Laura Hibschman World History to 1500 Semester 1 Timeline

Ancient Civilizations

Mesopotamia

Natufians

15000 BCE

The earliest settlers of the Lavantine Corridor; formed the first know settled communities’ hunter-gatherers

Jericho

8000 BCE

A small city located in the west bank; ruins date back to 8000 BCE; one of the oldest neolithic cities in the world; 2000 inhabitants

Ziggurats

5000 BCE

Stepped, elevated temple structures that the Mesopotamian civilization erected in honor of its gods

Polytheism

5000 BCE

A religion with many gods (such as the early Sumerian religions)

Cuneiform

3000 BCE

Mesopotamian wedge shaped writing developed by the Sumerians

Sargon the Great

2300 BCE

A Semitic invader who conquered Sumeria and created the Akkadian empire

Epic of Gilgamesh

1700 BCE

A collection of stories that is one of the earliest approaches to analyzing the relations of gods and humans; known as the first epic poem in world literature; portrays a society in search of a religious basis for human action; Gilgamesh is a man who desires immortal life, but the gods, jealous of his power, defeat him

Hammurabi

1700 BCE

The 6th king of Babylon; wrote Hammurabi’s code, history’s first known law code

Ancient Egypt

Old Kingdom

3100 BCE - 2200 BCE

Period of Egyptian history from Narmer to the first intermediate period; Egypt’s most fertile and successful era

Narmer

3050 BCE

The founder of Egypt’s first dynasty; also known as Menes; united upper and lower Egypt around 3050 BCE

Hieroglyphics

3000 BCE

The pictographic writing system of the Ancient Egyptians; means "sacred carvings;" pictographs that could convey an idea or sound; 604 hieroglypohic symbols have been deciphered; was written on Papyrus

Maat

3000 BCE

The Egyptian goddess of universal order, regularity, and balance; Egyptians relied on the regularity of seasonal cycles for farming

Anubis

3000 BCE

Osiris’s consort; god(dess) of the underworld; weighed the souls (ka) of the dead

Horus

3000 BCE

The falcon-headed Egyptian god; his earthly form was believed to be the current reigning pharaoh; symbolized forces of order

Memphis

3000 BCE

A city founded by Menes; home to oldest pyramids; capital of the Old Kingdom

Osiris

3000 BCE

The Egyptian god/ruler of the underworld/afterlife

Middle Kingdom

2100 BCE - 1650 BCE

500 years of political stability; continued refinement of arts and crafts; trade with neighbors became more extensive; religion became more democratic; condition of laboring poor gradually worsened

Hyksos

1650 BCE

A mysterious people who invaded Egypt in 1650-1570 BCE; ruled during the second intermediate period

New Kingdom

1550 BCE - 770 BCE

The period of Egyptian history between the first and second intermediate periods; lasted through the years of imperial wars for control of Mesopotamia (which Egypt lost); ended with Egyptian civilization's permanent conquest by foreigners

Akhnaton

1367 BCE - 1350 BCE

A young and inexperienced pharaoh that attempted to introduce a monotheistic cult of the sun god (newly named Aton), but the priests opposed this attempt to change the basic polytheistic nature of Egyptian religion

Ancient India

Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa

2500 BCE

The two chief towns of the Indus River Valley civilization; over 100,000 people; had buildings two to three stories high, sewage canals, fired brick structures, and street at right angles; had theocracy government; had Dravidian culture; prosperous until about 1900 BCE

Laws of Manu

1500 BCE

The code of laws of the Aryans; reveals glimpse of early Hinduism; birth rank determines caste and relationship of men to women and husbands to wives

Caste System

1500 BCE

A socioeconomic group to which a person belongs by reason of birth; dictates everything of one's daily life; social ranks for people in which one's rank determines one's job; first two castes were for Aryans only; castes included the Brahmins (highest caste-priests), Kshatrija (second caste-warriors), Vaishya (third caste-freemen), and Shudra (fourth caste-non-free serfs)

Vedas

1200 BCE

The four oral epics of the Aryans brought into Ancient India; written in Sanskrit; includes hymns and epic poems, religious prayers, magical spells, and descriptions of Gods and Goddesses

Siddhartha Gautama

500 BCE

the Buddha, or "Enlightened One;" became teacher of large group of disciples; his teachings were eventually more important in the rest of Asia than in India; was originally wealthy

Chandragupta Maurya

330 BCE

Founder of the dynasty ruling Northern India; he united Northern India in about 330 BCE

Ashoka

260 BCE

Third Mauryan emperor; greatest emperor because his policies provided good stability; converted to Buddhism after the Battle of Kalinga; his promotion of trade led to unprecedented prosperity for India

Assyrians, Phoenicians, Persians and Hebrews

Tyre and Sidon

1000 BCE

The Phoenicians' two main ports; led to the Phoenicians becoming the greatest maritime traders and colonizers of the ancient Near East

Solomon

970 BCE - 935 BCE

David's son; most renowned king of the Hebrews; during his reign, the Hebrews briefly became an important factor in Near Eastern affairs, serving as trading intermediaries between Egypt and Mesopotamia; constructed Temple of Jerusalem; had heavy taxes and luxurious living so many of this subjects hated him

Ninevah

800 BCE

The main city (and later capital) of the Assyrian Empire; located in the upper valley of the Tigris

First Diaspora

722 BCE

The scattering of the Jews from ancient Palestine by a failed rebellion against the Assyrian overlords

Assurbanipal

685 BCE - 627 BCE

One of Assyria's last kings; established the largest library known to the Near East in ancient times; library holds over 20,00 "books" of clay tablets; he could read Akkadian and Sumerian cuneiform and do math

Darius I

600 BCE

The third great Persian ruler; during his reign, the empire reached its maximum extent and a stable coinage and calendar were introduced

Talmud

586 BCE - 539 BCE

New interpretations of the covenant; the Jews reappraised and made precise the nature of God and their relationship to him; during and after Babylonian captivity

Cyrus

579 BCE

Persia's first king/ruler; united the Persians in the mid 6th century BCE; had concept of imperial rule that was quite different from that of the Assyrians; he realized that many of his new subjects were more advanced in many ways that his own Persians and that they could learn from them

Zarathustra

500 BCE

The mythical founder and chief prophet of the ancient Persian religion known as Zoroastrianism (which influenced the Jewish and Christian beliefs of ethics and religion being tied together); monotheistic of sorts

Avesta

300 BCE

The holy book of the Zoroastrian religion; tells about gods and unites religion with ethics

Ancient China

Hsia Dynasty

2100 BCE - 1700 BCE

The first dynasty of Ancient China; founded by Yu the Great who developed a system of levees and canals to channel flood waters

Shang Dynasty

1700 BCE - 1100 BCE

The second dynasty of Ancient China; Chinese writing evolves; pictographs to logographs; writing begins in about 1500 BCE; richest vocabulary of all ancient languages; developed bronze casting and oracle bones

Oracle bones

1500 BCE

turtle shells that were written on and then heated to produce cracks that were interpreted to determine the will of the gods

Zhou Dynasty

1100 BCE - 400 BCE

The third dynasty of Ancient China; two phases: the Unified Empire (1100-750 BCE) and The Later Zhou (750-400 BCE); the Unified Empire is the most important; greatly extended China's borders; extensive literature survives (historical and other records); Mandate of Heaven; feudal society developed; great advances in arts and crafts; war chariots; moderately prosperous peasant life; poetry, books, calligraphy, professional historians

Mandate of Heaven

1100 BCE

Gods choose earthly leader and give him mandate to rule; as long as he rules well and justly, he keeps the mandate; if he strays the mandate, he has to be replaced; highly influenced ideas in Chinese history

Confucius

551 BCE - 479 BCE

King Fu-tzu; Chinese philosopher whose doctrines were permanently influential in Chinese education and culture; molder of Chinese patterns of education; authority on what a true Chinese should and shouldn't do; interests were practical and centered on the hierarchy of ethical and political relations between individuals

Lao Zi

500 BCE

Purportedly a near contemporary and rival of Confucius; created Taoism (Daoism), a philosophy centered on nature and following the "way" (Dao/Tao), more passive than Confucianism, seeing best government as least government

Legalism

400 BCE - 225 BCE

More a philosophy of government than a philosophy of private life; popularized in 400-225 BCE between collapse of central Zhou dynastic authority and rise of Qin emperor; rationalized form of governmental manipulation; justification for applying force when persuasion failed

Mandarins (shi)

400 BCE

Corps of officials educated on Confucian principles; subscribed to Confucius's values and believed him to be the Great Teacher; administrative class of China for 2,000 years

Ancient Greece

Minoan Culture

2000 BCE - 1400 BCE

One of the two Aegean Civilizations of the Archaic Greece; based in Crete - Knossos; emerged by 2000 BCE; wealth came from large scale trade; chief exports: olive oil, wine, metalware, pottery; writing in a script called Linear A - hasn't been deciphered; had art for decoration and pleasure; women had equality; religion seems to be mainly female gods; primary deity was a Mother Goddess

Knossos

2000 BCE

Main town of the Minoan civilization; palace at Knossos had indoor plumbing, was 3+ stories high, and was about 6 acres; it was "open" (had ceilings and windows); conquered by the Mycenaeans in about 1450 BCE

Mycenaean Culture

2000 BCE - 1100 BCE

Had colonies in the eastern Aegean Sea; more warlike than the Minoans; conquered Knossos in about 1450 BCE; great sailors (traveled seas as raiders and traders); its system of writing was called Linear B;

Troy

1300 BCE

Mycenaeans attacked in about 1250 BCE; according to Homer, it was a result of Helen's "kidnapping"; in reality, they probably attacked in an effort to eliminate a powerful trading rival; beginning discoveries were made by Heinrich Schliemann; location of Trojan War

Dorians

1100 BCE - 800 BCE

Invaded Greece from the North; invasion led to The Dark Ages; political organization collapsed; writing disappeared; nomadic life reappeared

Homer

800 BCE

Supposedly was the writer of the Iliad and the Odyssey - epic poems; Iliad is story of Trojan War; Odyssey is the story of Odysseus's return; these books appear to be partly to mostly factual; but no definite proof; may have been blind; could actually not have existed (if he did, he lived in the 8th century BCE)

Polis

800 BCE

An independent city state; there were about 200 poleis, the two largest were Athens and Sparta

Odysseus

800 BCE

Main hero from Homer's Oddysey; defeated the Cyclopses; created the Trojan horse; sneaky and clever; great strategist

Messenians

700 BCE

Sparta's nearest Greek neighbor; went to war with the Spartans, but the Spartans finally won; the Messenians became slaves to the Spartans; they rebelled again and again in the 600s

Solon

600 BCE

Most important of the oligarchs; attempted to balance the demands of the rich and poor with a constitution; ruled in early 6th Century Athens

Cleisthenes

508 BCE - 494 BCE

An aristocrat; replaced executions with ostracism; came to power in 510 BCE; "Founder of Athenian democracy;" believed people should have the last word in their own government because it was just and the best way to keep civil peace

Ostracism

500 BCE

The idea of the "pushing out" of a citizen who would not conform to the will of his neighbors; an ostracized person had to go into exile and lost all rights of citizenship for a certain length of time (usually 10 years)

Battle of Salamis

479 BCE

Third Persian War; Athenian navy defeated the Persian navy; 6,400 Persians killed; 200 Greeks killed; Persians never seriously threatened Europe again

Peloponnesian War

431 BCE - 404 BCE

Sparta vs. Athens; Sparta finally wins by becoming allies with Persia; Spartans tried to starve Athens into submission; Athens used its navy to move the war to Sparta; they signed an uneasy truce in 421; Athens attacked Sicily in 413

Battle of Chaeronea

338 BCE

The Athenians became aware of the danger of this growing kingdom; they convinced Thebes to join with them against the Macedonians; this battle took place in 338 BCE; the Macedonians defeated the Allies; ended the era of polis independence and the classical age

Alexander the Great

336 BCE - 323 BCE

Succeeded Philip II; died at age 33; began Hellenistic kingdoms; reigned from 336-323 BCE; founded largest empire in history, but it began to disintegrate after his death; conquered most of the world known to the Greeks; known as being unpredictable and didn't follow any previous military traditions; continued his father's plans to make a large, combined Macedonian-Greek army to invade the Persian Empire

Greek Humanism

Parthenon

500 BCE

Center of Athenian spiritual life - its most sacred temple; constructed in 5th Century BCE; had massive statue of Athena, the city's patron goddess; damaged by a gun powder explosion in a 17th Century war between Turks and Italians; style of the building has been imitated all over the world

Socrates

470 BCE - 399 BCE

Question everything; "The unexamined life is not worth living;" only the pursuit of goodness brings happiness; his questions angered political leaders; he was charged with corrupting the youth and convicted and sentenced to death; taught Plato

Plato

427 BCE - 347 BCE

Rationalist-understands reality through reason and intellect, not through the senses (because the senses can be tricked); he wrote the "Republic" which explains political philosophy (it is anti-democratic); believed philosopher-kings should govern; famous for his Simile of the Line and Metaphor of the Cave; taught Aristotle

Aristotle

384 BCE

Empiricist - understands reality through the senses; scientific method; The Golden Mean: Everything in Moderation

Metaphor of the cave

350 BCE

A set of phenomena in nature that, when properly understood, explains why things occur; believed in gods, but did not look at them as usual causes of phenomena; what happened in the physical cosmos was the result of laws of causation

Alexandria, Egypt

320 BCE - 300 BCE

When under the dynasty of the Ptolemaic kings, it was the largest city of the Hellenistic world; huge center of Science; research centers were established and supported by the Ptolemaic kings; had largest library and museaum iof the ancient world

Diogenes

300 BCE

Founder of Cynicism, one of the three philosophies of the Hellenistic era that appealed to the educated; called for a return to absolute simplicity and a rejection of artificial divisions; had great impact on Hellenistic urban life; excessively questioned everything: what is the purpose of anything? what is the purpose of social conventions, etc.?

Zeno

300 BCE

Created Stoicism, the most popular of the three main Hellenistic philosophies among the population; he was a Phoenician; emphasized unity of all humanity and disdained the social conventions that falsely separated the human race; popularized the concept of an overarching natural law that governed all human affairs; good people were obliged to participate in public life to help the less fortunate; virtue was its own reward

Epicurus

300 BCE

Founder of Epicureanism, another one of the three Hellenistic philosophies that appealed to the educated; principle of life: pursue pleasure and avoid pain; inner peace could be achieved through consciously rejecting values and prejudices of others and turning inward to discover what is important to you; focus on finding your own serenity and ignoring world affairs