created forced religious toleration throughout france. this gave huguenots the freedom to public worship. this big step gave henry the 4th the title of a politique which was someone who used political power to become a better leader for their state.

thomas hobbes


was a believer that humans need an absoulte monarchy to protect them from themselves, that man in his original state was inherintly evil and thus needed a strong hand to guide him

Blasie Pascal


believed that a leap of faith was required in order to be an actual believer in the spiritual world as well as the scientific world

Francis Bacon


was an advocate for empiricle data saying that human knowledge should produce actual results rather than the scholastic learnings had already been discovered and only needed an explanation.

James I england


Thirty Years War and Treaty of Westphilia

1618 - 1648

started with germany being completley fragmented.4 periods bohemian period, danish, swedish, and the swedish france. began as a localized rebellion of princes and morphed into political power. treaty ended all war with HRE.brodend the legal power of protestants. austria and prussia were only 2 german states that survived



believed that human reason was able to fully comprehend the world and thus published his book discourse on method in which he urged that rational deduction be used when observing the world.



had almost the oppsite views of thomas hobbes believed that humans in their natural state were tabula rasa and were shaped by the environment, had potential for evil but not inherintly evil

Mississippi Bubble


was created by john law, was a bank in the center of aris that issued paper money for citicens gold, however in this year the bank no longer had te amount of gold sufficient to the amount of paper money issued and thus burst the mississippi bubble



orininal believer in the social contract, general will. believed that democratic participation in decision makin gwould thus bind the citizen to the state and thus making it a better place

Adam Smith Wealth of Nations


believed that the old mercantalist economic system be abolished and urged for a capitalist system, believed that each indiviual should persue their own individual needs and thus enriching the society as a whole



satarist against religion, wrote candide