BSM Final Review Timeline

Civil Rights

NAACP

1909

founded by W.E.B. Dubois in Niagara River in Fort Erie, Ontario 1909, works towards fighting Jim Crow and eliminating racial discrimination through legal actions and peaceful protest, with its most famous case being Brown versus Board of Education, in which segregation in public schools was ruled unconstitutional, The Crisis newspaper publicized struggle, led by Walter White and Roy Wilkins in 40’s-60’s

CORE

1942

founded by James Farmer in Chicago in 1942 for social change through nonviolent means, known for sit-ins in Greensboro, North Carolina and freedom rides in Birmingham, Alabama, helped make interstate bus segregation illegal

Brown v. Board of Education

1952

overturned Plessy v Ferguson case that allowed separate but equal, made discrimination in education unconstitutional, major victory for civil rights movement, Charles Hamilton Houston major player in case’s success because he set out to prove that separate but equal was impossible through the examples of teacher salary and segregated law schools, helped the dismantling of Jim Crow in the south

SCLC

1957

founded by reverend doctor Martin Luther King junior, Bayard Rustin, and Ella Baker in 1957 after Montgomery Bus Boycott, was primary organization for southern churches to make contributions towards integration with its many campaigns, utilized nonviolent direct action, middle-class religious, and educated membership

SNCC

1960

1960 sit-in in Greensboro NC led to founding by Ella Baker, utilized peaceful protest like sit-ins, devoted itself to integration with freedom rides and March on Washington, support of black and white students from around the country, was aligned with black power movement under president Stokely Carmichael in later years

Operation Breadbasket

1962 - 1972

an organization dedicated to improving the economic conditions of black communities across the US (mostly in South), founded as branch of SCLC

March on Washington

1963

CORE, NAACP, SNCC, SCLC leaders planned one of the largest Civil Rights rallies in U.S. history to call for racial equality and cooperation, MLK gives his "I Have a Dream" speech

MFDP

1964

created by Fannie Lou Hamer and other SNCC activists, fought for voting opportunities and rights for southern blacks, tried to get seats at the 1964 Democratic National Convention but failed

Mississippi Freedom Summer

1964

summer of 1964 SCLC and MFDP set up Freedom Schools and other operatives to get blacks registered to vote

Civil Rights Act of 1964

1964

prohibited discrimination or segregation in places of public accommodation

Voting Rights Act

1965

passed in 1965 as it seeks to prevent voting discrimination based on race, color, or membership in a language minority group, as it marked the first time the federal government undertook voting reforms that had been left to the states

March Against Fear

1966

James Meredith starts a solo march protesting the injustices of the Jim Crow south, he is shot almost immediately but Civil Rights organizations take up the march in his stead (SCLC, SNCC)

Civil Rights Act of 1968

1968

fair housing act

Freedom Farm Cooperative

1969

Fannie Lou Hamer's plan to help southern black farmers by providing housing and buying land to grow vegetables as a coop

Million Man March

1995

NAACP Organized march on Washington to protest the economic and racial issues faced by urban minorities

Black Nationalism/Black Power

Nation of Islam

1930

led by Elija Muhommad, most outspoken member was Malcolm X, preached a form of black nationalism wherein blacks were superior to whites and could succeed without their help, helped set up hundreds of black businesses, very militaristic and stressed gender roles, Fruit of Islam was strict group of highly trained members that protected their temples and protests

Radio Free Dixie

1961 - 1965

radio program by Robert Williams, the Cuban version of The Crusader as he calls for blacks to take up arms against their white oppressors

RAM

1963

Revolutionary Action Movement, disagreed with capitalism and integration, stressed armed self-defense and self-determinism

Malcolm X Assassinated

1965

Black Panther Party

1966

founded 1966 Oakland, California by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, marked transition from equal rights to human rights, militaristic, preached armed self-defense, had the 10-point program that targeted needs of black community, helped create free breakfast programs, gray panthers, disabilities

Rainbow Coalition

1968

term coined by Fred Hampton in 1968 to describe a group of multiple peoples working for the same goal, used by Jesse Jackson’s 1984 Presidential campaign and the creation of the National Rainbow Coalition, political empowerment of underrepresented groups

Chicago 8 Controversy

1968

8 Black Power leaders charged with inciting violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, Bobby Seale was bound and gagged during his trial

Black Panthers Dissolved

1982

Black Radical Congress

1998

Grass-roots organization of peoples of African descent focused on advocating for broad progressive social justice, racial equality, and economic justice in the U.S.

Womanism/Feminism

NBFO

1973 - 1976

fought sexism within the black power movement, members felt out of the place in the white female dominated feminist movement and black male dominated black power movement

Combahee River Collective

1974

black feminist’s organization in Boston that stressed the simultaneity of oppressions of race, class, gender, sexism, and heterosexism

Clarence Thomas Controversy

1991

chairman of the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and Supreme Court Justice brought to court for allegedly sexually harassing Anita Hill, and thus making sexual harassment a major political issue

Internationalism

Algerian War for Independence

1954 - 1962

Vietnam War

1955 - 1972

Bandung Conference

1955

conference of non-aligned movement attended by many countries that called for mutual respect for territorial integrity and sovereignty, nonaggression, noninterference in the internal affairs of others, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence

Anti-Apartheid Movement

1959 - 1994

movement against the discriminatory practices of South Africa, generally a part of pan-Africanist and African Liberation Support ideologies

1st World Conference Against Racism

1978

Geneva, Switzerland, focused on South Africa’s policy of Aparthied and racial segregation

Black Arts/Culture

Harlem Renaissance

1919 - 1935

otherwise known as the new Negro movement, a cultural movement in which African American artists and activists sought to point out the injustices of racism while promoting unity among African Americans, attempted to define a unified black culture, new language: black is beautiful

Black Arts Movement

1965 - 1976

the second black renaissance, as African Americans sought to escape from their Negro identities and adopted Arab or African names, as it was linked with the black power movement and its militant and separatist spirits

Miscellaneous

Watts Riots

1965

August 11-17, 1965, influx of black population into Watts after Second Great Migration caused unrest and an invisible black community to suddenly become visible, motorist Marquette Frye pulled over for drunk driving incited the riots which had been brewing because of de facto segregation in L.A. and police brutality, worsened by the involvement of the California Army National Guard

Attica Prison Riot

1971

prisoners incited by murder of inmate by guard, inmates took over prison and demanded better living conditions and more humane treatment

Rodney King Beating

1991

pulled over for speeding by LAPD in 1991, was beaten and tased on camera, video was broadcast everywhere, the acquittal a year later of the cops in 1992 helped in part to spark the 1992 LA Riots

Los Angeles Riots

1992

April 29-May 1, 1992, riots broke out throughout L.A., sparked by trial results of Rodney King beating but had many more causes: immigration, increasing poverty of African-Americans, loss of secure jobs and benefits, and police brutality, media made events out to be a black vs. white affair but there were actually far more Latinos arrested and involved than African-Americans, may have actually been more of an anti-immigration movement than anti-white movement

Hurricane Katrina

2005

hurricane that devastated New Orleans in 2005, handled extremely poorly by politicians of the time, middle and upper class whites were able to escape where majority poor black population was trapped, fire departments and services were not allowed to rescue survivors, the poorest neighborhoods were hurt the most because the levis failed where funding was nonexistent, blacks victimized but were forced to stay because of poor economic conditions, livelihoods of tens of thousands destroyed