Morgan Whitley McAvoy P.8
The English and French monarchies demanded more loyalty from their lords. Edward III had claim over the French throne when there was no male heir. It split churches, and resulted in the collapse of political and religious intuitions.
Diseases that followed the trade routes of Asia to Europe. Rats bore fleas with this disease on ship that brought it to the continent. It discolored the skin and made people very sick.
The agreement that established a electoral college of seven German princes that voted on the Holy Roman Emperor.
A revolt of the French peasants against the nobles.
This ended the Great Schism when Pope Martin V was elected taking over all the other popes places.
Prince Henry tells Columbus where to sail. He follows a path and ends in North America.
The first humanist who wrote Julius Excluded from Heaven.
Isabelle of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon were married. They married to better the efficiency to which they ruled Spain.
Dedicated Catholics who are loyal to the pope.
Te beginning of the Colonial Empire when Columbus sailed to America in 1492.
It was an exchange agriculture, livestock, culture, disease, and religion between Europe and the New World.
Italian princes began to fight with each other. France had to come in to stop the feuding.
More products for consumption.
The capturing and the killing of witches that casted magic and curses. They were said to be more powerful than God.
The revolution of consumer goods.
He was the King of Europe. Divorced his wife, Catherine of Aragon, because she did not give her the male heir he needed.
Religious movements in the 16th century that led to a reform of the Catholic Church. This established Protestantism
The peasants used Luther's teachings to revolt, even though later he called them unchristian. In the end about 100,000 peasants died.
Emperor Charles V told Pope Paul III to call a council of churches to reassert church doctrine.
Landlors used a closed filed method to increase crop production. Farmers learned how to grow crops more efficently.
She was married to Philip II of Spain. All the protestants feared her and thousands were killed when she was in power.
Elizabeth established a monarchy after the reign of Mary I. She also passed the Thirty Nine Articles.
A war between the Huguenots and the Catholics. Catherine Medici killed many protestants. Also, the Henry's made peace with the Protestants and Catholics.
Written by Elizabeth I declaring Protestantism the official religion of England.
Dutch revolted against Phillip II of Spain when he tried to spread Catholicism to the Netherlands.
Dutch economy increases along with trading of tulips, and creates a new form of still life art.
A treaty by the Hapsburg provenience to rid Spain of their country. In the end this caused peace between the two.
Declared Philip II was no longer the ruler.
Elizabeth I is threatened by Mary Stuart and her plans so Elizabeth executes her.
The army attempts to overthrow Elizabeth I but fails.
Henry tried to protect France from the catholic radicals. Henry took over after Henry III to fix the problems with the catholic church. Said the famous quote "Paris is worth a mass."
This gave French protestants liberty but ended with a civil war.
The son of Mary Queen of Scotts. He ruled England with a divided court. He created a new bible.
Henry was killed by a catholic after writing the Edict of Nantes.
He was the French King with his advisor Cardinal Richelieu. Made up the leading power of Europe. Defeated the Spanish of multiple occasions.
Divine right and taxed without parliaments consent. In the end he was executed.
Rule was taken away after the Glorious Revoultion. William of Orange took his place. Last catholic ruler.
King can not get rid of the Parliament without their consent.
Charles I declines his rule and then the Parliament and Cromwell take over making England a Puritan Republic.
He tried to tax the nobles but they rioted against him.
This ends the Thirty Years War. Calvanism is now legal. Prussia and Austria are now German states.
Civil War occurring in France that made the government move to Versailles.
Time when government regulated trade. Resources were limited and colonies serve the motherland.
He ruled Holland and led Europe against France. William III gained leadership then died in 1702.
He made the first monarch after the Puritan Republic.
Philopspher met in meetings to discuss ideas and to collaberate on scientific thoughts.
He made the salt tax, talle, and the land tax, gabelle. He moved his court to Versaille.
He westernized Europe, improved taxes, took power from nobles, and bettered the life for his people.
William of Orange took the throne and signed the English Bill of Rights along with Mary II.
William of Orange signed the Bill of Rights which gave civil liberties to classes and limited the government.
Political problems cause the Netherlands to fall.
Russia wins and gains territory on the black sea.
An Act passed by Parliament to settle the succession to the English throne to Sophia of Hanover.
Charles II had no male heir when he was dying. This war included Louis XIV of France, Maria Teresa of Austria, Leopold I of HRE, Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria.
The Orange dynasty is over.
Passed by the Holy Roman Empire. The Possessions of the Hapsburgs could be inherited by the daughters.
Increases Prussia's military power.
Peace treaties that ended the War of Spanish Succession. Ducke of Anjou is now king. France and Spain are still not united.
John Law didn't have the money to cash out his gold and silver. The bubble burst and put France in trouble.
First Prime Minister of Britian. He had influence in the Parliamentary.
War based on the public opinion that the government can not stop.
Prussia and France wants to take over Austria and stop Maria Teresa from taking the throne. Great Britian chooses sides with Austria.
The Enlightened Despot of Prussia. Declared himself 'The First Servant of the State'. He made religious toleration, freedom of press, educational and agricultural reforms, and expanded his territory.
Gains the throne after the War of Austrian Succession. She was Catholic and not religious tolerant.
There were changes in agriculture, mining, and economy. There was increases in products, standard of living, and population.
A balance of power and stopping France from expanding.
War of Austrian Succession where GB sides with Austria and France with Prussia.
She was an Enlightened despot. Peasants rebelled so she had to give up all reforms. Expands the territory of Russia.
Ends the Seven Years war. Makes Britain the global power.
He was an Enlightened Despot. Was the religious tolerant, tied church to state,better taxation, stripped powers from nobles, and freed the serfs.
An invention that gave spinners the ability to spin 100 of spools at a time.
An invention allowing a water frame to make cotton in fabric instead of linen. Invented by Arkwright.
Watt invented the first steam engine. This was used to improve transportation, textile making, and factory workings.
American colonies break away from Britain and gain their own freedom.
A time when a pope lived in Avignon and another in France causing the Great Schism.
The Lollards were the followers of John Wycliffe. They preached in the vernacular and translated the bible. They were popular with the nobility. Wycliffe was against secularism of the papacy. They wanted to get rid of political presence in the church and have priests be judged on merit not rank.
There came to be two popes at one time. Urban VI of Rome and Clement VII of Avignon. England supported pope Urban while France supported Clement. With two different popes the council could not depose either of them. Later another pope, Alexander V was elected. During this time, there was no papal authority.
The Hussites were the followers of John Huss. They supported the vernacular translations of the bible and criticized sacraments like the Eucharist. He has doubts in the clergy. Huss executed in 1415 and his followers revolted gaining control over the Bohemian church.
Pope Julius II patronage the arts and made an active foreign policy during his reign.
The Roman Catholic Church bans Luther's writing calling him a heretic. Luther then runs to hide with the German Nobles.
Luther's complaints about how corrupted the Roman Catholic Church was.
A meeting of the Roman Catholic Church bans all of Luther's writing. Luther is then under the protection of the German nobles.
Reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church in reaction to the Protestant Reformation during the 16th century.
A Reformation during the time when Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine to marry Anne Boylen. The Anglican Church was made.
This declared that King Henry VIII was the supreme head of the church
John Calvin was the chief reformer of Geneva. He supported two sacraments the elect and ideas of simplicity. With this Geneva became a theocracy.
A meeting to eliminate the corruption of the Catholic Church they also reasserted the Church doctrine. This meeting was to keep the religion strong and keep their followers happy.
Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire. He made a rule that the ruler of the land could pick the religion as long as it was Protestant and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio: ruler picks the land.
Catherine de Medici decided to kill all the Huguenots as their power grew. Thousands of peasants were killed.
Conflict between Protestants and Catholic in the Holy Roman Empire.
He was thought of violating the church and was thus put under house arrest.
It takes away the rights of the Huguenots. Louis XIV power is centralized making everyone a catholic.
Forced clergy to swear an alliance with France. This creates a constitution for clergy.
He was a humanist during the Italian Reniassance and wrote the Divine Comedy.
Known as the father of humanism and used secualrism.
A Renaissance writer that wrote Decameron.
The invention of a cheap way to make paper and movable type that broaden the content of books. Invented by Johann Gutenberg in the city of Mainz, Germany.
Machiavelli wrote the book The Prince. It is a guide on how to rule a country based on absolute rule of government.
A heliocentric model of the universe opposite of Ptolemy's geocentric model.
Said that Mercury and Venus revolves around the sun. The rest of the planets revolved around the Earth.
Greatest play writer of all time.
Cervantes is an author of a story about a man named Don.
Kepler used Brahe's data to prove retro grade and heliocentrisim.
Advocated logic and empirical thinking.
Tried to better the relationship between Christianity and reason.
He doubted everything. You needed rational deduction to prove anything.
Wanted a social contract, absolute rule, and a strong central government.
Newton wrote his articles on gravitation and the movement of celestial bodies.
Critisizes the first patriarchial system (1st). Sets a sociey based off of natural rights (2nd).
A book talking about French satire, and critisizes government, philosophy, and the idea of optomisim.
Emile: Of the nature of man. Men and woman live in seperate spheres.
Social Contract: General Will means citizens give up their rights for the greater good of the state.
Focused on economy. Invented the idea of capitalism.
Said that the overpopulation will kill off resources. In the end Production surpassed the consumption of people.
Made economy ideas like minimum wages and rent.
The rebirth of art using ideas such as Humanism, Classicism, and secularism.
The expansion of art in Northern Europe. They tried to reconnect the church and the world
Art in Europe that represented naturalism and included intellectual ideas.
Replaced by Neoclassicism in the 16th century.
Was popular in the Catholic Church. The art was very over exaggerated and conveys lots of emotions.
Art style based on the Enlightenment. Influenced by the Greeks and Romans.
Very elaborate art style that uses lots of pastel colors.
National Assembly states all men were free and equal. Woman were put in their own spheres. Taxation was fair and jobs were given by merit.
Peasants rebel when they thought the king would send troops to stop the revolution.
2nd Estate renounces their feudal privliages making everybody equal.
With the lack of bread peasant woman march to Versaille to demand a change.
The 1st estate is the clergy, 2nd estate is nobles, and the 3rd estate is the bourgeoisie. Used to solve financial problems by Louis XVI.
Anyone who disagrred with the government was executed.
The middle class meets.
National Assembly meet on a tennis court and write a constitution. The first revolutionary act.
Peasants stromed to Bastille to free the prisioners. They started a revolution when the people told the government what to do.
Robespierre was executed before they made the directory.
Belief system to de christianize France during Revolution.
30,000 citizens storm Tuileries palace.They take the king as a prisioner in Paris.
She critizied Rousseau thought of seperate spheres. Within this sphere their education was limited.
A national convention meets to abolish the monarchy.
Austria threatens to have a war with France after killing the king and queen. France attacks first.
Tried for treason and was executed. This started the Reign of Terror.
Frech citizens are drafted to fight in war.
Deism was the religion of France when Robespierre was in charge.
Thought to be counter-revolutionary and was executed. Begins the thermidorian reaction.
Established by the Constitution of the Year III. This was over turned by Napoleon.
The Directory the official government of France.
Napoleon creates the Consulate then creates an Empire while he was the Emperor.