Dante was the first writer of the Renaissance. he is best known for his Divine Comedy which shows dantes journey through hell, purgatory, and paradise.
a dramatic re-birth of civilization in western Europe. It brought a secular spirit through out Western Europe. also it involved classicism the study of ancient greeks and rome.
Petrarch was the "Father of Humanism". Petrarch celebrated ancient rome in his writings and wrote latin epic poems. his most famous writing is Love sonnets to a certain Laura.
Was when a french bishop was elected pope. people in rome were furious so to avoid the anarchy in Rome the pope resided in Avignon France.
Bocaccio was a pioneer of humanist studies. His Decameron wrote about 100 tales of thre men and seven woman in a safe country retreat from the plague.
A heretic group led by John Wycliffe. they believed the bible was the only source of christian doctrine. they rejected the authority of the papacy and hierarchy of the church. the church and english government suppreseed the movement.
A disastrous conflict between England and France, ended with the English loss of all their territorial holdings in France, except for the port of Calais on the English channel. The war weakened the monarchy in both countries.
a bubonic plague that started in constinople and spread through out europe the plague spread through europe the number of unskilled laborers went down and the demand for artisans went up. the plague killed 35-65% of the people in urban areas and did not effect rural areas as much.
was the peasant revolts of the taille which was a direct tax on the French Peasants, this was a result of the black death.
An agreement between major territorial leaders which established a seven member electoral college to elect the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, which was a weak position.
The Hussite's were a heretic group in Bohemia who followed John Hus who was greatly effected by Wycliffe. Hus was burned at the stake in 1415.
was a division of popes with one in Rome and one in Avignon.
The disruption of religious division and warfare and the reformation all lead to the witch hunts. witches were said to attend sabbats were they were believed to fly, have sexual orgies with the devil and cannibalism. the witch hunts ended during the scientific revolution because mind and matter were viewed as two Independence reality's making it so words were just words.
was the election of pope Martin V which ended the Great Schism.
The Northern renaissance was greatly effected by the Italian Renaissance. The north practiced Christian humanism which was less secular than the Italian. The invention of the printing press and The writings of Erasmus greatly define the Northern Renaissance.
portugal and spain look for new ways of trade to bypass the middlemen.
the printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg. IT allowed knowledge and ideas to be spread rapidly to the educated classes.
He was the most famous northern Humanist, also used the printing press. he was a catholic who believed in great faith that humans had the ability to reform their institution form within. wrote praise of folly.
when Ferdinand I of Aragon married isabel of Castile they had power over spain. Under them Spains army became one of the greatest in europe, also during the their reign Columbus discovered the new world. they increased royal power at the expense of the the nobility and believed in religious unity.
Martin Luther was the founder of Lutheranism. Martin Luther was born in Saxony. he planned to become a lawyer but experienced a religious conversion and became an augustian monk in 1505. In 1508 he became a teacher of theology at the university of wittenberg in saxonny.
Columbus sailed to The new world, then Spain took over the south American continent destroying the Aztecs and Incas. Spain got lots of gold and corn , potatoes, pig and cattle.
Charle VIII attempt to conqueror italian city states. League of venice stopped the French and set up France and Spain conflict.
Took over after Alexander VI he suppressed the Borgias and placed the newly conquered land in Romagna under Papal Jurisdiction. He also drove the Ventatians out of Romagna. he was known as the warrior pope.
Henry the VIII was the king of England after his brother died. he married his brother widow. so made the catholic church divorce him. Henry VIII had 6 wives. He passed the act of supermacy in 1534.
John Calvin was the founder of Calvinism. He was the religious leader of Geneva and lead a theocracy there in which Calvinism was strictly enforced. Calvinist helped supports the idea of Capitalism.
The reformation was a schism in Christianity. It started in 1517 when Martin Luther posted the 95 theses and ended in 1648 with the peace of Westphalia. Reformers tried to break away from the catholic church, which lead to the creation of Lutheranism, Calvinism, Anglicanism, and Anabaptist.
Martin Luther posted the 95 thesis on the door of the castle church in Wittenberg. The thesis were intended to be a challenge to other scholars to debate the issues of indulgences.
Holy Roman Emperor Charles V ordered Luther to appear before the diet of the Holy Roman Empire at worms. the diet called Luther to recant and luther refused saying Here I stand , I can not change. The emperor declared Luther an outlaw.
German peasants who lived in poverty and burdened by taxes revolted against their landowners in 1524. the peasants wanted to abolish serfdom and the manorial system . the peasants hoped for luthers supports but luther supported the princes in their suppression of the revolt.
This reformation started when King henry wanted a divorce from Catherine so he passed the act of supremacy. Mary I switched religions back to Catholicism then Elizabeth I passed a new act of supremacy which repealed what mary had done.
The jesuits orgaonized by Ignatius Loyla were "christain soldiers" who helped counter the reformtation
The prince was a book written by niccolo Machiavelli which stated the guidelines for how a prince should rule. He wrote it for Lorenzo de Medici. the book advised rulers to find the advantages in being a brutal leader.
William the Orange was the dutch stradholder and led france to revolt against Spain. later he would become William III of England after the Glorious revolution.
The act of Supremacy declared the King the head of the English church rather than the pope. now England rejected papal supremacy. henry did this to divorce his wife's. Anglicism was very similar to Catholicism.
Copernicus's treatise that declared that earth moved around sun in circular orbit. was declared un-christian.
Pope Paul III summoned the council of Trent which met in 3 sessions . The council of Trent rejected any compromise with the protestants. They council reaffirmed traditional teaching, eliminated absenteeism and simony. also the priest was instructed to preach in the vernacular.
Tycho Brahe did not embrace a heliocentric model of the universe but he thought mercury and venus revolved around the sun while all the other planets revolved around earth. He made the best naked eye observations of the planets that anyone had ever done.
Mary I was the worst fear for English Protestants. She had a political marriage with Phillip II of Spain. She executed 100's of protestants and many others fled to the continent. She was beheaded in 1558.
marked the division of Christendom between Lutheranism and Catholicism. Ruler of the land would determine its religion. did not include Calvinism.
Elizabeth I was a politique and the last of the tudors. she re established the act of supremacy after mary I. In 1563 parliament passed the 39 articles which defined the teachings of the Anglican church.
Bacon was not a professional scientist but he did promote the inductive method and empirical evidence. In his book Novum Organum bacon attacked the scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered.
Phillip the second of Spain tried to make the Netherlands catholic the dutch republics refused and under William of Orange the stratholder they resisted the spanish and captured ports and the natives helped the revolt against Spain.
Shakespeare was a writer during the northern renaissance who wrote lyric poetry but is known for his dramas. His plays dealt with the entire range of the human experience.
Catherine de Medici gave a signal from a church tower in Paris. which began the massacre of Huguenots in Paris. the massacre spread throughout the provinces taking several thousand Huguenots.
Baroque art reflected the science revolution with which depicted more realistic paintings. it served religious and secular ends. bible scenes and everyday life both portrayed in realistic details. Later became more centered around roman Catholicism also Versailles was a great baroque monument.
was the union that unified with the ten largely catholic southern provinces in the dutch republic and the 7 largely protestant republics in the north to team up and resist the Spanish.
was the peace signed at the end of the Spanish succession, which unified the northern provinces of Netherlands, and gave them independence.
Three Henry's all of different religions fought each other after the st. Bartholomew day massacre Henry III and Henry the duke of Guise killed each other leaving Henry IV the huegonot as king of France.
Englands queen Elizabeth I executes marry queen of scots. dashed catholic hopes of bloodless conversion to Catholicism of england.
Phillip II colossal army that that attempted to convert England to Catholicism after Mary I was executed. The lost in 8 days even though they had navy of 40 large ships.
Henry IV was the first bourbon king of France and made peace between the Huguenots and Catholics.
Henry IV giving the Huguenots freedom of public worship, the right to assembly, admission to public offices and university, and permission to maintain fortified towns.
The agricultural revolution was a series of innovations in farm production, which challenged the ways of the traditional peasant ways of production.
where the agricultural revolution began, Dutch land lords had to find better way to get food because of population increase. The land lords built dikes and drained land to they could farm more land.
A dynasty of kings who came from the scottish Stuart family. they were the primary cause of the English civil wars.
He believed in Divine rights and was also the king of scottland so he did not know anything about English traditions. he did not get along with parliament at all and plans were also made to blow up parliament while he was there. only good thing he did was the King james version of the bible.
Don quixote was a book written by Miguel de Cervantes. the book is about a spanish noble man who traveled along the countryside in search for romantic adventure and his groom. book showed good picture of spanish life in the 16th century as well as broad perspective on human nature.
Kepler using Copernicus heliocentric model and used Brahe's empirical data. his model actually portrayed motion.
Henry the IV was murdered by a catholic fanatic. his assasisntaion led to years of turmoil in france and his widow released the duke of sully his finance minister leaving France without strong leadership.
after Henry IV assassination his son Louis XIII took over, his chief minister was cardinal Richielieu who reduced the influences of the nobility by sending royal offices into the provinces, establishing the office of intendant . this centralized the government .
Began with conflict in Bohemia. The war started as a religious war and ended as a battle for power. the war ended with the Peace of Westphalia.
Pascal was a french mathematician who practiced Jansen-ism. Pascal believed in the "leap of faith" were religion was not the domain for reason and science. he also had a famous wager were he said if you practice religion there is more to gain than there is to lose even if there is no after life.
tried to rule England with out using Parliament ended up calling Long and Short parliament.
condemned by roman catholic church in 1633 most famous indecent between modern science and religious institution.
Descartes rejected scholastic philosophy in his discourse on method and advocated thought based of a mathematical model.
Charles I used these for money short parliament lasted couple weeks long parliament lasted 13 years. conflict between long parliament and Charles I led to English Civil war.
Was a battle between parliament called the puritans and the monarchy called the round heads. Charles I was not listening to the long parliament so they went to war. Ended with Charles I execution and a victory for parliament.
Louis XIV was known as the sun king . his chief minister was cardinal Mazarin who continued Richileus policies and continued war with the Spanish hasburgs. after 1661 Lou
provoked by Richelieu and Mazarin, the fronde was a widespread rebellion among french nobles.
Hobbes book that promoted a strong central government. portrayed humans as materialistic and mechanical.
Cromwell was the leader of the commonwealth in the new republic of England. He was a puritan and resticted anglicism and catholicism in England. When he died his Son took over who lacked and of the skills he had.
The members followed the path of Bacon.
When Thomas Cromwell died his son Richard took over. Richard lacked the skills his father had and resigned and put the military in charge. the military realized the republican government had failed so they put the monarchy back into control.
Was the king after the English civil. he did not try to fix any problems with England.
He ruled france as an absolute monarch and declared i am the state. he distrusted the nobility after the fronde. and moved to versailles to separate him from the nobels.
first was the English royal society for supporting natural knowledge. followed by the French academy of science and in 1701 the Berlin Academy was founded.
Peter the Great westernized Russia and successfully got axis to the Baltic taking it away from Sweden
tried to make all religions tolerated in England, protestants believed it favored Roman Catholics led to Glorious Revolution.
a blunder made by Louis XIV which condemned all the protestants in France as galley slaves.
a book written by Isaac Newton which set forth the law of universal gravitation.
James second wife was catholic so parliament was determined to drive james out of office. The gave the crown to William of Orange and the daughter of James I marry.
after resisting the french the dutch set up a republic which led to their golden age.
William III and marry were forced to accept the Bill of Rights which guranteed members of parliament freedom of speech and immunity from prosecution for what they say in parliament. the king could not levy taxes now with out parliament and could not prosecute who he wanted. also frequent meetings in parliament.
The consumer revolution was when demands for goods expanded for goods that could be efficiently supplied.
Lockes treatises of government rejected an absolute government, he thought the government should be responsible for for the concerns of the governed.
was the "exchange" between the Spanish and Native Americans. Spain received animals like the pig and cattle and agriculture such as the corn and potato, in return the native americans recieved diseases from europe.
the battles between Russia and Sweden which resulted in Russia gaining access to the Baltic sea and establishing St. Petersburg.
the commercial revolution was a revolution which supported mercantilism and colonies. Many nations wanted world power through controlling as much of the world as they could.
was the idea to fence of farm land in order to make the farmers use the land more rationally and produce more food.
settled the succession of the British form and made sure who ever it was they would be protestant.
a war fought by the France under Louis XIV against the English, Holland, and the Holy roman empire. who ever won the war would get the spanish thrown and the land that came with it France did not suceed.
the lack of a stadtholder led to the decline of their naval supremacy, their fishing industry declined, and they were no longer used as a middle man in trades.
he produced no male heir to the thrown of Austria
made a single line of inheritance in Austria, maria teresa would become queen. did it so Austria would not fall to surrounding powers.
Government was heavily involved in economic system trying to make national wealth, many wars were caused from this on colonial land.
embraced lavish light heartened decoration with pastel colors and play on light
Louis XIV dies his 5 year old great grandson Louis XV takes over.
many french people wanted bond money back france could not pay so everything crashed for france.
Robert walpole isbecomes the first prime minister of Great Britain
War between England and Spain over when Spaniards cut Robert Jenkins ear off during a fight that occurred because of Spanish boarding operations.
successfully inherited the thrown after Charles VI and pragmatic sanction.
he was an enlightened despot of Prussia who called himself the first servant of the state.
Frederick the Great invading Silesia and taking it from the maria Teresa of Austria
Is the achievement of sustained economic growth. which involved the putting out system, inventions like the Spinning Jenny, water frame, and Steam engine made products made at a faster pace. great britian took the lead in the industrial revolution.
a major change in alliance making Great Britain and Austria vs. France and Prussia change to Great Britain and Prussia vs. France and Austria.
War started when Frederick II invaded Saxony. William Pitt led the British army to many victories he fought to gain land in America. The war ended with the treaty of paris which put Pitt out of office Britain got most out of treaty.
a satire attacking war, religious persecution, and unwarranted optimism about the human condition.
social contract asked the question of what constituted to the good life and how can humans achieve that life. emile said men and woman occupy different spheres.
Catherine the great was an enlightened despot in Russia. Catherine did little to westernize Russia.
the british colonies in America asserting independence from Great britian they received help from the France.
the revival of renaissance art fostered by Joachim Winckelmann.
the son of Maria Teresa was elected king of Holy Roman Empire in 1765 but personal rule did not begin until his mom died.
In smith's wealth of nations he attacked mercantilism. he thought a nations wealth should be based on its production of goods. smith believed people should be free to pursue their own economic self interest.
Louis XVI attempted to win popular support for new taxes, because french was in major debt from many wars they have fought in. Also called because of deadlock between aristocrats and monarchy.
Thief's being paid by the King were being paid to attack the peasants. This made the national assembly got rid of manorial system and privileged of the nobility.
the oath the national assembly took to create a new constitution for France.
A parish mob stormed the Bastille a prison which represented the monarchy. This restored Necker to power and a national guard was created.
When the nobles gave up their special rights making all French citizens subject to equal law. led to declaration of the rights of man and citizen.
the national assembly passed this which embodied many ideas from the enlightenment.
The Parisian women march to Versailles demanding bread. this lead to The king and queen fleeing Versailles and moving back to paris.
Made it so bishops and priest were now elected by the people and had to swear an oath to the new arrangement.
In the constitution of 1791 created a constitutional monarchy which all laws would originate from
Crowds stormed Tuileries and forced the monarch to take refuge in the legislative assembly led to war with Austira.
Mary Wollstonecraft wrote this against Rousseau saying he was irrational. She wrote this to oppose certain policies in french revolution that were unfavorable towards woman
Austria wanted to protect the French royal family because of Antoniette. After that French was at war with most of Europe.
Reflected the thermidorean reaction which wanted neither a Monarchy or democracy.
He was convicted of conspiring against the liberty of the people and the security of the state. He was then beheaded on January 2. Mountain favored Girondist opposed.
a military act in france which made it so all capable males had to join the military. Also directed economic production to the military. helped French in the war alot.
the de-christinization of France which replaced all churches with temples of reason were reason thought of.
Danton was executed because he rejected the link between politics and moral value. this exterminated anyone who could take power away from him
a cult that reflected Rosseau's vision of a civic religion that would induce morality among citizens
Robespierre made an illtempered speech about other leaders conspiring against him. made no members of convention feel safe. he was then arrested and executed.
The directory had many problems with dealing with crisis in France relied on army ended with napoleon taking control
This book lead to the iron law of wages. it said that the human population would soon outstrip its food supply.
he took power through the military and reformed France under a dictatorship.
Ricardo wrote the Iron Law of Wages which said when wages rose people would have more kids putting more people in the labor force which makes less kids and keeps repeating itself
was the restoration of medieval cathedrals such as Notre dame.