1st Semester AP Euro Timeline

Morgan Whitley McAvoy P.8

General and Political History

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The English and French monarchies demanded more loyalty from their lords. Edward III had claim over the French throne when there was no male heir. It split churches, and resulted in the collapse of political and religious intuitions.

The Black Death

1346 - 1350

Diseases that followed the trade routes of Asia to Europe. Rats bore fleas with this disease on ship that brought it to the continent. It discolored the skin and made people very sick.

The Golden Bull

1356

The agreement that established a electoral college of seven German princes that voted on the Holy Roman Emperor.

Jacquerie

1358

A revolt of the French peasants against the nobles.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

This ended the Great Schism when Pope Martin V was elected taking over all the other popes places.

Early Exploration- Portugal and Spain

1415 - 1550

Prince Henry tells Columbus where to sail. He follows a path and ends in North America.

Erasmus

1466 - 1536

The first humanist who wrote Julius Excluded from Heaven.

Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)

1469

Isabelle of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon were married. They married to better the efficiency to which they ruled Spain.

Jesuits-Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola

1491 - 1540

Dedicated Catholics who are loyal to the pope.

Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1698

It was an exchange agriculture, livestock, culture, disease, and religion between Europe and the New World.

Columbus/Start of the Spanish Empire

1492

Te beginning of the Colonial Empire when Columbus sailed to America in 1492.

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

Italian princes began to fight with each other. France had to come in to stop the feuding.

Commercial Revolution

1500 - 1700

The revolution of consumer goods.

Witch Hunts

1500 - 1600

The capturing and the killing of witches that casted magic and curses. They were said to be more powerful than God.

Consumer Revolution

1500 - 1700

More products for consumption.

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

He was the King of Europe. Divorced his wife, Catherine of Aragon, because she did not give her the male heir he needed.

Reformation

1517 - 1563

Religious movements in the 16th century that led to a reform of the Catholic Church. This established Protestantism

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

The peasants used Luther's teachings to revolt, even though later he called them unchristian. In the end about 100,000 peasants died.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Emperor Charles V told Pope Paul III to call a council of churches to reassert church doctrine.

Agricultural Revolution

1550 - 1850

Landlors used a closed filed method to increase crop production. Farmers learned how to grow crops more efficently.

Mary I (England)

1553 - 1558

She was married to Philip II of Spain. All the protestants feared her and thousands were killed when she was in power.

Elizabeth I (England)

1558 - 1603

Elizabeth established a monarchy after the reign of Mary I. She also passed the Thirty Nine Articles.

The French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

A war between the Huguenots and the Catholics. Catherine Medici killed many protestants. Also, the Henry's made peace with the Protestants and Catholics.

Thirty Nine Articles

1563

Written by Elizabeth I declaring Protestantism the official religion of England.

Dutch Revolt Against Spain

1566

Dutch revolted against Phillip II of Spain when he tried to spread Catholicism to the Netherlands.

Rise of the Netherlands-Dutch Golden Age

1572 - 1702

Dutch economy increases along with trading of tulips, and creates a new form of still life art.

Pacification of Ghent

1576

A treaty by the Hapsburg provenience to rid Spain of their country. In the end this caused peace between the two.

Union of Utrecht

1581

Declared Philip II was no longer the ruler.

Mary Stuart executed

1587

Elizabeth I is threatened by Mary Stuart and her plans so Elizabeth executes her.

Spanish Armada

1588

The army attempts to overthrow Elizabeth I but fails.

Henry IV (France)

1589 - 1610

Henry tried to protect France from the catholic radicals. Henry took over after Henry III to fix the problems with the catholic church. Said the famous quote "Paris is worth a mass."

Edict of Nantes

1598

This gave French protestants liberty but ended with a civil war.

James I (England)

1603 - 1625

The son of Mary Queen of Scotts. He ruled England with a divided court. He created a new bible.

Louis XIII (Richelieu)

1610 - 1643

He was the French King with his advisor Cardinal Richelieu. Made up the leading power of Europe. Defeated the Spanish of multiple occasions.

Henry IV Assassination

1610

Henry was killed by a catholic after writing the Edict of Nantes.

Charles I (england)

1625 - 1649

Divine right and taxed without parliaments consent. In the end he was executed.

James II (England)

1633 - 1701

Rule was taken away after the Glorious Revoultion. William of Orange took his place. Last catholic ruler.

Long Parliament/ Short Parliament

1640 - 1648

King can not get rid of the Parliament without their consent.

English Civil War

1642 - 1646

Charles I declines his rule and then the Parliament and Cromwell take over making England a Puritan Republic.

Louis XIV: Mazarin

1643 - 1661

He tried to tax the nobles but they rioted against him.

The Treaty of Westphalia

1648

This ends the Thirty Years War. Calvanism is now legal. Prussia and Austria are now German states.

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

Civil War occurring in France that made the government move to Versailles.

William of Orange (The Silent)

1650 - 1702

He ruled Holland and led Europe against France. William III gained leadership then died in 1702.

Age of Mercantilism

1650 - 1750

Time when government regulated trade. Resources were limited and colonies serve the motherland.

Academics of Science: (London)

1660

Philopspher met in meetings to discuss ideas and to collaberate on scientific thoughts.

Charles II (england)

1660 - 1665

He made the first monarch after the Puritan Republic.

Louis XIV

1661 - 1715

He made the salt tax, talle, and the land tax, gabelle. He moved his court to Versaille.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1775

He westernized Europe, improved taxes, took power from nobles, and bettered the life for his people.

The Restoration and Glorious Revolution

1688

William of Orange took the throne and signed the English Bill of Rights along with Mary II.

English Bill of Rights

1689

William of Orange signed the Bill of Rights which gave civil liberties to classes and limited the government.

The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

Russia wins and gains territory on the black sea.

Decline of the Netherlands

1700

Political problems cause the Netherlands to fall.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

Charles II had no male heir when he was dying. This war included Louis XIV of France, Maria Teresa of Austria, Leopold I of HRE, Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria.

Act of Settlement (GB)

1701

An Act passed by Parliament to settle the succession to the English throne to Sophia of Hanover.

Death of William III of England

1702

The Orange dynasty is over.

Treaty of Utrecht

1713

Peace treaties that ended the War of Spanish Succession. Ducke of Anjou is now king. France and Spain are still not united.

Fredrick Wilhelm/ Prussian Militarism

1713 - 1740

Increases Prussia's military power.

Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction

1713

Passed by the Holy Roman Empire. The Possessions of the Hapsburgs could be inherited by the daughters.

Death of Louis XIV

1715

Mississippi Bubble

1720

John Law didn't have the money to cash out his gold and silver. The bubble burst and put France in trouble.

Emergence/Dominance of Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

First Prime Minister of Britian. He had influence in the Parliamentary.

War of Jenkins Ear

1739 - 1742

War based on the public opinion that the government can not stop.

Fredrick II (The Great) (Prussia)

1740 - 1786

The Enlightened Despot of Prussia. Declared himself 'The First Servant of the State'. He made religious toleration, freedom of press, educational and agricultural reforms, and expanded his territory.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Prussia and France wants to take over Austria and stop Maria Teresa from taking the throne. Great Britian chooses sides with Austria.

Maria Teresa

1745 - 1765

Gains the throne after the War of Austrian Succession. She was Catholic and not religious tolerant.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1800

There were changes in agriculture, mining, and economy. There was increases in products, standard of living, and population.

Diplomatic Revolution

1756

War of Austrian Succession where GB sides with Austria and France with Prussia.

Seven Years War

1756 - 1763

A balance of power and stopping France from expanding.

Catherin the Great (Russia)

1762 - 1796

She was an Enlightened despot. Peasants rebelled so she had to give up all reforms. Expands the territory of Russia.

Treaty of Paris

1763

Ends the Seven Years war. Makes Britain the global power.

Joseph II (Austria)

1764 - 1790

He was an Enlightened Despot. Was the religious tolerant, tied church to state,better taxation, stripped powers from nobles, and freed the serfs.

Spinning Jenny

1765

An invention that gave spinners the ability to spin 100 of spools at a time.

Steam Engine

1769

Watt invented the first steam engine. This was used to improve transportation, textile making, and factory workings.

Water Frame

1769

An invention allowing a water frame to make cotton in fabric instead of linen. Invented by Arkwright.

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

American colonies break away from Britain and gain their own freedom.

Religion

Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity)

1309 - 1376

A time when a pope lived in Avignon and another in France causing the Great Schism.

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1350 - 1384

The Lollards were the followers of John Wycliffe. They preached in the vernacular and translated the bible. They were popular with the nobility. Wycliffe was against secularism of the papacy. They wanted to get rid of political presence in the church and have priests be judged on merit not rank.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

There came to be two popes at one time. Urban VI of Rome and Clement VII of Avignon. England supported pope Urban while France supported Clement. With two different popes the council could not depose either of them. Later another pope, Alexander V was elected. During this time, there was no papal authority.

Hussites: John Huss

1403 - 1415

The Hussites were the followers of John Huss. They supported the vernacular translations of the bible and criticized sacraments like the Eucharist. He has doubts in the clergy. Huss executed in 1415 and his followers revolted gaining control over the Bohemian church.

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1515

Pope Julius II patronage the arts and made an active foreign policy during his reign.

Diet of Worms

1521

A meeting of the Roman Catholic Church bans all of Luther's writing. Luther is then under the protection of the German nobles.

Luther- 95 Thesis

1521

Luther's complaints about how corrupted the Roman Catholic Church was.

Diet of Worms

1521

The Roman Catholic Church bans Luther's writing calling him a heretic. Luther then runs to hide with the German Nobles.

Catholic/ Counter Reformation

1524

Reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church in reaction to the Protestant Reformation during the 16th century.

English Reformation

1527 - 1600

A Reformation during the time when Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine to marry Anne Boylen. The Anglican Church was made.

Act of Supremacy

1534

This declared that King Henry VIII was the supreme head of the church

John Calvin-Geneva

1536

John Calvin was the chief reformer of Geneva. He supported two sacraments the elect and ideas of simplicity. With this Geneva became a theocracy.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

A meeting to eliminate the corruption of the Catholic Church they also reasserted the Church doctrine. This meeting was to keep the religion strong and keep their followers happy.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire. He made a rule that the ruler of the land could pick the religion as long as it was Protestant and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio: ruler picks the land.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572

Catherine de Medici decided to kill all the Huguenots as their power grew. Thousands of peasants were killed.

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Conflict between Protestants and Catholic in the Holy Roman Empire.

Galileo condemned

1633

He was thought of violating the church and was thus put under house arrest.

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

1685

It takes away the rights of the Huguenots. Louis XIV power is centralized making everyone a catholic.

Civil Constitution of Clergy

July 12, 1790

Forced clergy to swear an alliance with France. This creates a constitution for clergy.

Thinkers

Dante

1265 - 1321

He was a humanist during the Italian Reniassance and wrote the Divine Comedy.

Petrach

1304 - 1374

Known as the father of humanism and used secualrism.

Boccaccio

1315 - 1375

A Renaissance writer that wrote Decameron.

Printing Press-Guttenberg

1468

The invention of a cheap way to make paper and movable type that broaden the content of books. Invented by Johann Gutenberg in the city of Mainz, Germany.

The Prince: Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Machiavelli wrote the book The Prince. It is a guide on how to rule a country based on absolute rule of government.

Copernicus: On the Revoloution of Heavenly Spheres

1543

A heliocentric model of the universe opposite of Ptolemy's geocentric model.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Said that Mercury and Venus revolves around the sun. The rest of the planets revolved around the Earth.

Shakespeare

1564 - 1616

Greatest play writer of all time.

Cervantes: Don Quixote

1605

Cervantes is an author of a story about a man named Don.

Kepler: The New Astronomy

1609

Kepler used Brahe's data to prove retro grade and heliocentrisim.

Bacon: Novum Organum

1620

Advocated logic and empirical thinking.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Tried to better the relationship between Christianity and reason.

Descartes: Discourse on Method

1637

He doubted everything. You needed rational deduction to prove anything.

Hobbes: Leviathan

1651

Wanted a social contract, absolute rule, and a strong central government.

Newton: Principia Mathematica

1676

Newton wrote his articles on gravitation and the movement of celestial bodies.

Locke: Treatises on Gov't (1st & 2nd)

1689

Critisizes the first patriarchial system (1st). Sets a sociey based off of natural rights (2nd).

Volaire: Candide

1759

A book talking about French satire, and critisizes government, philosophy, and the idea of optomisim.

Rousseau-Emile, Social Contract

1762

Emile: Of the nature of man. Men and woman live in seperate spheres.
Social Contract: General Will means citizens give up their rights for the greater good of the state.

Smith: Wealth of Nations

1776

Focused on economy. Invented the idea of capitalism.

Malthus- Principle of Population

1798

Said that the overpopulation will kill off resources. In the end Production surpassed the consumption of people.

Ricardo: Iron law of wages

1809

Made economy ideas like minimum wages and rent.

Art

Renaissance in Italy

1304 - 1550

The rebirth of art using ideas such as Humanism, Classicism, and secularism.

Northern Renaissance

1427 - 1580

The expansion of art in Northern Europe. They tried to reconnect the church and the world

Mannerism

1520 - 1580

Art in Europe that represented naturalism and included intellectual ideas.

Baroque Art (Catholic Nations)

1600 - 1700

Was popular in the Catholic Church. The art was very over exaggerated and conveys lots of emotions.

Decline of Gothic Art

1600 - 1800

Replaced by Neoclassicism in the 16th century.

Neoclassicism

1700 - 1800

Art style based on the Enlightenment. Influenced by the Greeks and Romans.

Emergence of Rococo

1710 - 1750

Very elaborate art style that uses lots of pastel colors.

French Revolution

Estates General Meets

1789

The 1st estate is the clergy, 2nd estate is nobles, and the 3rd estate is the bourgeoisie. Used to solve financial problems by Louis XVI.

March of the Fishwives

1789

With the lack of bread peasant woman march to Versaille to demand a change.

Nobles renounce feudal privlages

1789

2nd Estate renounces their feudal privliages making everybody equal.

Great Fear

1789

Peasants rebel when they thought the king would send troops to stop the revolution.

Rights of Man and Citizen

1789

National Assembly states all men were free and equal. Woman were put in their own spheres. Taxation was fair and jobs were given by merit.

Reign of Terror

March 24, 1789

Anyone who disagrred with the government was executed.

Legislative Assembly Meets

June 17,1789

The middle class meets.

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

National Assembly meet on a tennis court and write a constitution. The first revolutionary act.

Stroming of Bastille

July 14, 1789

Peasants stromed to Bastille to free the prisioners. They started a revolution when the people told the government what to do.

Fall of Robespierre

July 27, 1789

Robespierre was executed before they made the directory.

Convention meets- Monarch Abolished

1792 - 1795

A national convention meets to abolish the monarchy.

Wollstonecraft- Vind. of Rights of Woman

1792

She critizied Rousseau thought of seperate spheres. Within this sphere their education was limited.

Tuileries Stormed-King Captive

1792

30,000 citizens storm Tuileries palace.They take the king as a prisioner in Paris.

Cult of Reason

1792

Belief system to de christianize France during Revolution.

War with Austria

April 20, 1792

Austria threatens to have a war with France after killing the king and queen. France attacks first.

Louis XVI executed

January 17,1793

Tried for treason and was executed. This started the Reign of Terror.

Levee en Masse

August 16, 1793

Frech citizens are drafted to fight in war.

Cult of the Supreme Being

1794

Deism was the religion of France when Robespierre was in charge.

Danton Executed

April 5, 1794

Thought to be counter-revolutionary and was executed. Begins the thermidorian reaction.

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Established by the Constitution of the Year III. This was over turned by Napoleon.

Constitution of the Year III-The Directory established

September 22, 1795

The Directory the official government of France.

Napoleon-coup Brumaire

1799 - 1800

Napoleon creates the Consulate then creates an Empire while he was the Emperor.