Europe Late 1700s to Early 1900s


Agricultural Revolution

1701 - 1773

The agricultural revolution was a period of agricultural development between the 18th century and the end of the 19th century, which saw a massive and rapid increase in agricultural productivity and vast improvements in farm technology.

Enclosure Movement

1760 - 1832

Enclosure Movement: Turnips would be planted because the Nitrogen will help plants grow. They take common land away and “Fence in previously open land”

1765 Spinning Jenny; Water Frame


Spinning Jenny: A simple, inexpensive, hand-powering spinning machine created by James Hargreaves in 1765.
Water Frame: A spinning machine created by Richard Arkwright that had a capacity of several hundred spindles and used waterpower; it therefore required a larger and more specialized mill- a factory.

1769 Steam Engine


Steam Engines: A breakthrough invention by Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705 that burned coal to produce steam, which was then used to operate a pump; the early models were superseded by James Watt’s more efficient steam engine, patented in 1769.

1776 "Wealth of Nations"


Adam Smith wrote the book "wealth of Nations" that was considered the first great work in political economics. The science of rules for the production, accumulation, distribution and consumption of wealth. It spilled out CAPITALISM. It also talked alot about laissez-faire, which is not letting the government mess with economy: "To leave it alone and let it fix itself."

1776 Mercantilism


Mercantilism is economic nationalism (policies aimed at protecting and developing a country's economy) for the purpose of building a wealthy and powerful state. This is the opposite of capitalism because mercantilism is where the state or king controls trade and the exports and imports. The King's Fifth is where the king gets 20% of profit.

1780- 1850 IR and Population Growth

1780 - 1850

Industrial Revolution and accompanying population boom in GB

1793 Cotton Gin


Cotton Gin: Events a machine that picks the seeds out of the cotton. It allowed them to grow more cotton. But slavery goes up because they need the cotton growers. Labor Slave

1798 Iron Law of Wages


Iron Law of Wages: Theory proposed by English economist David Ricardo suggesting that the pressure of population growth prevents wages from rising over the subsistence level.
Not sure about date

1798 Essay on the Principle of Population


Thomas Malthus: (1766- 1834) Wrote the ‘Essay on the Principle of Population’, Pessimistic about population growth and said pop. would always grow faster than the food supply. Saying war, famine and disease were prudential restraints.

1799 Combination Acts

1799 - 1824

Combination Act: English laws passed in 1799 that outlawed unions and strikes, favoring capitalist business people over skilled artisans. Bitterly resented and widely disregarded many craft guilds, the acts were repealed by Parliament in 1824.

1812 Luddities


Luddities: Group of handicraft workers who attacked factories in northern England in 1812 and after, smashing the new machines that they believed were putting them out of work.

1814-15 Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

A meeting of the Quadruple Alliance- Russia, Prussia, Austria and Great Britain- and France held in 1814-15 to fashion a general peace settlement that attempted to redraw Europe's political map after the defeat of the Napoleonic France.

1815 Gap between Europe and England


The industrial gap between continental Europe and England widens

After 1815 Socialism


A backlash against the emergence of individualism and the fragmentation of society, and a move toward international cooperation and a sense of community; the key ideas were economic planning, greater economic equality, and state regulation of property.

After 1815 Nationalism


The idea that each people had its own genius and its own specific unity, which manifested itself especially in a common language and history, and often led to the desire for an independent political state.

1815 Liberalism


A philosophy whose principal ideas were equality and liberty; liberals demanded representative government and equality before the law as well as such individual freedoms as freedom of the press, freedom of speech, assembly, and arbitrary arrest.

1830 Rocket


Rocket: The name given to George Stephenson’s effective locomotive that was first tested in 1830 on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway at sixteen miles per hour.

1830 Industrialization of Belgium


Industrialized banks promote rapid industrialization in Belgium

1833 Factory Act


Factory Act of 1833:English Law that led to a sharp decline in the employment of children over age nine could work and requiring younger children to attend factory-run elementary schools.

1842 Mines Act


Mines Act of 1842: English law prohibiting underground work for all women and girls as well as for boys under 10.

1844 "The Condition of the Working Class"


Friedrich Engels, Middle class German published in 1844, ‘The Condition of the Working Class in England’. The new poverty of industrial workers was worse than the old poverty of cottage workers and agricultural laborers. Culprit: Industrial capitalism, with its relentless competition and its constant technical change. It was and influential charge of middle class exploitation and increasing worker poverty was embellished by Karl Marx and other socialists.

1845-51 Ireland Potato Famine

1845 - 1851

The great Famine occurs in Ireland. Many Irish leave to different countries.

1848 "The Communist Manifesto"


The bible of socialism! SAys that one Class has always exploited the other, and, with the advent of modern industry, society was split more clearly than ever before. Between the bourgeoisie ( the middle class) and the proletariat (modern working class). In the book he says class identity trumped national identity. Written with the help of Friedrich Engels.

1850 Separate Spheres


A gender division of labor with the wife at home as mother and homemaker and the husband as wage earner.

1851 Crystal Palace


Crystal Palace: The location of the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London, an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron.

1854-70 Development of Germ Theory

1854 - 1870

Germ Theory: Contagion of disease was spread through filth, not by breathing in bad odors of decay and putrefying excrement. Pasteur and others had demonstrated the connection between germs and disease.
Bacterial Revolution: Over next twenty years researchers identified organisms responsible for diseases, leading to effective vaccines. Doctors also applied germ theory in hospitals by sterilizing everything.

1857 Great Sepoy Rebellion


Indian soldiers revolted against the British. Sepoy's were infuriated by the British use of animal fats of cows and pigs to grease rifle cartridges which was sacred to their religion, high tax rates, and low-caste soldiers in the army. This made them start a rebellion.

1866-71 Unification of Germany

1866 - 1871

Germany joins together and is united as one Country.

1870-71 Franco- Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871: The last war of unification. French declare war against Prussia because of Ems Dispatch was a telegram edited by Bismarck that insulted the French ambassador; inflamed public opinion on both sides. Prussians defeated French, and all states were declared under Prussian control.
Alsace Lorraine: French land that was gained because of the war

1870 Imperialism


Imperialism: When Powerful Countries (e.g.: Great Britain) try to colonize, control the political, economic and social issues of less industrialized countries. Stronger countries pretty much take control of smaller countries. AND The policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies; the extension or imposition of power, authority, or influence. EG: The British are imperializing Africa.

1880- 1914 Scramble For Africa

1880 - 1914

Europe had caught "african fever".

Berlin Conference of 1884

1884 - 1885

Berlin Conference of 1884: European leaders met in Berlin to discuss the colonization of Africa. They said that one country could not control all of Africa, so they divided it up. This meeting was held by Otto Von Bismarck. And no Africans were present at the meeting.

1899 "White Man's Burden"


Poem written by Kipling urged the U.S. to take up the “burden” of empire, as had Britain and other European nations. Published in the February, 1899 issue of McClure’s Magazine, the poem coincided with the beginning of the Philippine-American War and U.S. Senate ratification of the treaty that placed Puerto Rico, Guam, Cuba, and the Philippines under American control.

1910 Mexican Revolution


US army in 1915 are chasing bandits, rio grande river.
Border between texas

1914 Schlieffen Plan


Schlieffen Plan: A military plan to attack Paris and then control France and then use all of their military power against Russia. This planned failed, because Belgium fought with France. This allowed GB and France to prepare for the German soldiers.

The Three Wars:

Battles of the Marne, Verdun and Somme: All wars were on the Western Front. Wars fought on French soil. 2 million killed in total. Saved France and Paris.
1st Battle of Marne- Fought on the outskirts of France. Franco-British against Germans. Germans defeated.
2nd Battle of Marne- Allied powers send counterattack
on Germans. Germans defeated. Great number of casualties on both sides.
Battle of Verdun- Fought in the city of Verdun. Known as the "war of attrition" (goal is to not gain territory, but wipe out as many of the enemy as possible). Fought between Germany and France. Germans defeated. *Known as the longest battle of WWI.
Battle of Somme- Fought near the river of Somme. Fought between French and Germans. 1.2 million killed.

1914 Christmas Eve and Day


Christmas Eve, 1914: Both sides declined to fight on Christmas and Christmas Eve, 1914. They even caroled together in no man’s land

1915 Lusitania


Lusitania: Boat travelling from USA to GB. There were Americans aboard the ship. The ship was sunk by German U- boats. That is when USA entered the war on the French side and Germans promised to stop submarine war. 128 Amercians died.

1915 USA Enter War


US entry into WWI. Carnal John J Pershing brings troops over.
Hold the line, charge the Germans
Germans call Americans the “devil dogs”

1915 Unrestricted Submarine Warfare


Unrestricted submarine warfare: Germans said they would sink all ships that entered British water. Even if it was neutral.

1917 Russian Revolution


Russians leave the Eastern Front and abandon war.

1917 Bolshevik Revolution


Russians leave Eastern Front and return to Russia.
Germans race to the Western Front. They try to beat America. They give it all they got (1918)

1918 Armistice

November 11, 1918

Armistice: an agreement to stop fighting. The armistice became effective November 11, 1918. The French, British, and Americans called for it. The Germans were forced to sign.

1919 Treaty of Versailles

June 28, 1919

Treaty of Versailles: the treaty that was signed after World War 1 by the allies that dealt with the division of Germany’s assets, their demilitarization . Everyone was there except Germans and Austrians. Germany in turmoil, Russia in Turmoil, Austria- Hungary turmoil


Adam Smith

1723 - 1790

Known as "Capitalism's Founding Father." Free market Capitalism also known as Laissez-faire capitalism were ideas expressed in his book "The Wealth of the Nations". It was mostly affected toward the beorgeoise people and during 1820s to 1830s

Josiah Wedgwood

1730 - 1795

Josiah Wedgwood: Wedgwood was a sulpturist and was a chemist and made glazes. He Opened his own factory and captured a superious fashion, taste, and quality to maintain a dominant market position.

James Watt

1736 - 1819

James Watt: Scottish (1736- 1819) man who noticed that the steam engine’s wate of energy could be reduced by adding a separate condenser (1769). He greatly increased the efficiency of the steam engine.

Eli Whitney

1765 - 1825

Invented the cotton gin

Thomas Malthus

1766 - 1834

Thomas Malthus: (1766- 1834) Wrote the ‘Essay on the Principle of Population’, Pessimistic about population growth and said pop. would always grow faster than the food supply. Saying war, famine and disease were prudential restraints.

David Ricardo

1772 - 1823

David Ricardo: (1772- 1823) Economist spelled out Malthus’s pessimistic implications in the Iron Law of Wages.

Charles Darwin

1809 - 1882

Most influential of all nineteenth century thinkers. Theory of evolution (all life had gradually evolved from a common origin; as applied by thinkers in many fields, the idea stressed gradual change and continuous adjustment). He wrote about evolution in his book: “On the Origin of Species by the Means of Natural Selection”.
His theory inspired many such as Herbert Spencer and Karl Marx

Otto Von Bismarck

1815 - 1898

He was the chancellor of Prussia. He became chancellor of Germany who had total power, and lead Prussia to victory against Austria and France. He was responsible for the unification of the German empire! Also he was incharge of the Berlin Conference.

“Blood And Iron”: A policy encouraged and somewhat forced by Otto von Bismarck; using war to unite German states under one rule. Bismarck believed that "blood and iron" were needed in a country to have success and leadership, and could not be achieved by speech and representative democracy.
Blood: represented the military/fighting while the
Iron: represented the industry of Germany.
Realpolitick: Politics developed by Bismarck that made decisions that were practical rather than moral, where there was no legislature. Decisions were based off of what was best for the country, rather than the people. The idea of "Power over principles".
Prussia: A former state of Germany that was ruled by Bismarck. Prussia united Germany by winning three wars against France, Denmark and Austria.

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

He was a German capitalist and socialist. He wrote the "Communist Manifesto" and it emphasized class struggle (class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes) and capitalism. Marx and Engels travelled all around Europe encouraging and writing about capitalism.

Herbert Spencer

1820 - 1903

English philosopher thought of social darwinism
Social Darwinism: The application of the theory of biological evolution to human affairs, it sees the human race as driven to ever-greater specialization and progress by an unending economic struggle that determines the survival of the fittest.

Friedrich Engels

1820 - 1895

Friedrich Engels: Middle class German published in 1844, ‘The Condition of the Working Class in England’. Revolutionary and colleague of Karl Marx

Louis Pasteur

1822 - 1895

Louis Pasteur: (1822- 1895) A French chemist who came up with the germ theory

King Leopold of Belgium

1835 - 1909

Took over the Congo Free State. He promised Christianity, Commerce and civilization. This was not granted. The people of Africa were treated terribly. Congo Free State was also known as the "Red Rubber Colony". This is because the main trade used to be ivory but transitioned to rubber.

Cecil Rhodes

1853 - 1902

A British man who travelled to Africa and had to do with the diamond and gold mining factory. Monopolized it!

Kaiser Wilhelm II

1859 - 1941

Kaiser Wilhelm II: Grandson of Queen Victoria, he kicked Bismarck out of his position as chancellor and led the Germans in the war. When Germany lost, he was dismissed from his spot as ruler.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand

1863 - 1914

Heir to the throne of Austria- Hungary. He was murdered by a Serbian. Serbians were under Austrian- Hungarian control. His murdering started WWI.

Rudyard Kipling

1865 - 1936

Wrote "White Man's Burden" and many other books!