History 1930-1945

US Presidents

Herbert Hoover

1929 - 1933

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

1933 - 1945

Harry S Truman

1945 - 1953

Dwight D Eisenhower

1953 - 1961

British Leader

Neville Chamberlain

05/1937 - 05/1940

Was poster boy for appeasement

Winston Churchill

06/1940 - 07/1945

Europe

Collapse of the Weimar Republic

1930 - 1933

German Reparations end

01/1931 - 02/1931

After Hoover Moratorium

Geneva Conference on Arms Disarmament

1932

Either universal disarmament or equality of arms between Germany and the great powers of Europe

o But no large advance was made early b/c France refused to give up its military power (an advantage over Germany)
o During economic crisis PUBLIC OPINION was once again of general disarmament b/c they did not want money going to defense spending rather than toward solving the economy

Soviet Union Famine

1932 - 1933

particularly among the Ukraine’s Soviet Social Union Republic

Hitler in Power

01/30/1933

Not a revolution or coup- through completely legal terms
will effectively destroy democratic form of German gov

Germany becomes a one party state with its Reichstag made up of all Nazi members-

The Pact of Four

05/1933

not ratified but proposed by Hitler to permit German rearmament and consult together before going to League

Hitler Announces Rearmament

03/1935

This positionhad been preceded in Hitler's unwiring position during 1932 Geneva Conference on arms disarmament where he called for • Either universal disarmament or equality of arms between Germany and the great powers of Europe

Rearmament largely unavoidable since Germany had it already secretly underway since the 1920's where ether tested weapons in Russia

Franco-Soviet Alliance (Treaty of Mutual Assistance)

05/02/1935

REASONS??

trying to revive the alliance of WWI to have war on two fronts but now with Poalnd Russia is not directly connected iwht GErmany - one of first obstacles to recreating the Triple alliance

German-Anglo Naval Agreement

June 18,1935

 Basically says British are going to allow Germany to evade naval disarmament clauses of treaty on the condition that that German navy will never exceeed35% of GB’s total tonnage

contributes to the breakdown of the anti-grman bloc

Italian Invasion of Ethipia

10/1935 - 05/1936

Italian invasion of Ethiopia, Abyssinia: within this incident emerges the theme of the failures of the League of Nations

Address from Haile Selassie at LeAgue
use of chemical weapons

Spanish Civil War

1936 - 1939

The main actors involved consisted of the Popular Front (socialists, communists, liberals) and their opponents, General Francisco Franco, and the Fascist forces – Germany and Italy.

The theme of socio-political ideologies emerges in the form of ideological polarization;

the theme of war on the home front also appears to be particularly relevant through “strategic bombing.”

Remilitarization of the Rhineland

03/07/1936

Haile Selassie Appeals to League

06/30/1936

Rome-Berlin Axis

october 26,1936

removes Italian intervention in annexing Austria

main issue that was uniting FRance and Italy

Munich Pact

09/29/1938

Cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territory

can cite as failure of League?

Franco-German Pact

12/06/1938

The French and German governments signed an agreement by which both states guaranteed the inviolability of the current frontiers and provided for mutual consultation to settle all disputes peacefully.

European War

1939 - 12/07/1941

Prior to US involvement

Hitler's Final Annexation from CZ

03/1939

Hitler’s final dismemberment of Czechoslovakia without British and French resistance, and failed to offer USSR a viable strategy for countering further German acquisitions, Stalin ceased his collaborative efforts with them, and sent his newly-appointed Foreign Minister, Viascheslav Molotov to sign a non-aggression pact with Joachim von Ribbentrop.

INFLUENCED STALIN TO SIGN NON-AGGRESSION TREATY WITH GERMANY

FAILURE OF FRANCE TO MAINTAIN COLLECTIVE SECURITY AND REASSURE ALLIES

Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact

08/23/1939

The Soviet Union’s “2nd about face,” sign a 10-Year Non-Aggression Pact with Germany: pledged non-aggression and established secret protocols provided for German acquisition of parts of Poland and Lithuania, and Soviet absorption of Estonia and Latvia and segments of Finland, Romania and Poland

"Phony War" on the Western Front

10/1939 - 05/1940

GB and France have troops stationed along France's borders and Germany has troops stationed along Dutch and Belgian borders but no fighting taking place

German Offensive launched in France

May 10,1940

6 weeks after, France will surrender and start collaborative Vichy Regime

The Fall of France - Vichy Regime

June 25, 1940

German military occupies northern 3/5 of the country

Battle of Britain

July 10,1940 - October 31, 1940

Germany's inability to wipe out RAF is itsf first blow and means Hitler cannot launch his amphibious invasion he had planned- Operation Sea Lion

Three Power Pact

09/17/1940

Germany, Italy and Japan forged as the Axis Powers

3 imperialistic powers

Japan is added to the former Rome-Berlin Axis to make the # Power Pact

Operation Barbarossa

06/22/1941 - 12/5/1941

US enters War- WWII

12/08/1941 - 09/02/1945

The Tehran Conference

11/28/1943 - 12/01/1943

The Tehran Conference: the first meeting of the “Big Three”

Cairo Conference

12/01/1943

Normandy Landings (D-Day)

06/06/1944

Battle of Iwo Jima

02/1945 - 03/1945

The Battle of Iwo Jima: groundbreaking and transformative campaign in the United States counter-offensive efforts.

Yalta Conference

02/11/1945

Hitler Commits Suicide

April 30, 1945

GERMANY SURRENDERS

05/07/1945

Potsdam Conference

07/17/1945 - 08/02/1945

Potsdam Conference is held and the Potsdam Declaration issued: Within this proclamation, Truman declares that if Japan doesn’t surrender they will be exposed to “Prompt and Utter Destruction”

US and LA

New Deal Programs

1933 - 1936

The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (US and LA)

1934

between the United States and Latin America: this undoubtedly speaks to the transformation of the inter-American regional social climate and this larger concept of illusion vs. reality.

illusion vs reality: US appearing to transition from hegemony to hemispheric solidarity but its ties to LA still run deep although they are not as overt as there military and economic occupations of the 1920's under Wilson

"Lend-Lease" Act

03/11/1941

“Lend-Lease Act” issued by the United States: related to this idea of illusion vs. reality, and the wavering position of neutrality on the part of the United States.

US having it both ways by aiding in the war effort and still remaining neutral

Lend-Lease Act benefitted Allied Powers

The Atlantic Charter

08/07/1941

The Atlantic Charter: within this, the theme of socio-ideologies and their impact on international relations is noted. The United Kingdom and United States were more closely allied than their third partner, the Soviet Union.

but hypocrisy in calling for self determination and then agreeing to Percentages Agreement

Pearl Harbor

12/07/1941

US declares war on Japan

12/08/1941

Roosevelt delivers “Day of Infamy,” and The United States Declares war on Japan

President Roosevelt issues Executive Order 9066

1942 - 1946

enforces Japanese internment camps after belief of threat that Japanese would invade from Pacific Coast and that Japanese Americans were "fifth pillar???"

US begins firebombing Japan

04/1942

Nuclear Age

Manhattan Project

1939 - 1946

Manhattan Project established, flourishes and expands in size and significance beginning in 1942 under the leadership of Major Leslie R. Groves

Einstein's Letter to Roosevelt

08/2/1939

Albert Einstein’s Letter to President Roosevelt: This letter speaks to the beginnings of the atomic bomb.

Asia

South Manchurian Railway Incident-Japanese Incursion

09/1931

indicative of the beginning of a period of intense military expansion on the part of Japan.

Manchukuo established

1932

replaces Manchuria: the Japanese invasion speaks to the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations and the debasement of all of the peace treaties made prior.

Lytton Commission

01/02/1932

took a very cautious tone when addressing the Japanese and ultimately concluded that temporary occupation of China should take place to help its internal reconstruction

Japan did not accept the Commission's suggestion and WITHDREW FORM THE LEAGUE

the suggestion would have diluted Chinese sovereignty and obviousl ynot allowed Japanese to expand and obtain hegemony

Henry Stimson Response to Japanese Situation

01/07/1932

dispatches a non-recognition doctrine to Tokyo, doesn’t entail an economic sanction. This decision is indicative of a cautious American response in an attempt to avoid war with Japan and preserve their position of neutrality. A number of other factors were at play as well.

Sino-Japanese War

1937 - 1941

Pact of Neutrality b/w USSR and Japan

04/13/1941

Battle of Midway

06/1942

Battle of Midway: first United States Counter-Offensive attack and a prelude to their extensive counter-offensive plan. It is indicative of technological advancement, air craft carriers confront each other for the first time and America claims a victory.

Hiroshima Bombing

08/06/1945

Nagasaki Bombing

08/09/1945

Japan Breaks Deadlock- Plans to Surrender

08/14/1945

Japanese Emperor breaks deadlock and announces plans to surrender

JAPAN SURRENDERS

09/02/1945

USSR

USSR Joins League of Nations

1934

onsider this to be the Soviet Union’s first shift in foreign policy, pay close attention to the events revolving around this decision and the events that caused Stalin to make a “2nd About Face,” which will be introduced later in the timeline.

Battle of Stalingrad

August 23,1942 - February 2, 1943

The Middle East

Peel Commission

07/1937

Report of Britain’s Peel Commission: in response to the civil war in Palestine between the Arab Palestinians and the Zionists, also a reflection of the failure of the British to fulfill the Hashemite and Zionist wishes. The Peel Commission suggests that the ideal solution is a PARTITIONING

White Paper Report

1939

The British government issues the White Paper: which places restrictions on Jewish immigration, consider the intersections of religion and political prowess.

PROPOSES SINGLE STATE SOLUTION WITH LIMITATION TO JEWISH IMMMIGRATION