US History

Final Exam 5/28/13!! Midterm Exam 12/19/12!

Midterm

Units 1-5

Algonquian*

1000 - 1100

The Algonquians were a language group in the Northeast in the 11th century.
- Loved hunting and farming
- No confederacy before 15th century
- Generally autonomous (self-governed, no main control)
-spanning entire NE to Southern VA
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Iroquois Confederacy*

1142

The Iroquois Confederacy was a leading body in the Northeast in 1142.
- Made to control persistent violence b/t the 5 Iroquois chiefdoms of the 11th century. 5 tribes work together
- Warfare b/t 5 chiefdoms prohibited
- "Replace revenge with payment & gift exchange"
- Fine w/ war against neighboring Iroquois (Hurons, Eries, etc.)
-led by chief Deganawida
-group of Iroquois nations set up to prohibit war
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Columbus comes to America

1492

(From Spain)

Isabella's Pigs*

1493

Isabella's Pigs were pigs sent to the New World in 1493.
- Disease, Religion, Food & Fertility, Fertilizer
ST: Took out large # of Indian pop. (Spread through forests, infected animals, spread to Indians, killed them with new illnesses)
LT: Spanish have no competition, more power
Theme: pursuit of happiness (Spain expanding)

Martin Luther/Protestantism

1517

Church of England*

1534

The Church of England was a church in England in 1534.
- Protestant
- Founded by Henry VIII who couldn't divorce his wife under the Pope so he decided to create his own church
- Makes official religion of England = Protestantism
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Bloody Mary's rule

1553 - 1558

Tries to make England Catholic again

Elizabeth I

1558
  • Protestant, religiously tolerant
  • Tries to return England to Protestantism
  • Sends pirates to Ireland to destroy their Catholics

Huguenots*

1562

The Huguenots were a religious group in 1517 in France.
- French Protestants
- Go to New World 1562, form Fort Caroline 1564
-first French colonies in north america
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Fort Caroline Massacre

September 1565

Spanish defeat French at night in < 1hr because they are not Catholic (the French were Calvinists)

English go to America

1584

Set up Fort Roanoke, fail

Defeat of Spanish Armada

1588

By English, starts war between Spain and England

The Virginia Company*

1607

The Virginia Company was a group of investors in 1607 in Jamestown, VA.
-the "pimps" of the New World...would send people to the New World to get land and explore as they stay back in England
-made Jamestown (first permanent settlement in North America)
ST:
LT:
Theme: pursuit of happiness?/expansion

Mayflower Compact*

1609

The Mayflower Compact was a compact in 1620 in the New World.
-drafted by William Bradford
-first governing document of Plymouth Colony aka first governing document of the new world
-governed the pilgrims/separatists and said that all males have a say and work together
ST:
LT:
Theme:

House of Burgesses*

1619

The House of Burgesses was a legislature in 1619 in Virginia.
-attempt to encourage immigration
-Virginians could elect representatives
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Puritans*

1629

The Puritans were a religious group in 1629 in the New World.
- sailed from England on the Mayflower in Sept 1620
- followers of John Calvin
- Want to purify/reform the English church from within
-appealed to merchants, entrepreneurs, commercial farmers
- Part of Protestantism
- Sent to New World by Royal charter
- Want to go back to England; influence from within
- Self-governed by elected governor, magistrates (people affiliated with crown), delegates (regular people)
ST:
LT:
Theme: religion/expnasion

Roger Williams*

1636

Roger Williams was a dissenter in 1636 in Rhode Island.
- Supported religious tolerance [for Native Americans]
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Thomas Hooker

1636
  • Dissenter from Connecticut
  • Believed in suffrage for non-church members -banished from puritan society

Anne Hutchinson

1637
  • Dissenter
  • Believed that everyone can talk to God, God already knows Saints, etc. -banished from puritan society

Salem Witch Trials

1692 - 1693

1692 - Group of girls "bewitched," people freak out, tons of trials about bewitching occur, 20 accused "witches" die
1693 - Colonial governor ends persecutions
("Victims" tend to have no husband, no church, no kids)

Albany Conference

1754
  • Failed meeting b/t Brits & Indians in NY (Iroquois walked out)
  • Ben Franklin's Plan of Union rejected

Plan of Union

1754
  • Presented by Ben Franklin at Albany Conference (See "Albany Conference")
  • A proposed intercolonial union
  • Every colony rejected it (fearful)
  • Brits = suspicious

Seven Years' War*

1756 - 1763

The Seven Years' War was a global war lasting from 1756-1763.
- Europe, Asia, America
- Known as "French & Indian War" in America
- First war to start in America
- Ended with defeat of France
- Increased British/American conflict (British: American demands are too high; Americans: Scared of British "slavery")
-between britain support by Prussia and France supported by Spain #globalwar
ST:
LT:
Theme:

The Great Awakening*

1760 - 1770

Treaty of 1763

1763
  • Ends Seven Years' War
  • In Paris
  • Spain removes involvement (doesn't care enough)
  • Brits reserve some land for Indians

Sugar Act*

1764

The Sugar Act was a British law in the New World in 1764.
- Didn't affect lots of people (sugar = luxury)
- Taxes colonies to help pay for war
-raise revenues in US colonies
-increase restricts on colonial commerce
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Virtual representation*

1765

Virtual representation was a British excuse in 1765 in the New World.
- Excuse for lack of American representation in Parliament
- Said Parliament represented the interests of the nation as a whole, not of the particular district that had elected them
But Americans want actual representation! A Direct relationship b/t people and leaders.
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Stamp Act

1765
  • British law
  • Affected everyone! (Tax on paper and necessities)
  • Americans have no say; see "virtual representation"

Nonimportation*

1765

Nonimportation was an American response in 1765 in America.
- Boycott of certain English imports
- Brits lose money b/c of colonist boycotts
ST:
LT:
Theme:

"Bloody Massacre"

March 1770
  • Boston
  • A couple people died
  • Paul Revere releases propaganda making it look bloody, horrifying, "butchering"
  • Makes people angry!!

Tea Act

1773
  • By Parliament
  • Permitted East India Company to sell through agents in America without paying the duty customarily collected in Britain
  • Lowered the retail price See "Boston Tea Party" (triggered Boston Massacre)

Committees of Correspondence

March 1773
  • Pre-Continental Congress Helped:
  • Share info
  • Shape public opinion
  • Build cooperation

The Boston Tea Party*

December 1773

The Boston Tea Party was a revolt in 1773 in America.
- Bostonians (disguised as Indians) destroyed 18,000 pounds ($) worth of tea
- To prevent payment of the duty on it
- Tea belonged to British East India Company
- First action of its kind (but other tea parties followed)
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Loyalists*

1774

The Loyalists were a group of colonists in the New World in 1774.
- Against a war with England
- Opinions suppressed by Continental Congress
- don't want to mess with king/would not be punished as harsh
- suspicious of patriots
- protection/defense against native americans
- afraid of slaves
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Continental Congress*

1774

The Continental Congress was a legislature in 1774 in the New World.
- Created committees for each county, city, and town
- Chosen by voters
- Governing body for the colonies
-nonimportation and non consumption of British goods but prohibition on export of colonial stuff to Brits
ST:
LT:
Theme:

First Continental Congress

1774
  • Meeting of delegates from most of the colonies
  • Response to Coercive Acts

Quartering Act

1774

Intolerable Acts

1774

Patriots

1774
  • Colonists supporting a war w/ England Why?
  • Taxes
  • Quartering
  • Representation!
  • Self-government
  • Impressment
  • affirm rights of colonists
  • want land
  • realize Great Britain and colonial differences

Lexington and Concord*

1775

Second Continental Congress*

1775

Patrick Henry's speech

1775

"Give me liberty, or give me death"

Declaration of Independence*

1776

-intro explains why declaring independence
- says if government does not protect life liberty or pursuit of happiness you have the right to destroy government and when there are repeated wrongdoings of government you can overthrow it
- colonists declare it is there right to declare independence
-the 2nd continental congress --> common sense --> declaration of independence
Theme: liberty

Common Sense*

1776

Thomas Paine
-blames the king for America's problems not parliament
- doesn't blame parliament because patriots want to be represented in parliament
- common sense breaks emotional ties to GB and helps patriots be ready to declare independence

The people, the Best Governors* (pamphlet)

1776

"The people, the Best Governors" was a pamphlet in New England in 1776.
- Wanted state control of community/town meetings, personal tax rates, militia, schools and churches, and local economy
- Said states to have coordination b/t communities
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Declaratory Act

1776

"Unthinking Many"*

1776

The "unthinking many" was a group of conservative Americans in 1776.
- Believed in a balanced government
- Uneducated, poor, etc.
ST:
LT:
Theme:

New Jersey Constitution

1776

France recognizes American independence

1777

Articles of Confederation*

November 1777

The Articles of Confederation was a document in the US in 1777.
Not ratified until 1781 b/c MD, goes into effect March 1781.

Powers of Central Gov't:
1. No national judiciary
2. No separate executive branch
- President elected annually by Congress (could only be in office max 1 year out of 3)
- Delegates served annually (could only serve max 3 years out of 6)
- Each state = 1 vote
- Simple majority for votes
- 9 state agreement for "major questions"
3. Congress sole national authority
- Foreign affairs, war and peace, military/armed forces, finance (raise loans, issue bills of credit, establish a coinage, regulate trade w/ Indians), final authority in interstate jurisdictional disputes
4. No Congressional authority to raise troops or impose taxes
- Guaranteed sovereignty of individual states (they get all powers not given to Congress)

ST:
LT:
Theme:

Continental currency*

1781

Continental currency was a failed currency in the US in 1781.
- Worthless
- States could have their own currency so no one used Continental currency, made economy weak
- No way to raise $
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Land Ordinance of 1785

1785

Shays' Rebellion*

August 1786

Shays' Rebellion was an uprising in 1786 in Northampton, MA.
- Farmers
- Named after Daniel Shays
- Caused by economic crisis in US
- Started in MA, moved across US
ST: Directly affected post-war economy
LT: Showed that colonists, when faced with an economic problem, sought for a political solution
Theme:

Annapolis Convention*

September 1786

The Annapolis Convention was a convention in 1786 in Annapolis, MD.
- Delegates from each state invited by VA legislature (but not a "legal" meeting (aka, not congressmen); people looking for change in government)
- Passed resolution to revise Articles of Confederation
- Congress agrees to endorse it a few weeks later, conference to be held May 1787 in Philadelphia, PA
- On the surface: a simple update
- Really: a major overhaul to considerably strengthen national government and consolidate power in a strong central government
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Federalists*

1787 - June 1788

The Federalists were a unified group of people in the US in 1787.
- Supporters of new constitution
- Defends rights of people
- More protected
- Change = more possible
- Want a stronger central government, power spread evenly, w/ some restraints
- Mostly urban/commercial (more unified)
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Anti-Federalists*

1787 - June 1788

The Federalists were a group of people in the US in 1787.
- Not unified
- Against the ratification of the constitution
- Feared too much power in central gov't and weakening autonomy of local communities and states
- "Can't say 'we the people;' 'we the states'"
- Nothing was wrong before
- Property in jeopardy
- Mostly rural (not centralized)
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Northwest Ordinance*

1787

The Northwest Ordinance was legislature in the US in 1787.
- Prohibited slavery in Northwest
- Provided a model for the incorporation of future territories into the union as co-equal states
ST:
LT:
Theme:

New Jersey Plan

1787
  • Presented by William Paterson (NJ) Plan:
  • Increase powers of central government
  • Keep single-house Congress

The three-fifths rule*

1787

Part of Great Compromise (See "The Great Compromise")

Constitutional Convention

1787
  • Madison and VA delegates draft "Virginia Plan," set agenda for convention
  • William Paterson presents "New Jersey Plan"
  • The Great Compromise is presented

Virginia Plan

1787
  • Presented by Madison and VA delegates Plan:
  • Remove Articles of Confederation
  • Create "consolidated government" that can tax and enforce laws directly (w/o initial state approval)

The Great Compromise*

May 1787

The Great Compromise was a compromise in 1787 in Philadelphia, PA.
- At Constitutional Convention

Plan:
1. Representation proportional to House population
2. Equal representation to each state in Senate
3. Electoral College
[Overall: Create strong national gov't while still providing an important role for the states; Also: Conflict about slavery, resolved by including a provision preventing federal restriction on slave importation (lasted 20 years)]

  • Approved September 17, 1787
  • Congress agrees to call special (9 vote majority) ratifying convention in each state

ST:
LT:
Theme:

George Washington elected President

1788

Constitution is ratified

1788

Judicial review*

1789

Judicial review was an idea in the US in 1789.
- Effect of Judiciary Act of 1789
- The idea that courts can determine constitutionality [of a law made by any state or national] (if constitutionality is in question)
- Law is removed if determined unconstitutional
- One of many checks & balances
- Kept role of government in check by limiting power of a branch (leg)
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Samuel Slater*

1789

Indian Intercourse Act*

1790
  • Regulated trade and intercourse with Indians
  • Declared public treaties b/t US & Indians the only way to obtain Indian lands

Slater Mill

1790

Second Great Awakening*

1790 - 1800

CHECK DATE

International Shipping Trade

1790 - 1820
  • Created strong and diversified shipbuilding industry
  • Coastal cities increased substantially
  • Rapid urbanization = "real" economic growth (more opportunities)
  • Made farmers make food for urban population

Bank of the United States*

1791

Bill of Rights*

1791

The Bill of Rights was a set of amendments in the US in 1791.
- First 10 amendments to Constitution
- Gave rights to individual
- Written by James Madison in VA
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Cotton gin*

1793

Federalist Party*

1796
  • Wanted a strong federal gov't
  • Wanted to keep friendship w/ British
  • Against French Revolution
  • Mainly backed by commercial economy workers
  • Minority party after 1800
  • Regionally strong in New England
  • Leader = Hamilton
  • "Loose constructionist" (interpret Constitution, expand, not strict) ST: LT: Theme:

Democratic-Republican Party

1796
  • Strict constructionist (powers in constitution = ONLY powers)
  • Formed against Federalists
  • Did not want strong federal power; STATES RIGHTS!
  • Supported French Revolution
  • Did not want a friendship with British
  • Mainly southern planters and northern farmers supporting
  • Majority party after 1800
  • Leader = Jefferson ST: LT: Theme:

Jefferson vs. Hamilton election

1796

Election of 1800

1800

The Market Revolution*

1800 - 1850

Free labor*

1800 - 1850

CHECK DATE

Paternalistic ideology*

1800 - 1850

CHECK DATE

Slave society*

1800 - 1860

American System

1800 - 1850

CHECK DATE

Yeoman*

1800 - 1850

CHECK DATE

Thomas Jefferson elected President

1801

Slave revolt in Haiti

1801

Marbury v. Madison*

1803
  • Sparked by Jefferson's refusal to recognize Adams' "midnight judges"
  • Marbury and 3 other appointees sue Madison to receive their commissions for their offices, (D-R) Congress repeals acts before case goes to trial
  • Justice marshall rules that the duty of the courts is to "say what the law is"
  • Defended independence of judiciary, showing 3-way balance of power in branches
  • Made Supreme Court a powerful nationalizing force (states' rights supporters = upset) ST: LT: Theme:

The Louisiana Purchase*

April 1803
  • US buys entire Louisiana territory from Napoleon in Paris
  • Largest peaceful acquisition of territory in US history
  • More than doubled size of US ST: LT: Theme:

Thomas Jefferson reelected

1804

Russo-CA trade

1806 - 1841

Embargo Act*

1807

The National Road*

1808

James Madison elected President

1808

Embargo Act repealed

1809

War Hawks

1810

Francis Cabot Lowell tours British textile factories

1810

War of 1812*

1812 - 1814

James Madison reelected

1812

Treaty of Ghent

1814

Ends War of 1812 between America and UK

Nullification

1814

Part of Hartford Convention (see "Hartford Convention")

The Hartford Convention*

1814

The American System of Manufactures*

1816

Tariff of 1816*

1816

James Monroe elected President

1816

Era of Good Feelings*

1817 - 1823

The American Colonization Society*

1817

Panic of 1819*

1819

Missouri Crisis

1819 - 1821

Upper South*

1820 - 1860

The Missouri Compromise*

1820

Tejanos*

1821

Empresarios*

1821

Stephen Austin becomes first American empresario in Texas

1821

Mexico gains independence from Spain

1821

Mexico grants land to Moses, Austin

1821

Monroe Doctrine

1823

John Quincy Adams elected President

1824

The Erie Canal*

1825

Temperance*

1826

Public school movement in Massachusetts

1827

Centrists win control of Mexican government

1828

The Democratic Party*

1828

Tariff of 1828*

1828

Corrupt bargain*

1828

Andrew Jackson elected President

1828

Mexico outlaws slavery

1828

Nullification crisis

1828 - 1832

Maysville Road Bill of 1830*

1830

Vetoed by Andrew Jackson

Indian Removal Act

1830

Nat Turner*

1831

William Lloyd Garrison*

1831

South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification*

1832

Lowell Mills*

1832

Tariff of 1832*

1832

The Bank War*

1832

General Santa Ana elected President of Mexico

1833

The Whig Party*

1834

Female Moral Reform Society*

1834

British abolish slavery in their Caribbean colonies

1834

Texas revolts against Mexico

1835

Tejanos and Americans form a military alliance

1835

"gag-rule"

1836

Battle of the Alamo

1836

General Santa Ana grants Texas independence

1836

Martin van Buren elected President

1836

Mexican Congress rejects Texas independence

1836

Specie Circular issued by Andrew Jackson

1836

Republic of Texas formed

1836

Congress rejects Texas statehood application

1837

Grimké sisters

1837

Panic of 1837

1837

Trail of Tears*

1838

Johann Sutter becomes a Mexican citizen

1839

Liberty Party*

1840

Oregon Fever*

1840 - 1850

Liberty party

1840

William Henry Harrison elected President

1840

(Whig)

Pres. Harrison dies

1841

John Tyler becomes President

1841

James Polk elected President

1844

(Democrat, elected on expansionist platform)

JC Calhoun calls for annexation of Texas

1844

Manifest Destiny*

1845

-John O' Sullivan believed Americans had god given right to expand
-doctrine operated as self serving justification for territorial aggrandizement (enhancing the reputation of manifest destiny beyond what is justified by facts)
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Texas annexed to America as a slave state

1845

Mass Irish Immigration begins

1845

(Beginning of Irish Potato Famine)

Overland Trails

1845

Sutter's Americans declare California an independent state

1846

Mexican-American War*

May 1846 - 1848

-war for texas #wantmoreland

Wilmot Proviso*

August 1846

David Wilmot proposed bill that slavery be abolished in new territories
-brokedown national party system
-began slavery debate but the proviso was not passed
ST:
LT:
Theme:

Free-soil*

1848

-party and idea
-do not want blacks in new territory
- less extreme version of liberty party; abolitionist in the sense that they want new territories to be free, but all white, and are fine with leaving the south as slave states (more practical)
ST:
LT:
Theme: equality (disadvantaged groups - race)

Sutter Mill*

1848

James Sutter-Swiss settled in CA in 1839
-became Mexican citizen
-held land grant in Sacremento Valley
-1840's Bear Flag Revolt declaring independence from Mexico
-US takeover of California confirmed in Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848
-1848 James Marshall noticed flecks of gold at Sutter's Mill so all panned for gold (started gold rush)
ST:
LT:
Theme: pursuit of happiness

Declaration of Sentiments*

1848

Seneca Falls Convention*

1848

Zachary Taylor elected President

1848

(Whig)

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo*

February 1848

ended mexican american war

California Gold Rush

1849

Compromise of 1850*

1850

the 4 step compromise which:
1) admitted CA as a free state
2) allowed the residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories to decide the slavery issue for themselves
3) ended the slave trade in DC
4) passed a new fugitive slave law
-also, Texas required to cede land to new Mexico territory in return for $10 million government got debt not Texas
ST:
LT:
Theme: pursuit of happiness (expansion), equality (disadvantaged groups --> race)

Fugitive Slave Law*

1850

Part of Compromise of 1850 (See "Compromise of 1850")
-increased power of slave owners to recapture slaves
-radicalized many in the North
-required authorities in north to assist southern slave fathers and return runaway slaves
ST:
LT:
Theme: equality (disadvantaged groups --> race)

American "Know-Nothing" Party

1850

Millard Fillmore becomes President

1850

20,000 Chinese miners arrive in San Francisco

1852

Franklin Pierce elected President

1852

Gadsden Purchase*

1853

Republican Party*

1854

-emerged in aftermath of bitter controversy over Kan-Neb Act
-former whigs
-some northern democrats
-many know nothings which were an anti immigrant party formed from wreckage of whig party and some disaffected northern democrats in 1854

Kansas-Nebraska Act*

1854

-law passed creating Kansas and Nebraska territories but leaving the question of slavery open to residents thereby repealing the missouri compromise
-by allowing popular sovereignty it invalidates missouri compromise
-reorganized indian territory and opened it up to white settlement
-made the status of slavery in new territories subject to the principal of popular sovereignty
-act aroused storm of protest in North
-Stephen Douglas
ST:
LT:
Theme: pursuit of happiness (expansion)

"Bleeding Kansas" *

1856

Lecompton Constitution*

1857
  • Proslavery draft written by Kansas territorial delegates (elected by lopsided proslavery outcome in Kansas b/c illegal voting by people on Missouri border)
  • Rejected by 2 governors
  • Supported by President Buchanan
  • Decisively defeated by Congress ST: LT: Theme: equality (disadvantaged groups --> race)

Panic of 1857

1857

Dred Scott v. Sanford*

March 1857
  • Attempt by Supreme court to solve the political controversy over slavery
  • Court ruled that slaves were property (couldn't be US citizens) and government couldn't restrain free movement of property (no jurisdiction over slavery in territories)
  • Invalidated Missouri Compromise (unconstitutional)
  • Lawsuit brought by Dred Scott (slave demanding freedom based on residence in free state) ST: LT: Theme: equality (disadvantage groups --> race)

James Buchanan elected President

March 1857

Lincoln-Douglas Debates*

1858

-even though Lincoln lost the debates made him popular

Congress rejects Lecompton Constitution

1858

Final

Units 6-11