The English King Edward III died without a male heir and Philip IV of Valois was placed on the throne. Not many liked this idea aand there were many teritorial battles going on as well. This all lead up to the hundred years war. French were defeated and a treaty was made. Many were killed. Joan of Arc contribted to giving the French a strong military and was then was captured and executed.
A plague caused by fleas that starts in the ports. Priests, monks, nuns, and peasants were hit hardest. The cities were hit hardest as well. The effects of the black plague included fever, swelling, coughing up blood, halusanations, soars, and death. Some of the remadies included sweet smelling fragrances, bleeding you out, and sitting in sewer to drive away bad air with horrible air. Everyone thought they were going to die so some became extreamely religious, flagellants, and some became extreamly secular.
Erasmus was a very popular person. In his spare time he tutored youths with short Latin dialogues called Colloquies.
The peasants revolt because of Luther's ideas. Luther denies them and loses many followers. Peasants were killing the princes and the princes were helping Luther.
Act of Supremacy: Made Henry the head of the Church of England. English Reformation: Events that lead to England breaking away from the Catholic Church.
The first reformation had to do mainly with religion. A big part of it haad to do with territory as well. Henry VIII made a new religion because he wanted a male heir. The Catholic Church would not pardon Henry from another marriage. This left Henry with the option of staying with his wife or making his own religion.
100% loyal to pope. No concessions to the protestants. No doctrinal changes. Eliminate the corruption.
Mary was known as bloody Mary becaaause sshe slaughtered many protestants and the protestants wwwrote the history. She was portrayed as a very evil women and was deepley disliked by many.
Elizzabeth was the half sister of Mary. Elizabeth was a politique and built a true kingdom.
Over 20,000 Huguenots were slaughtered in the course of three days.
Defeat of the Armada by England gave way to Protestant resistance. Spain lost dominance to France, Dutch and English.
Henry was a poitique. Passes one of the first decrees of religion. The Edict of Nantes. This guranteed religious toleration/ freedom. Limited the power of parlement. Put a monopoly on gun powder and salt
The Agricultural Ravolution made the Dutch an economic power. They were the leading ship builders, they had Tulips, and they had more bankers.
Conflict: King vs. parlement. He was scottish. Drove out Puritans. He was too conservative on religion. Extra parliamentary taxes, was a threat to people with money and power.
Cardinal Richelieu was chief minister. Louis continued policies from Henry IV. Interdants- royal Bureaucrats: strder administration of policy- tax collecting. Further limited local parlements.
There were four phases of war the Bohemian phase, the Swedish phase, the Swedish-French phase, and the Danish Phase. The start of the Thrty Years War was the defenistration of Prague. The Teaty of Westphalia ended the Thirty Years War.
Petition of rights: Parlement tried to restrict the power of the king. No taxes without consent of parlement. No imprisonment without due cause. Charles agrees to this but does not keep his word.
Cardinal Mazarin was chief minister. Moves the palace to Versailles. The Sun King, "L'etat, c'est moi." or my word is law. Louis gains control of the army. organized by the government, paid by the government. Issued national taxes and ignored parlement.
Rebellions of French nobles because of centralizing policies of Richelieu and then of Mazarin.
The restoration, parlement asserted power taxed themselves. Paid by the French king. Parlement passes toleration act.
All government officials had to take communium in Anglican Church.
Protected Religious Freedoms.
The Treaty of Utrecht ends the war of the Spanish succesion. George I establishess Hanoverian Dynasty.
The payments in France were halted causing the "Mississippi Bubble" pop.
Advancemneet in knowledge of crops and the learning of the enclosure meethod. This lead to more food for the people. It also lead to taking away peoples farms.
Frederick the great invades Saxony.This plus two other factors saved Prussia. The treaty of Paris was made in 1763 ending the war.
The Treaty of Paris ended the Seven Years War William Pitt wa no longer in office. Many lost their lives because of the war. Many in France were convinced for political and administrative reorm.
The prices of bread went up so the peasants stormed Bastille for food.
Louis XVI kept putting off the paying of taxes from the nobility. The third class then put together thier own meeting. The king locked them out of their normal meeting place so they all went to an indoor tennis coart and made an oath to write a new constitution.
Peasants attempted to take hold of food and land they believed they rightfully owned. Thier main targets were landlords.
This was a declaration to put the Enlightenment ideas on paper and to codify them.
A group of fishwives march into Versailles demanding more bread.
This has many contributing factors
There were many popes fighting to be the main pope.
Luther was against the selling of indulgences and posted 95 thesis on the door of Castle Church in Wittenberg. Luther then presented his views to the Diet of Worms in 1521. Luther was then placed under imperial ban. Friends of Luther kept him hidden for a time. From April 1521 to March 1522 he translated the New Testament into German. Luther called to the Diet of Worms. He was ordered to recant but refused.
French Wars of Religion was as much civil as religious.
Made peace among the religions. Every religion had thier own town as long as they kept peace.
The frist printing press was movable type created by Johann Guttenberg. By the 1500's it spread in sixty German States.
Don Quixote was written in 1603 but not released until 1605.
Shakespeare married at 18 and was the greatest playwright in the English language. He wrote Macbeth, King Lear, Othello, Hamlet, and Romeo & Juliet.
Principia Mathematica was published in 1687.
Baroque art is the fancy aand exquisite art. It is very busy and focused on both religious and secular ends.