Ghosh Timeline

Wars

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

French+some Indians vs. Britain+some Indians
Trade vs. Settling

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

Colonists vs. Loyalists
France helps USA
Saratoga, Yorktown

XYZ Affair

1797 - 1798

Adams sends XYZ...France bribes...Americans outraged
leads to Alien and Sedition Act
then VA and KY resolutions

World War I

1914 - 1918

Allied Powers (BR, FR, RUSS, US, IT)
Central Powers (AUS, HUNG, GERM, OTT)

Total War = affects everyone

Fought mostly in E. FR. and W. GERM.

World War II

1939 - 1945

Allies (US, FR, BR, SOV) vs. Axises (GERM, JAP)

Occurring simultaneously in Asia and Europe

Cold War

1945 - 1991

Never breaks out into fighting
Only perpetual tension between Soviet Union and USA (Am do not fight too much in beginning)

Americans practice policy of CONTAINMENT = preventing spread of Communism (do not want to eliminate Sov Un, but want to stop other countries around it from being influenced)

Domino theory (neighboring countries would be influenced by Communism: against Containment)

Korean War

1950 - 1953

SK invaded NK which is Communist...goes against US policy of containment

US fighting (lots of Am soldiers) under UN defends SK, China defends NK bc afraid US will conquer them next

War ends with ceasefire still in plc today

First war with integrated army

Vietnam War

1954 - 1975

Vietnam influenced to go Communist

Americans completely against war

Loss bc Am didn't understand why US fighting...DISSENT

Battles

Hitler invades Poland, Br and Fr enter war (BEGINNING OF WWII)

09/01/1939

Blitzkrieg (Lightning Warfare...quick!)
Germany gets Poland and BR and FR enter war

Operation Barbarosssa/ Battle of Stalingrad

1941

Hitler expands Germany all the way to France, N. Africa, and now border of Sov Un

Hitler breaks treaty with Sov Un, and launches operation
Since Russia cold, many German soldiers died causing German expansion to stop

Battle of Midway

1942

One of largest naval battles
STOPS JAPAN EXPANSION!!!
Americans win and cont to attack Japan

D Day

1944

Most Important Battle:
Day Americans land in France to capture Germany from West side

Battle of Iwo Jima

1945

US makes steady progress...invades Iwo Jima
Now USA close enough to Japan to launch bombs

But bc of allegiance to emperor, Japanese not allowed to surrender, so literally fight to death (US is not able to get any pow)

Use Kamikaze warfare (self-sacrificing)

Battle at Dien Bien Phu

1954

Lead by Ho Chi Minh (revolutionary suspected Communist leader) who wanted to end French colonialism

Defeat French at Dien Bien Phu and become independent

US afraid Vietnam would become Communist so divide Vietnam into North and South (Comm and Non Comm) until election held

Election never held bc everyone knows Ho Chi Minh would win

Gulf of Tonkin Incident

08/02/1964

US sends troops to defend S. Vietnam...tensions escalate after Gulf of Tonkin incident when N. Viet attacked US...declaration of war

Events

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria assassinated by Serbian Black Hand

1914

so...Austria declares war on Serbia

US Involvement

1915

1) Sinking of Lusitania (Am died)
2) Zimmerman note from Germ. to Mex. about attacking US

Russian Revolution

1917

Russia no guns...so lose war and overthrow czar...est Communism (Lenin sent by Germans)

Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany

1933

Austrian born, gifted speaker, promises to restore Germany to glory

Believes that Master Race = Germans, and need more land to live on (in book Mein Kampf)

Gave Germany something to believe in, and was ELECTED 1933 with 37% vote...becomes Chancellor and assumes dictatorial powers

Hitler breaks rules of Treaty of Versailles

1936

Rearms, takes Austria and Sudetanland (Czechoslovakia)

Attack on Pearl Harbor/ US Involvement

1941

US stops trading with Japan, so Japan attacks Pearl Harbor as a way of declaring war

US ENTERS WWII

Japan has already expanded into China and SE Asia (Nanjing Massacre)

Allies begin to push back NAZIs

1942 - 1944

1942 - BR and US free N. Africa and Italy...where Germ was getting oil, resoures

Soviet Union pushing back NAZIs from the East

1944 - Americans push back from West (Normandy, Fr)

VE Day

1945

Allies invade Germany...Hitler commits suicide May 1

VE (Victory in Europe) = May 9, 1945

But war not over yet bc still fighting in Asia

Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima/Nagasaki (END OF WWII)

08/06/1945 - 08/09/1945

US does not want to INVADE Japan bc will lose million soldiers, so demanded unconitional surrender but Japan does not respond

Harry Truman decides to drop nuclear bomb on Hiroshima...still Japan does not surrender, so drops second bomb on Nagasaki (many health problems)

Japan surrenders = END OF WWII

Bombs = message to Sov Un that they may be next!

Nuremberg Trials

11/01/1945 - 10/01/1946

Held to punish NAZI officials

Marshall Plan

1947

US gives billions $$ to help rebuild Europe as incentive for European countries to stay Democ

Berlin Airlift/ Revolution in China

1948 - 1949

Russia sends spies to make nuclear weapons for themselves

Berlin Airlift has US fly supplies to Berlin "exclave"

Communism spreads to China

TENSION INC

Iron Curtain

1948

Formally divides Eastern and Western Europe
w=Democ
e=Comm
No communication or trade between two sides

Sputnik/ Space Race

1957

Soviets launch first artificial satellite into orbit = threat to US bc know that Russia has that technology

BEGINNING OF SPACE RACE (NASA)

Arms Race begins

1957 - 1987

Arms Race on belief of Mututally Assured Destruction (MAD) = if one nation has more weapons than the other, then the other side will not attack

-both sides felt that if they had enough nuclear weapons to retaliate after the other side attacked first, then no nuclear war would ever break out

Cuba + Fidel Castro overthrow US

1959

Fidel Castro, a communist revolutionary overthrows US backed dictatorship in Cuba

US concerned bc Cuba is 90 mi away and could influence ppl around US to become Communist

Bay of Pigs Invasion

1960

US launched invasion with ragtag group of Cuban refugees in order to eliminate Castro : fails.

Refugees come to America, and Castro realizes US out to get him.

Cuban Missile Crisis/ Pact btw Cuba and Sov

1961 - 1962

Castro wants to protect himself, so asks Kruschev (leader of Sov Un for protection and missiles

Since Cuba so close to US, missiles and bombs would be disastrous

Kennedy gets evidence that Cuba has weapons

Berlin Wall

1961

Soviet Union had Berlin Wall built to keep Comm and Captl apart (did not want E Germ escaping to W Germ)

(When Berlin Wall collapses - Sov Un collapses)

Naval Blockade on Cuba

1962

Kennedy declares blockade (no attack) on Cuba, preventing ships from going in or out

Sov Un says if US attacks Cuba, they will drop bombs

SECOND CLOSEST TO ACTUAL NUCLEAR WAR

Tet Offensive

1968

Vietcong (N. Viet. soldeirs) launch surprise attack (guerilla warfare)

militarily US wins but politically huge loss in Am public opinion ppl wonder why US involved?

TVs big impact on people, bc able to see visuals

Those against war = hippies

Bc of draft, massive student protests are launched like music fests Woodstock

LBJ doesn not run bc war so unpop

US withdraws from Vietnam (END of VIET WAR)

1975

50000 died, 700000 S. Viet flee country

Treaties/ Pacts

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

1798

Jefferson against Adams' Alien and Sedition Act...anonymously stating that this act violates freedom of speech

Alien and Sedition Act

1798

John Adams passed act to avoid insults about govt...limits freedom of speech

Treaty of Versailles

1919

Officially ends WWI
Germany (under Weimar Rep.) is blamed for war bc weaker...and must pay reparations + and give away territory + demilitarized zone
Germ inflation = blow to nationalism

Germans believed that they could have won war if not "stabbed in the back" by the Jews

Munich Non-Aggression Pact

1937

Germany promises Britain and France not to take any more land
Hitler realizes no one will stand up to him...and cont to expand Germ

Non-Aggression Treaty with Soviet Union

1939

Poland is right in between Germany and Soviet Union

Hitler signs treaty with Sov Un...both promising not to attack each other - team up and attack Poland together despite their differences in government

Big Three meet at Yalta

02/11/1945

Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, FDR meet at Yalta to decide Europe's fate

NO AGREEMENT: FORESHADOWING COLD WAR

war cooperation covered up major differences, but after war alliance fell apart

United Nations formed

06/26/1945

San Francisco to solve world problems

Potsdam Conference

07/17/1945

Big Three meet again, but FDR dies so Harry Truman rep, and Churchill loses election leaving Stalin with upper hand

Decide to divide Germ into occupied zones (W = US, BR, FR/ = SOV) and Berlin (in E Germ) divided into four parts

Stalin promises free elections in E Germ, but does not follow through beginning the war

NATO/ Warsaw Pact

1949

Western countries join NATO and Soviet Bloc joins WARSAW PACT: defend eachother

Secret Agreement

1963

US agrees not to invade Cuba, removes missiles from Turkey
Soviets withdraw missiles from Cuba, but says that US must let Cuba be Communist so Castro gets security