The English and French monarchies demanded more loyalty from their lords. Edward III had claim over the French throne when there was no male heir. It split churches, and resulted in the collapse of political and religious intuitions.
The Black Death
1346 - 1350
Diseases that followed the trade routes of Asia to Europe. Rats bore fleas with this disease on ship that brought it to the continent. It discolored the skin and made people very sick.
The Golden Bull
The agreement that established a electoral college of seven German princes that voted on the Holy Roman Emperor.
A revolt of the French peasants against the nobles.
Council of Constance
1414 - 1417
This ended the Great Schism when Pope Martin V was elected taking over all the other popes places.
Early Exploration- Portugal and Spain
1415 - 1550
Prince Henry tells Columbus where to sail. He follows a path and ends in North America.
1466 - 1536
The first humanist who wrote Julius Excluded from Heaven.
Ferdinand and Isabella (Spain)
Isabelle of Castille and Ferdinand of Aragon were married. They married to better the efficiency to which they ruled Spain.
Jesuits-Society of Jesus- Ignatius of Loyola
1491 - 1540
Dedicated Catholics who are loyal to the pope.
Columbus/Start of the Spanish Empire
Te beginning of the Colonial Empire when Columbus sailed to America in 1492.
1492 - 1698
It was an exchange agriculture, livestock, culture, disease, and religion between Europe and the New World.
1494 - 1527
Italian princes began to fight with each other. France had to come in to stop the feuding.
1500 - 1700
More products for consumption.
1500 - 1600
The capturing and the killing of witches that casted magic and curses. They were said to be more powerful than God.
1500 - 1700
The revolution of consumer goods.
1509 - 1547
He was the King of Europe. Divorced his wife, Catherine of Aragon, because she did not give her the male heir he needed.
1517 - 1563
Religious movements in the 16th century that led to a reform of the Catholic Church. This established Protestantism
German Peasant Revolts
1524 - 1525
The peasants used Luther's teachings to revolt, even though later he called them unchristian. In the end about 100,000 peasants died.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Emperor Charles V told Pope Paul III to call a council of churches to reassert church doctrine.
1550 - 1850
Landlors used a closed filed method to increase crop production. Farmers learned how to grow crops more efficently.
Mary I (England)
1553 - 1558
She was married to Philip II of Spain. All the protestants feared her and thousands were killed when she was in power.
Elizabeth I (England)
1558 - 1603
Elizabeth established a monarchy after the reign of Mary I. She also passed the Thirty Nine Articles.
The French Religious Wars
1562 - 1598
A war between the Huguenots and the Catholics. Catherine Medici killed many protestants. Also, the Henry's made peace with the Protestants and Catholics.
Thirty Nine Articles
Written by Elizabeth I declaring Protestantism the official religion of England.
Dutch Revolt Against Spain
Dutch revolted against Phillip II of Spain when he tried to spread Catholicism to the Netherlands.
Rise of the Netherlands-Dutch Golden Age
1572 - 1702
Dutch economy increases along with trading of tulips, and creates a new form of still life art.
Pacification of Ghent
A treaty by the Hapsburg provenience to rid Spain of their country. In the end this caused peace between the two.
Union of Utrecht
Declared Philip II was no longer the ruler.
Mary Stuart executed
Elizabeth I is threatened by Mary Stuart and her plans so Elizabeth executes her.
The army attempts to overthrow Elizabeth I but fails.
Henry IV (France)
1589 - 1610
Henry tried to protect France from the catholic radicals. Henry took over after Henry III to fix the problems with the catholic church. Said the famous quote "Paris is worth a mass."
Edict of Nantes
This gave French protestants liberty but ended with a civil war.
James I (England)
1603 - 1625
The son of Mary Queen of Scotts. He ruled England with a divided court. He created a new bible.
Henry IV Assassination
Henry was killed by a catholic after writing the Edict of Nantes.
Louis XIII (Richelieu)
1610 - 1643
He was the French King with his advisor Cardinal Richelieu. Made up the leading power of Europe. Defeated the Spanish of multiple occasions.
Charles I (england)
1625 - 1649
Divine right and taxed without parliaments consent. In the end he was executed.
James II (England)
1633 - 1701
Rule was taken away after the Glorious Revoultion. William of Orange took his place. Last catholic ruler.
Long Parliament/ Short Parliament
1640 - 1648
King can not get rid of the Parliament without their consent.
English Civil War
1642 - 1646
Charles I declines his rule and then the Parliament and Cromwell take over making England a Puritan Republic.
Louis XIV: Mazarin
1643 - 1661
He tried to tax the nobles but they rioted against him.
The Treaty of Westphalia
This ends the Thirty Years War. Calvanism is now legal. Prussia and Austria are now German states.
1649 - 1652
Civil War occurring in France that made the government move to Versailles.
Age of Mercantilism
1650 - 1750
Time when government regulated trade. Resources were limited and colonies serve the motherland.
William of Orange (The Silent)
1650 - 1702
He ruled Holland and led Europe against France. William III gained leadership then died in 1702.
Charles II (england)
1660 - 1665
He made the first monarch after the Puritan Republic.
Academics of Science: (London)
Philopspher met in meetings to discuss ideas and to collaberate on scientific thoughts.
1661 - 1715
He made the salt tax, talle, and the land tax, gabelle. He moved his court to Versaille.
Peter the Great
1682 - 1775
He westernized Europe, improved taxes, took power from nobles, and bettered the life for his people.
The Restoration and Glorious Revolution
William of Orange took the throne and signed the English Bill of Rights along with Mary II.
English Bill of Rights
William of Orange signed the Bill of Rights which gave civil liberties to classes and limited the government.
Decline of the Netherlands
Political problems cause the Netherlands to fall.
The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden
1700 - 1721
Russia wins and gains territory on the black sea.
Act of Settlement (GB)
An Act passed by Parliament to settle the succession to the English throne to Sophia of Hanover.
War of Spanish Succession
1701 - 1714
Charles II had no male heir when he was dying. This war included Louis XIV of France, Maria Teresa of Austria, Leopold I of HRE, Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria.
Death of William III of England
The Orange dynasty is over.
Charles VI (Austria) Pragmatic Sanction
Passed by the Holy Roman Empire. The Possessions of the Hapsburgs could be inherited by the daughters.
Fredrick Wilhelm/ Prussian Militarism
1713 - 1740
Increases Prussia's military power.
Treaty of Utrecht
Peace treaties that ended the War of Spanish Succession. Ducke of Anjou is now king. France and Spain are still not united.
Death of Louis XIV
John Law didn't have the money to cash out his gold and silver. The bubble burst and put France in trouble.
Emergence/Dominance of Robert Walpole
1721 - 1742
First Prime Minister of Britian. He had influence in the Parliamentary.
War of Jenkins Ear
1739 - 1742
War based on the public opinion that the government can not stop.
War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 1748
Prussia and France wants to take over Austria and stop Maria Teresa from taking the throne. Great Britian chooses sides with Austria.
Fredrick II (The Great) (Prussia)
1740 - 1786
The Enlightened Despot of Prussia. Declared himself 'The First Servant of the State'. He made religious toleration, freedom of press, educational and agricultural reforms, and expanded his territory.
1745 - 1765
Gains the throne after the War of Austrian Succession. She was Catholic and not religious tolerant.
1750 - 1800
There were changes in agriculture, mining, and economy. There was increases in products, standard of living, and population.
Seven Years War
1756 - 1763
A balance of power and stopping France from expanding.
War of Austrian Succession where GB sides with Austria and France with Prussia.
Catherin the Great (Russia)
1762 - 1796
She was an Enlightened despot. Peasants rebelled so she had to give up all reforms. Expands the territory of Russia.
Treaty of Paris
Ends the Seven Years war. Makes Britain the global power.
Joseph II (Austria)
1764 - 1790
He was an Enlightened Despot. Was the religious tolerant, tied church to state,better taxation, stripped powers from nobles, and freed the serfs.
An invention that gave spinners the ability to spin 100 of spools at a time.
An invention allowing a water frame to make cotton in fabric instead of linen. Invented by Arkwright.
Watt invented the first steam engine. This was used to improve transportation, textile making, and factory workings.
1775 - 1783
American colonies break away from Britain and gain their own freedom.
Avignon Papacy (Babylonian Captivity)
1309 - 1376
A time when a pope lived in Avignon and another in France causing the Great Schism.
Lollards: John Wycliffe
1350 - 1384
The Lollards were the followers of John Wycliffe. They preached in the vernacular and translated the bible. They were popular with the nobility. Wycliffe was against secularism of the papacy. They wanted to get rid of political presence in the church and have priests be judged on merit not rank.
The Great Schism
1378 - 1417
There came to be two popes at one time. Urban VI of Rome and Clement VII of Avignon. England supported pope Urban while France supported Clement. With two different popes the council could not depose either of them. Later another pope, Alexander V was elected. During this time, there was no papal authority.
Hussites: John Huss
1403 - 1415
The Hussites were the followers of John Huss. They supported the vernacular translations of the bible and criticized sacraments like the Eucharist. He has doubts in the clergy. Huss executed in 1415 and his followers revolted gaining control over the Bohemian church.
Pope Julius II
1503 - 1515
Pope Julius II patronage the arts and made an active foreign policy during his reign.
Diet of Worms
The Roman Catholic Church bans Luther's writing calling him a heretic. Luther then runs to hide with the German Nobles.
Luther- 95 Thesis
Luther's complaints about how corrupted the Roman Catholic Church was.
Diet of Worms
A meeting of the Roman Catholic Church bans all of Luther's writing. Luther is then under the protection of the German nobles.
Catholic/ Counter Reformation
Reform movement in the Roman Catholic Church in reaction to the Protestant Reformation during the 16th century.
1527 - 1600
A Reformation during the time when Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine to marry Anne Boylen. The Anglican Church was made.
Act of Supremacy
This declared that King Henry VIII was the supreme head of the church
John Calvin was the chief reformer of Geneva. He supported two sacraments the elect and ideas of simplicity. With this Geneva became a theocracy.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
A meeting to eliminate the corruption of the Catholic Church they also reasserted the Church doctrine. This meeting was to keep the religion strong and keep their followers happy.
Peace of Augsburg
Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire. He made a rule that the ruler of the land could pick the religion as long as it was Protestant and Catholic. Cuius regio, eius religio: ruler picks the land.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Catherine de Medici decided to kill all the Huguenots as their power grew. Thousands of peasants were killed.
The Thirty Years War
1618 - 1648
Conflict between Protestants and Catholic in the Holy Roman Empire.
He was thought of violating the church and was thus put under house arrest.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
It takes away the rights of the Huguenots. Louis XIV power is centralized making everyone a catholic.
Civil Constitution of Clergy
July 12, 1790
Forced clergy to swear an alliance with France. This creates a constitution for clergy.
1265 - 1321
He was a humanist during the Italian Reniassance and wrote the Divine Comedy.
1304 - 1374
Known as the father of humanism and used secualrism.
1315 - 1375
A Renaissance writer that wrote Decameron.
The invention of a cheap way to make paper and movable type that broaden the content of books. Invented by Johann Gutenberg in the city of Mainz, Germany.
The Prince: Machiavelli
1469 - 1527
Machiavelli wrote the book The Prince. It is a guide on how to rule a country based on absolute rule of government.
Copernicus: On the Revoloution of Heavenly Spheres
A heliocentric model of the universe opposite of Ptolemy's geocentric model.
1546 - 1601
Said that Mercury and Venus revolves around the sun. The rest of the planets revolved around the Earth.
1564 - 1616
Greatest play writer of all time.
Cervantes: Don Quixote
Cervantes is an author of a story about a man named Don.
Kepler: The New Astronomy
Kepler used Brahe's data to prove retro grade and heliocentrisim.
Bacon: Novum Organum
Advocated logic and empirical thinking.
1623 - 1662
Tried to better the relationship between Christianity and reason.
Descartes: Discourse on Method
He doubted everything. You needed rational deduction to prove anything.
Wanted a social contract, absolute rule, and a strong central government.
Newton: Principia Mathematica
Newton wrote his articles on gravitation and the movement of celestial bodies.
Locke: Treatises on Gov't (1st & 2nd)
Critisizes the first patriarchial system (1st). Sets a sociey based off of natural rights (2nd).
A book talking about French satire, and critisizes government, philosophy, and the idea of optomisim.
Rousseau-Emile, Social Contract
Emile: Of the nature of man. Men and woman live in seperate spheres.
Social Contract: General Will means citizens give up their rights for the greater good of the state.
Smith: Wealth of Nations
Focused on economy. Invented the idea of capitalism.
Malthus- Principle of Population
Said that the overpopulation will kill off resources. In the end Production surpassed the consumption of people.
Ricardo: Iron law of wages
Made economy ideas like minimum wages and rent.
Renaissance in Italy
1304 - 1550
The rebirth of art using ideas such as Humanism, Classicism, and secularism.
1427 - 1580
The expansion of art in Northern Europe. They tried to reconnect the church and the world
1520 - 1580
Art in Europe that represented naturalism and included intellectual ideas.
Decline of Gothic Art
1600 - 1800
Replaced by Neoclassicism in the 16th century.
Baroque Art (Catholic Nations)
1600 - 1700
Was popular in the Catholic Church. The art was very over exaggerated and conveys lots of emotions.
1700 - 1800
Art style based on the Enlightenment. Influenced by the Greeks and Romans.
Emergence of Rococo
1710 - 1750
Very elaborate art style that uses lots of pastel colors.
Rights of Man and Citizen
National Assembly states all men were free and equal. Woman were put in their own spheres. Taxation was fair and jobs were given by merit.
Peasants rebel when they thought the king would send troops to stop the revolution.
Nobles renounce feudal privlages
2nd Estate renounces their feudal privliages making everybody equal.
March of the Fishwives
With the lack of bread peasant woman march to Versaille to demand a change.
Estates General Meets
The 1st estate is the clergy, 2nd estate is nobles, and the 3rd estate is the bourgeoisie. Used to solve financial problems by Louis XVI.
Reign of Terror
March 24, 1789
Anyone who disagrred with the government was executed.
Legislative Assembly Meets
The middle class meets.
Tennis Court Oath
June 20, 1789
National Assembly meet on a tennis court and write a constitution. The first revolutionary act.
Stroming of Bastille
July 14, 1789
Peasants stromed to Bastille to free the prisioners. They started a revolution when the people told the government what to do.
Fall of Robespierre
July 27, 1789
Robespierre was executed before they made the directory.
Cult of Reason
Belief system to de christianize France during Revolution.
Tuileries Stormed-King Captive
30,000 citizens storm Tuileries palace.They take the king as a prisioner in Paris.
Wollstonecraft- Vind. of Rights of Woman
She critizied Rousseau thought of seperate spheres. Within this sphere their education was limited.
Convention meets- Monarch Abolished
1792 - 1795
A national convention meets to abolish the monarchy.
War with Austria
April 20, 1792
Austria threatens to have a war with France after killing the king and queen. France attacks first.
Louis XVI executed
Tried for treason and was executed. This started the Reign of Terror.
Levee en Masse
August 16, 1793
Frech citizens are drafted to fight in war.
Cult of the Supreme Being
Deism was the religion of France when Robespierre was in charge.
April 5, 1794
Thought to be counter-revolutionary and was executed. Begins the thermidorian reaction.
1795 - 1799
Established by the Constitution of the Year III. This was over turned by Napoleon.
Constitution of the Year III-The Directory established
September 22, 1795
The Directory the official government of France.
1799 - 1800
Napoleon creates the Consulate then creates an Empire while he was the Emperor.