APUSH Sem. 1

US History

Articles of Confederation ratified

1781

Land Ordinance of 1785

1785

-divided up northwest lands to be sold to pay war debts
-provided for organized settlement
-public education

Shays' rebellion

1786

-debtors rebel
-debtor relief laws passed
-stronger central gov. needed

Northwest Ordinance

1787

-governance of northwest
-forbid slavery in new states/territories

Constitutional Convention

1787

Constitution ratified

1788

Judiciary Act establishes courts

1789

Bill of Rights ratified

1789

1st Bank of the US approved

1791

pushed for by Hamilton

Neutrality Proclamation issued

1793

Washington, Federalists don't want to get involved in French wars
Dem-Repubs wanted to honor alliance w/ France

cotton gin invented

1793

-led to boom in slavery
-king cotton

Washington sends Jay to London

1794

-English were refusing to abandon forts on the frontier in defiance of peace treatiy
-instigated Indian resistance
-Navy ignores neutrality, attacks US ships

-Hamilton (a Federalist) wanted to avoid war with Britain, so gave Jay's terms to the British gov.

Pinckney's Treaty with Spain

1795

Spain thought US was allying with Britain and thus granted the US a lot of stuff

XYZ Affair in France

1797

Adams tried to send US envoy to France; French demand large some of money as bribe --> Americans outraged

Undeclared war w/ France on the seas

1798 - December 1800

-both countries teetering on the edge of war

Alien and Sedition Acts target Dem-Repubs

1798

-Federalists wanted to control Democratic-Republicans
-capitalized on anti-French frenzy
-set to expire before next election (nice)

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions passed in retaliation

1799

Jefferson fearful that Alien & Sedition acts were taking away democracy
-not widespread
-based on doctrine of "compact theory" (a strong states' rights view: that states had to right to decide if laws were not okay)

France acquires Louisiana from Spain

1800

2nd Great Awakening

1800

"Revolution of 1800"

November 1800

Jefferson's election = peaceful transfer of power (a first in the world) and ascension of "the people" to power

Convention of 1800 signed in Paris

December 1800

Adams ends potential war w/ France

Judiciary Act of 1801

1801

passed by Federalists right before getting kicked out
-created new federal court districts

Tripolitan War in North Africa

1801 - 1805

-fought w/ African nation of Tripoli over pirating
-Jefferson wanted to be peaceful president, but action of pirates was unacceptable
-ended successfully w/ peace treaty

--> though against a navy, Jefferson created fleet of small gunboats (bad idea)

midnight judges appointed by Adams

March 4, 1801

Louisiana purchase!

1803

doubled size of US for $15 mil
-Napoleon willing to sell for several reasons

-Jefferson had to go against personal beliefs w/ purchase, but it was too good to pass up
-Republicans (loose constructionists) took strict construction stance because they knew the addition of new land would lead to more Democratic-Republicans

Marbury vs. Madison

1803

creates power of judicial review

Orders in Council issued by Britain

1806

all US merchant ships headed for France must check in in Britain

France threatens to seize all ships entering British ports

1806

Embargo Act

1807 - 1809

forbade all exports to any nation
- a HUGE failure

-economy (esp. northern) in the shits

Non-Intercourse Act

1809

outlaws shipping to England and France only
-overestimated British, French reliance on American good

Macon's Bill No. 2

1810

-allow trade with either France OR Britain
-France accepts turns, but goes against their word

War Hawk congress

1811

-Dem-Repub congressmen who pressured Madison to declare war on Britain
-one was Henry Clay

Battle of Tippecanoe

1811

-William Henry Harrison becomes hero after defeating Indians

American invasions of Canada fail

1812 - October 1813

War of 1812

1812 - 1815

fought because:
-U.S. sick of not having free seas
-possibility of land gain
-anger at Britain for encouraging American opposition among Indians

--> NATIONALISM!!
-Europe off our backs
-gain international respect as a nation

Hartford Convention

October 1814

Federalists hold convention to discuss war grievances
-make demands of government just as Treaty of Ghent is signed
--> federalists go extinct

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814

an armistice; came before news of Battle of New Orleans
-didn't even address what the war was mainly about
-war basically ended in tie

Battle of New Orleans

January 1815

biggest US victory of the war

Protective Tariff of 1816

1816

first protective tariff in U.S.

2nd Bank of U.S. founded

1816

Panic of 1819

1819

Adams-Onis Treaty with Spain

1819

Spain cedes Florida to U.S. for $5 million

McCulloch vs. Maryland

1819

Elastic Clause recognized and used

Missouri Compromise

1820

Missouri admitted as slave state, Maine as free state
--maintains sectional balance in Senate
-now 12 slave, 12 free states

line set at 36'30:
-above = free
-below = slave

--> worked for 25 years until Mexican Cession

Mexico opens Texas to Americans

1823

Monroe Doctrine

1823

-no new European powers can colonize Western Hemisphere
-Europe must keep out of all American affairs

Corrupt Bargain of 1824

1824

Clay allegedly throws deadlocked election to John Quincy Adams in exchange for becoming Secretary of State

Erie Canal in NY completed

1825

Tariff of Abominations (1828)

1828

Congress thought it would fail at Adams' expense
-but it passed

-resented by Southerners for its high rates
-were scared of increasing federal power

first railroad introduced

1828

Indian Removal Act passed

1830

LOTS of immigration

1830 - 1860

mainly Irish (after potato crop failure of 40s) and German

Nullification Crisis

1832 - 1833

showdown between Pres. Jackson and South Carolina
-SC declared the tariff null and void, threatens secession
-soled by compromise by Clay

Bank War erupts

1832

Jackson vetoes Clay's bill to recharter Bank of U.S. (4 years early)

-Clay had hoped to make it an election issue by forcing Jackson to alienate either westerners (opposed it) or elite (who supported it)

Tariff of 1832 removes worst "abominations"

1832

Jackson removes deposit from BUS

1833

-begins "Biddle's Panic"
-money withdrawn and deposited into pet banks
--> US flooded with paper money --> out of control inflation
--> Specie Circular (1836)
--> economic panic in 1837

Force Bill

1833

Compromise Tariff of 1833

1833

Texas wins independence

1836

Gag Resolution passed

1836

-tabled all talks of slavery in House
-not repealed until 8 years later

Panic of 1837

1837

-overspeculation of land, Bank War, failure of wheat crops, international economic problems

--> American banks collapse, other bad stuff (duh)

Trail of Tears

1838 - 1839

Aroostook War over Maine boundary

1839

-US gets more land in Maine

Independent Treasury established

1840 - 1841

-repealed next year by Whigs

-reinstated in 1846

Log Cabin and Hard Cider election

1840

"Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"
-campaign all about image, appealing to the masses rather than the issues

Webster-Ashburton treaty

1842

ends Aroostook War

telegraph invented

1844

U.S. annexes Texas

1845

Tyler takes Polk's victory as "mandate" for manifest destiny, acquiring of Texas

Wilmot Proviso passes House

1846

endorsed by all but 1 free state:
-no slavery in Mexican Cession lands

Treasury restored

1846

Mexican-American War

1846 - 1848

-Polk provoked Mexicans to attack

Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls

1848

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1848

-Mexican Cession lands

Free Soil Party

1848

California gold rush

1848

Compromise of 1850

1850

-able to pass because Taylor died

CONCESSIONS TO NORTH:
-California a fre state
-New Mexico gets disputed Texas territory
-abolition of slave trade in D.C.

CONCESSIONS TO SOUTH:
-$10 mil of debt assumed
-popular sovereignty in Mexican cession lands
-new fugitive slave law

Treaties at Fort Laramie

1851

created reservation system

Maine Law

1851

temperance/prohibition

Gadsden Purchase

1853

-got lands for railroads in south

Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854

-Missouri compromise (1820) repealed
-would open Kansas and Nebraska to popular sovereignty
-Kansas should be slave, Nebraska should be free

Bleeding Kansas

1856 - 1861

-anti-slavery people flooded into Kansas
-southerners pissed: suposed to be slave state!
-civil war erupts

Dred Scott decision

1857

-slave is not a citizen
-GOV. (congress) CAN'T OUTLAW SLAVERY

Panic of 1857

1857

-huge ego booster for south

33 states are in Union

1860

-4th most populous country
-population doubles every 25 years

7 states secede from Union

1861

Civil War!

July 1861 - April 1865

First Battle of Bull Run

July 1861

-showed that war would not be brief

Homestead Act

1862

-basically free land to anyone who wants it

Battle of Antietam

September 1862

-bloodiest day thus far; ends in draw
-McClelland removed from generalship
-closest Confederacy comes to vistory
-foreign aid for south unlikely now
--> Lincoln announces Emancipation Proclamation

Fall of Vicksburg

1863

-Union gets control of Mississippi

Battle of Gettysburg

July 1863

-basically ensures Confederate defeat in war

"Indian Wars"

1864 - 1890

Sherman's March

1864

Lee surrenders at Appomattax

April 1865

Nat'l Labor Union

1866

-lasted 6 yrs.
-skilled, unskilled, and farmers

goals: arbitration, 8 hr. work day

Reconstruction Act

1867

-south divided into 5 military district

Reconstruction

1867 - 1877

Fisk & Gould gold scandal

1869

1st Transcontinental Railroad completed

1869

US is 3rd largest country

1870

Tweed scandal in NY

1871

Crédit-Mobilier scandal

1872

-Union Pacific (?) makes its own construction company, hires itself at inflated prices
-bribed congressmen to stay quie

panic of 1873

1873

-nation couldn't keep up with industrial expansion
-debtors called for inflation (greenbacks, silver)
-debtors wanted deflation (hard money)

Civil Rights Act of 1875

1875

-last attempt to help African Americans
-prevented racial discrimination in accommodations, jury trials
-collapsed w/ Compromise of 1877

Resumption Act

1875

-withdrew greenbacks, redeemed them with gold
-deflation

Hayes-Tilden standoff

1876

-contested results came from three southern states
-who should win..??
-solved by Compromise of 1877

Compromise of 1877

1877

-basically, Dems accepted Hayes as the winner
-BUT troops were removed from Louisiana and S. Carolina
--> final abandonment of gov't support for African Americans
-solved the election issue 3 days before inauguration

Railroad strikes

1877

New Immigration

1880 - 1889

southern and easter Europeans (vs. western, northern)

-largely illiterate, impoverished
-came from less-democratic countries
-went to big cities, made communities

Knights of Labor

1881

welcomed all

goals: workers' co-ops, 8 hr work day, better conditions

ended up w/ hurt public image (anarchists)

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882

-banned Chinese immigration from 1882-1943

Pendleton Act

1883

-reformed spoils system
-civil service comish
-made compulsory campaign contributions illegal

Haymarket Square Incident

1886

strike w/ bombings, anarchists

--> distrust in unions, decline in membership

American Federation of Labor

1886

-only SKILLED workers
-led by Gompers
-wanted "more"; better everything

Interstate Commerce Act

1887

-prohibited rebate and pools
-companies must publish rates
-sut up Interstate Commerce Commission

Dawes Severalty Act

1887

got rid of tribal system, make Indians independent
-could become citizens after 25 yrs.
-allotted land to individuals

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

1890

-first push for regulation at federal level (??)
-forbade combinations in restraint of trade
-actually curbed labor unions (not its purpose)

-had no teeth, but a start

Depression of 1893

1893

-caused by overbuilding, overspeculation, labor disorder, agriculture issues
-gold reserves drops below safe level ($100 mil) all the way to $41 mil
-US in danger of going off gold standard

J.P. Morgan lends to gov't

1895

$65 million

Plessy v. Ferguson

1896

-Jim Crow laws validated

40% of population lives in cities

1900

population doubles in 30 yrs.

1900

80 mil people now live in US (40 mil in 1870)

US Steel Corporation created

1901

world's first billion-dollar company

President

George Washington

4/30/1789 - 3/4/1797

John Adams (Federalist)

3/4/1797 - 3/4/1801

Federalist Party

VP Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican)

3/4/1801 - 3/4/1809

Democratic-Republican Party

two Jeffersons:
- scholarly philosopher
- practical politician

-undid Alien and Sedition Acts

left many things intact, even though he opposed them (especially Hamilton's economic plans)
-balanced budget more (w/ Gallatin as treasurer)
-removed excise tax on whiskey

James Madison (Dem-Repub)

3/4/1809 - 3/4/1817

Democratic-Republican Party

James Monroe

3/4/1817 - 3/4/1825

John Quincy Adams

3/4/1825 - 3/4/1829

VP John Calhoun

-nationalist in era of states' rights
-cold, austere, didn't strike bargains
-stubbornly stuck to values

Andrew Jackson (Democrat)

3/4/1829 - 3/4/1837

VP John Calhoun, then Martin van Buren

-"Old Hickory", a war hero (relatable, likable)
-spoils system of awarding federal office to supporters
-believed anyone was fit to govern

Martin van Buren (Democrat)

3/4/1837 - 3/3/1841

-chosen by Jackson to be his successor
-had panic of 1837 dumped on him
-also rebellions in Canada, loud abolitionists in north

William Henry Harrison (Whig)

3/4/1841 - 4/3/1841

VP John Tyler (Tippecanoe and Tyler too!)

died after 1 month... #oops

John Tyler (Whig/Democrat?)

4/4/1841 - 3/3/1845

-went against most Whig ideals
-more Democratic

James K Polk (Democrat)

3/4/1845 - 3/3/1849

-pro expansion platform

4 points for presidency:
1. lowered tariff
2. restoration of treasury
3. acquisition of California
4. settlement of Oregon

Zachary Taylor (Whig)

3/4/1849 - 7/9/1850

VP Millard Fillmore

Whig Party

died in office

Millard Fillmore

7/10/1850 - 3/4/1853

Franklin Pierce (Democrat)

3/4/1853 - 3/3/1857

Democratic Party

James Buchanan

3/4/1857 - 3/3/1861

Democratic Party

Abraham Lincoln (Republican)

3/4/1861 - 4/15/1865

VP Hannibal Hamlin, Andrew Johnson

Republican Party

Andrew Johnson

4/16/1865 - 3/3/1869

Ulysses S. Grant (Republican)

3/4/1869 - 3/3/1877

-wins by "waving the bloody shirt", support of African Americans

Rutherford B. Hayes (Repub)

March 4, 1877 - March 3, 1881

-"The Great Unknown"
-governor of Ohio

James Garfield (Repub)

March 4, 1881 - September 19, 1881

-narrow victory in 1880 election
-is assassinated mid-term (1881) after becoming entangled in political conflict

Chester Arthur (Repub)

Sept 20, 1881 - March 4, 1885

-was a Stalwart
-Senator Roscoe Conkling was a nemesis
-however, was tough on fraud
-distanced himself from Stalwarts
-angered powerful Republicans

Grover Cleveland (Dem)

March 5, 1885 - March 4, 1889

-first democratic prez since Buchanan 24 years ago
-proponent of laissez-faire economy, small gov't
-at first, favored cause of reformers
-fights for lower tariff to fix huge gov't surplus

Benjamin Harrison (Repub)

March 5, 1889 - March 4, 1893

-Republicans bought votes to win
-issue of election was the tariff

Grover Cleveland AGAIN (Dem)

March 5, 1893 - March 4, 1897

Political Parties

Democratic-Republicans

1793 - 1821

original beliefs:
-JEFFERSON
-rule by the INFORMED masses
-friendliness toward extension of democracy
-weak central gov./states' rights
-STRICT interpretation of constitution
-pro-French
-get rid of national debt
-free speech, press
-support came from agrarians in South, Southwest

Federalists

1793 - 1817

beliefs at the start:
-rule by the "best people"
-strong central government
-LOOSE construction
-concentration of wealth was in the interest of capitalistic enterprise
-protective tariffs
-pro-British
-powerful central bank
-restrictions on free speeck, press
-support came from Atlantic seaboard (north)
-HAMILTON

--> died out after War of 1812

Democrats

1828 - 1854

-Jeffersonian values
-states' rights
-strict construction
-free trade
-opposed to monopolies, Bank, tariffs
-support came from south, west, etc.

Whigs

1830 - 1852

-Hamiltonian values
-in favor of American System, industrialization
-strict construction
-opposed to immorality
-support comes from "old stock", New England, etc.

Anti-Masons

1832

third party enters the fray for the first time

Liberty Party

1840

Know-Nothings

1850

antiforeignist natives

Republicans

1854 - 1870

-against slavery expansion

Liberal Republicans

1872

-upset w/ corruption in Republican party
-nominate Horace Greeley (NY times editor)

Populist Party

1892

-represented agrarians, workers
-demanded inflation, gov't control over railroads, etc.

-ended up a racist mess

Colonial History

Columbus "discovers" America

1492

by accident, of course

Protestant Reformation begins

1517

Cortés lands in Mexico

1519

and proceeds to annihilate Aztecan people, push north, build empire

Spain controls central/south America

1519 - 1600

British and Spanish armadas clash

1538

marks downturn of Spanish colonial power in N. America, England's rise as international power

Jamestown, VA founded

1607

-First permanent English colony in America
-corporate charter --> goes bankrupt --> royal charter
-people struggled until John Rolfe saves their asses with tobaccoo

First Africans arrive in Virginia

1619

Mayflower lands in Plymouth

1620

-about 100 people, all Puritans
-drew up Mayflower Compact, a constitution of sorts

New Netherland founded by Dutch

1624

Maryland founded

1624

-proprietary charter
-religious refuge for Catholics
-Act of Toleration passed in 1649

Massachusetts Bay Colony founded

1630

-founded by Puritans; meant to be perfect model of Puritan society (think the Puritan Dilemma, John Winthrop, etc.)

Halfway Covenant

1662

Carolina founded

1670

-North Carolina splits in 1712
-conflict with Indians: Tuscarora War in 1711 (NC), Yamasee War in 1715 (SC)

Bacon's Rebellion

1676

unhappy frontiersmen rebel against haughty plantation owners

Mass expansion of slavery

1680 - 1690

caused by:
-rising wages in England (less IS's)
-rebellious indentured servants (Bacon's)
-Royal African Co. loses charter in 1698

Pennsylvania founded

1681

Dominion of New England

1686

created by royal government in England to protect against Indians and enforce Navigation Acts

Glorious Revolution in England

1688 - 1689

-Dominion of New England collapsed
-salutary neglect

Georgia founded

1733

-started as buffer for southern states against Spanish and French
-began with slavery illegal

First Great Awakening begins

1734

-caused by waning religious zeal
-Jonathan Edwards, George Whitfield, etc.
-emphasis on direct, emotional spirituality

Albany Congress held

1754

English calls it to try to bolster colonial unity, keep Indians on their side
--> fails to be adapted by colonies

French & Indian War

1756 - 1763

also called 7 Years' War
between Britain and France (w/ Indian allies) in North America
results:
-expulsion of French from N. America

Proclamation of 1763

1763

stopped colonists from expanding west past Appalachians due to Indian threat (Pontiac's rebellion)
-colonists very very angry

Stamp Act

1765

"taxation without representation"

Townshend Acts

1767

-placed light duty on some imports
-largely ignored by colonists
-forced GB to send troops to America

eventually --> Boston Massacre (1770)

first committee of correspondence formed

1773

-kept up communication of revolutionary ideas
-colonial unity

First Continental Congress

1774

-unified the colonists more officially

Revolutionary War!

1775 - 1783

Lexington and Concord

April 1775

"shot heard round the world"

Second Continental Congress

May 1775

Battle of Bunker Hill

May 1775

-George III declares colonies in rebellion, reacts harshly, rejecting the Olive Branch Petition

Common Sense published

1776

-very influential at convincing colonists of need for independence

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776

Battle of Trenton

December 26, 1776

Battle of Saratoga

1777

-convinces French to ally with colonists
-helped boost morale

War becomes international

1778

French offer alliance

February 1778

crucial to colonist victory

American morale VERY low

1780 - October 1781

Battle of Yorktown

October 1781

yay! basically the end, though fighting continues for a year

Treaty of Paris signed

1783

-US recognized as independent country