Final Exam 5/28/13!! Midterm Exam 12/19/12!
The Algonquians were a language group in the Northeast in the 11th century.
- Loved hunting and farming
- No confederacy before 15th century
- Generally autonomous (self-governed, no main control)
-spanning entire NE to Southern VA
The Iroquois Confederacy was a leading body in the Northeast in 1142.
- Made to control persistent violence b/t the 5 Iroquois chiefdoms of the 11th century. 5 tribes work together
- Warfare b/t 5 chiefdoms prohibited
- "Replace revenge with payment & gift exchange"
- Fine w/ war against neighboring Iroquois (Hurons, Eries, etc.)
-led by chief Deganawida
-group of Iroquois nations set up to prohibit war
Isabella's Pigs were pigs sent to the New World in 1493.
- Disease, Religion, Food & Fertility, Fertilizer
ST: Took out large # of Indian pop. (Spread through forests, infected animals, spread to Indians, killed them with new illnesses)
LT: Spanish have no competition, more power
Theme: pursuit of happiness (Spain expanding)
The Church of England was a church in England in 1534.
- Founded by Henry VIII who couldn't divorce his wife under the Pope so he decided to create his own church
- Makes official religion of England = Protestantism
Tries to make England Catholic again
The Huguenots were a religious group in 1517 in France.
- French Protestants
- Go to New World 1562, form Fort Caroline 1564
-first French colonies in north america
Spanish defeat French at night in < 1hr because they are not Catholic (the French were Calvinists)
Set up Fort Roanoke, fail
By English, starts war between Spain and England
The Virginia Company was a group of investors in 1607 in Jamestown, VA.
-the "pimps" of the New World...would send people to the New World to get land and explore as they stay back in England
-made Jamestown (first permanent settlement in North America)
Theme: pursuit of happiness?/expansion
The Mayflower Compact was a compact in 1620 in the New World.
-drafted by William Bradford
-first governing document of Plymouth Colony aka first governing document of the new world
-governed the pilgrims/separatists and said that all males have a say and work together
The House of Burgesses was a legislature in 1619 in Virginia.
-attempt to encourage immigration
-Virginians could elect representatives
The Puritans were a religious group in 1629 in the New World.
- sailed from England on the Mayflower in Sept 1620
- followers of John Calvin
- Want to purify/reform the English church from within
-appealed to merchants, entrepreneurs, commercial farmers
- Part of Protestantism
- Sent to New World by Royal charter
- Want to go back to England; influence from within
- Self-governed by elected governor, magistrates (people affiliated with crown), delegates (regular people)
Roger Williams was a dissenter in 1636 in Rhode Island.
- Supported religious tolerance [for Native Americans]
1692 - Group of girls "bewitched," people freak out, tons of trials about bewitching occur, 20 accused "witches" die
1693 - Colonial governor ends persecutions
("Victims" tend to have no husband, no church, no kids)
The Seven Years' War was a global war lasting from 1756-1763.
- Europe, Asia, America
- Known as "French & Indian War" in America
- First war to start in America
- Ended with defeat of France
- Increased British/American conflict (British: American demands are too high; Americans: Scared of British "slavery")
-between britain support by Prussia and France supported by Spain #globalwar
The Sugar Act was a British law in the New World in 1764.
- Didn't affect lots of people (sugar = luxury)
- Taxes colonies to help pay for war
-raise revenues in US colonies
-increase restricts on colonial commerce
Virtual representation was a British excuse in 1765 in the New World.
- Excuse for lack of American representation in Parliament
- Said Parliament represented the interests of the nation as a whole, not of the particular district that had elected them
But Americans want actual representation! A Direct relationship b/t people and leaders.
Nonimportation was an American response in 1765 in America.
- Boycott of certain English imports
- Brits lose money b/c of colonist boycotts
The Boston Tea Party was a revolt in 1773 in America.
- Bostonians (disguised as Indians) destroyed 18,000 pounds ($) worth of tea
- To prevent payment of the duty on it
- Tea belonged to British East India Company
- First action of its kind (but other tea parties followed)
The Loyalists were a group of colonists in the New World in 1774.
- Against a war with England
- Opinions suppressed by Continental Congress
- don't want to mess with king/would not be punished as harsh
- suspicious of patriots
- protection/defense against native americans
- afraid of slaves
The Continental Congress was a legislature in 1774 in the New World.
- Created committees for each county, city, and town
- Chosen by voters
- Governing body for the colonies
-nonimportation and non consumption of British goods but prohibition on export of colonial stuff to Brits
"Give me liberty, or give me death"
-intro explains why declaring independence
- says if government does not protect life liberty or pursuit of happiness you have the right to destroy government and when there are repeated wrongdoings of government you can overthrow it
- colonists declare it is there right to declare independence
-the 2nd continental congress --> common sense --> declaration of independence
-blames the king for America's problems not parliament
- doesn't blame parliament because patriots want to be represented in parliament
- common sense breaks emotional ties to GB and helps patriots be ready to declare independence
"The people, the Best Governors" was a pamphlet in New England in 1776.
- Wanted state control of community/town meetings, personal tax rates, militia, schools and churches, and local economy
- Said states to have coordination b/t communities
The "unthinking many" was a group of conservative Americans in 1776.
- Believed in a balanced government
- Uneducated, poor, etc.
The Articles of Confederation was a document in the US in 1777.
Not ratified until 1781 b/c MD, goes into effect March 1781.
Powers of Central Gov't:
1. No national judiciary
2. No separate executive branch
- President elected annually by Congress (could only be in office max 1 year out of 3)
- Delegates served annually (could only serve max 3 years out of 6)
- Each state = 1 vote
- Simple majority for votes
- 9 state agreement for "major questions"
3. Congress sole national authority
- Foreign affairs, war and peace, military/armed forces, finance (raise loans, issue bills of credit, establish a coinage, regulate trade w/ Indians), final authority in interstate jurisdictional disputes
4. No Congressional authority to raise troops or impose taxes
- Guaranteed sovereignty of individual states (they get all powers not given to Congress)
Continental currency was a failed currency in the US in 1781.
- States could have their own currency so no one used Continental currency, made economy weak
- No way to raise $
Shays' Rebellion was an uprising in 1786 in Northampton, MA.
- Named after Daniel Shays
- Caused by economic crisis in US
- Started in MA, moved across US
ST: Directly affected post-war economy
LT: Showed that colonists, when faced with an economic problem, sought for a political solution
The Annapolis Convention was a convention in 1786 in Annapolis, MD.
- Delegates from each state invited by VA legislature (but not a "legal" meeting (aka, not congressmen); people looking for change in government)
- Passed resolution to revise Articles of Confederation
- Congress agrees to endorse it a few weeks later, conference to be held May 1787 in Philadelphia, PA
- On the surface: a simple update
- Really: a major overhaul to considerably strengthen national government and consolidate power in a strong central government
The Federalists were a unified group of people in the US in 1787.
- Supporters of new constitution
- Defends rights of people
- More protected
- Change = more possible
- Want a stronger central government, power spread evenly, w/ some restraints
- Mostly urban/commercial (more unified)
The Federalists were a group of people in the US in 1787.
- Not unified
- Against the ratification of the constitution
- Feared too much power in central gov't and weakening autonomy of local communities and states
- "Can't say 'we the people;' 'we the states'"
- Nothing was wrong before
- Property in jeopardy
- Mostly rural (not centralized)
The Northwest Ordinance was legislature in the US in 1787.
- Prohibited slavery in Northwest
- Provided a model for the incorporation of future territories into the union as co-equal states
Part of Great Compromise (See "The Great Compromise")
The Great Compromise was a compromise in 1787 in Philadelphia, PA.
- At Constitutional Convention
1. Representation proportional to House population
2. Equal representation to each state in Senate
3. Electoral College
[Overall: Create strong national gov't while still providing an important role for the states; Also: Conflict about slavery, resolved by including a provision preventing federal restriction on slave importation (lasted 20 years)]
Judicial review was an idea in the US in 1789.
- Effect of Judiciary Act of 1789
- The idea that courts can determine constitutionality [of a law made by any state or national] (if constitutionality is in question)
- Law is removed if determined unconstitutional
- One of many checks & balances
- Kept role of government in check by limiting power of a branch (leg)
The Bill of Rights was a set of amendments in the US in 1791.
- First 10 amendments to Constitution
- Gave rights to individual
- Written by James Madison in VA
Ends War of 1812 between America and UK
Part of Hartford Convention (see "Hartford Convention")
Vetoed by Andrew Jackson
(Democrat, elected on expansionist platform)
-John O' Sullivan believed Americans had god given right to expand
-doctrine operated as self serving justification for territorial aggrandizement (enhancing the reputation of manifest destiny beyond what is justified by facts)
(Beginning of Irish Potato Famine)
-war for texas #wantmoreland
David Wilmot proposed bill that slavery be abolished in new territories
-brokedown national party system
-began slavery debate but the proviso was not passed
-party and idea
-do not want blacks in new territory
- less extreme version of liberty party; abolitionist in the sense that they want new territories to be free, but all white, and are fine with leaving the south as slave states (more practical)
Theme: equality (disadvantaged groups - race)
James Sutter-Swiss settled in CA in 1839
-became Mexican citizen
-held land grant in Sacremento Valley
-1840's Bear Flag Revolt declaring independence from Mexico
-US takeover of California confirmed in Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848
-1848 James Marshall noticed flecks of gold at Sutter's Mill so all panned for gold (started gold rush)
Theme: pursuit of happiness
ended mexican american war
the 4 step compromise which:
1) admitted CA as a free state
2) allowed the residents of the New Mexico and Utah territories to decide the slavery issue for themselves
3) ended the slave trade in DC
4) passed a new fugitive slave law
-also, Texas required to cede land to new Mexico territory in return for $10 million government got debt not Texas
Theme: pursuit of happiness (expansion), equality (disadvantaged groups --> race)
Part of Compromise of 1850 (See "Compromise of 1850")
-increased power of slave owners to recapture slaves
-radicalized many in the North
-required authorities in north to assist southern slave fathers and return runaway slaves
Theme: equality (disadvantaged groups --> race)
-emerged in aftermath of bitter controversy over Kan-Neb Act
-some northern democrats
-many know nothings which were an anti immigrant party formed from wreckage of whig party and some disaffected northern democrats in 1854
-law passed creating Kansas and Nebraska territories but leaving the question of slavery open to residents thereby repealing the missouri compromise
-by allowing popular sovereignty it invalidates missouri compromise
-reorganized indian territory and opened it up to white settlement
-made the status of slavery in new territories subject to the principal of popular sovereignty
-act aroused storm of protest in North
Theme: pursuit of happiness (expansion)
-even though Lincoln lost the debates made him popular