Road to Civil War
The northwest ordinance happened July 13, 1787. The main goal of the ordinance was to create all of the northwestern territory (south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River). Considered 2nd most important thing passed by congress b/c it made the precedent by which the gov. would expand westward by making new states instead of making old states bigger.In this territory they made it anti-slave and this ended up making the line in which separated free and slave territories.
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions occurred from 1798 to 1799. The resolutions where when Kentucky and Virginia declared the alien and sedition acts unconstitutional and argued for states' rights and strict interpretation of the constitution. While Washington thought that such an act would tear the union apart and divided Democrats with states right activists and later anti-slavery activists.
The Hartford Convention occurred during the time 1814 to 1815 and it was a meeting concerning the Americas going into the war of 1812. It was a New England Federalist rally also discussing the growing power of the Fed. Gov. Their proposal was the removal of the 3/5ths comp., a required two-thirds majority in Congress for creation of new states, declarations of war, and laws restricting trade. However after the victory in New Orleans the Federalists pleads fell on deaf ears and where disgraced (which led to the fall of the Fed.)
The Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820 and was a debate b/w Pro-slave and Anti-Slave activist. It prohibited slavery north of the 36-30 line, made any slave child born there free after they turn 25, and didn't allow any more slaves to enter after it was passed. This of course made the South angry because they lost a big chance on making money and gaining power, while making the north happy thus making more tension b/w the two.
The tariff of 1828 was a protective tariff passed on May 19, 1828 whose meaning was to protect the Northern economy (industry). It put a tax on imported goods in hopes of forcing the south to buy the North's goods. The South having to pay a high price for goods they didn’t produce was hurt, and the whole economy b/c Brittan lost trade and therefore lost money and dint have enough money to pay for the cotton the south was making.
Nat Turner's Rebellion was a slave rebellion that happened in Virginia during August 1831. It was the largest slave rebellion ever in the south killing 55-65 white people during the course of several days. The result was an exaggerated retaliation from the south which killed several slaves accused and punished hundreds and eventually led a law that forbade education of slaves and free blacks, restricting rights of assembly and other civil rights for free blacks, and requiring white ministers to be present at black worship services. When the north would ignore all of those rules that south of course got angry which led to more tension.
The Nullification Crisis was a crisis that happened when Andrew Jackson was president in 1832. It said that by the power of the State that the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and null and void in South Carolina. South Carolina blamed their economic decline in the tariffs, and this led to heated debate b/w Jackson and Calhoun. Eventually they drew up another tariff which satisfied most but SC wasn’t satisfied at the last second before military force was used an agreeable tariff was passed and ended the conflict.
The Texas Annexation debates occurred from when Texas was became part of the US in 1845 until it was resolved in 1850. Texas claimed , parts of present-day Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Texas, Wyoming, Utah, and Oklahoma after we won the mex.-amer. war. All disputes where solved during the compromise of 1850.
The Wilmot Proviso (1846), a major event leading to the Civil War was going to ban slavery in any territory we got from Mexico. It continually passed the House but failed the senate b/c of the rep. from the south. The south saw this as the 1st official attack on slavery and took it as a huge insult to their way of life.
The Compromise of 1850 was 5 bills passed on September 1850. It resolved a 4 year debate about the slave status of the newly gained territories from the mex.- amer. War. While both sides didn’t like some parts it was greatly needed and relieved tension for 4 years. It included: Texas surrendered its claim to New Mexico, California's admission as a free state, South's decline Wilmot proviso and new Mexico and Utah terr. Agreed on pop. Sov., a stronger Fugitive Slave Act, slave trade was banned in Washington D.C
Fugitive Slave Act was passed by Congress on September 18, 1850. It was debated b/w free soilers and slave supporters, saying that any found slave was to be returned to their owner. The north hated this b/c they feared of the " slave power conspiracy" (small group of rich slave owners seizing political control of their own states and trying to take over the national government).
The Kansas–Nebraska Act created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska in 1854. The biggest debate about this was that it repealed the Missouri comp. by allowing the 2 states to settle their slave hood by pop. Sov. This made the south happy (at 1st for eventually they would lose both to becoming free although it was "implied that one would be slave and the other free) and the North incredibly angry b/c they thought they got Kansas due to the comp in 1820.
The Ostend manifesto was written in 1854 and was a manifesto trying to persuade the gov. to buy Cuba. It said that it was in the best needs of the country to buy cuba and that it would eventually become ours anyway so we should just buy it now and if Spain declined than we would start war. The south wanted Cuba to expand slavery more and used manifest destiny as a cover and the north did not want that.
Bleeding Kansas was a series of violent actions b/w anti slave "free staters" and pro-slave "ruffians" from 1854 to 1861. The whole thing was over Kansas being a free or slave state; it bordered a free state and a slave state, each sending hundreds of people to swing the vote to their desired outcome. As the two groups went to vote each started to fight and threaten each other and soon violence was everywhere up until 3 months before the civil war when it was finally a free state.
The Sumner brooks affair happened May 22, 1856. It happened when pro slavery brooks attacked anti-slavery sumner in the senate. He hit him repeatedly with his cane and then walked out of the room, the south viewd him as a hero, and the north saw sumner as a martyr a hint of the civil war that was on its way.
Dred scott vs sandford- a supreme court decision in 1857. A major supreme court decision where it ruled the gov had no power to rule a state slave or free. This was possibly the worst decision ever b/c allowed slavery possibly anywhere in the whole US which made the north angry b/c their goal was to at least stop the spread of slavery.
John Brown's raid was a white abolitionist John Brown raiding an armory trying to start a slave revolt in 1859. While it did end up failing and brown was shot and killed he became another martyr. Although the north did see this as insane an isolated incident the south saw it as how the north really felt.
The 1860 pres. Election was an immediate cause of the civil war. For the south threatened that if the Rep. won (Lincoln) than they would secede from the union. The north won the south seceded.
The battle at fort sumpter occurred on april 12-14 1861. It was the 1st official battle of the civil war and ended in surrender. It happened when the south ordered the us to evacuate its troops.