Either universal disarmament or equality of arms between Germany and the great powers of Europe
o But no large advance was made early b/c France refused to give up its military power (an advantage over Germany)
o During economic crisis PUBLIC OPINION was once again of general disarmament b/c they did not want money going to defense spending rather than toward solving the economy
Soviet Union Famine
1932 - 1933
particularly among the Ukraine’s Soviet Social Union Republic
Hitler in Power
Not a revolution or coup- through completely legal terms
will effectively destroy democratic form of German gov
Germany becomes a one party state with its Reichstag made up of all Nazi members-
The Pact of Four
not ratified but proposed by Hitler to permit German rearmament and consult together before going to League
Hitler Announces Rearmament
This positionhad been preceded in Hitler's unwiring position during 1932 Geneva Conference on arms disarmament where he called for • Either universal disarmament or equality of arms between Germany and the great powers of Europe
Rearmament largely unavoidable since Germany had it already secretly underway since the 1920's where ether tested weapons in Russia
Franco-Soviet Alliance (Treaty of Mutual Assistance)
trying to revive the alliance of WWI to have war on two fronts but now with Poalnd Russia is not directly connected iwht GErmany - one of first obstacles to recreating the Triple alliance
German-Anglo Naval Agreement
Basically says British are going to allow Germany to evade naval disarmament clauses of treaty on the condition that that German navy will never exceeed35% of GB’s total tonnage
contributes to the breakdown of the anti-grman bloc
Italian Invasion of Ethipia
10/1935 - 05/1936
Italian invasion of Ethiopia, Abyssinia: within this incident emerges the theme of the failures of the League of Nations
Address from Haile Selassie at LeAgue
use of chemical weapons
Spanish Civil War
1936 - 1939
The main actors involved consisted of the Popular Front (socialists, communists, liberals) and their opponents, General Francisco Franco, and the Fascist forces – Germany and Italy.
The theme of socio-political ideologies emerges in the form of ideological polarization;
the theme of war on the home front also appears to be particularly relevant through “strategic bombing.”
Remilitarization of the Rhineland
Haile Selassie Appeals to League
removes Italian intervention in annexing Austria
main issue that was uniting FRance and Italy
Cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territory
can cite as failure of League?
The French and German governments signed an agreement by which both states guaranteed the inviolability of the current frontiers and provided for mutual consultation to settle all disputes peacefully.
1939 - 12/07/1941
Prior to US involvement
Hitler's Final Annexation from CZ
Hitler’s final dismemberment of Czechoslovakia without British and French resistance, and failed to offer USSR a viable strategy for countering further German acquisitions, Stalin ceased his collaborative efforts with them, and sent his newly-appointed Foreign Minister, Viascheslav Molotov to sign a non-aggression pact with Joachim von Ribbentrop.
INFLUENCED STALIN TO SIGN NON-AGGRESSION TREATY WITH GERMANY
FAILURE OF FRANCE TO MAINTAIN COLLECTIVE SECURITY AND REASSURE ALLIES
Soviet-German Non-Aggression Pact
The Soviet Union’s “2nd about face,” sign a 10-Year Non-Aggression Pact with Germany: pledged non-aggression and established secret protocols provided for German acquisition of parts of Poland and Lithuania, and Soviet absorption of Estonia and Latvia and segments of Finland, Romania and Poland
"Phony War" on the Western Front
10/1939 - 05/1940
GB and France have troops stationed along France's borders and Germany has troops stationed along Dutch and Belgian borders but no fighting taking place
German Offensive launched in France
6 weeks after, France will surrender and start collaborative Vichy Regime
The Fall of France - Vichy Regime
June 25, 1940
German military occupies northern 3/5 of the country
Battle of Britain
July 10,1940 - October 31, 1940
Germany's inability to wipe out RAF is itsf first blow and means Hitler cannot launch his amphibious invasion he had planned- Operation Sea Lion
Three Power Pact
Germany, Italy and Japan forged as the Axis Powers
3 imperialistic powers
Japan is added to the former Rome-Berlin Axis to make the # Power Pact
06/22/1941 - 12/5/1941
US enters War- WWII
12/08/1941 - 09/02/1945
The Tehran Conference
11/28/1943 - 12/01/1943
The Tehran Conference: the first meeting of the “Big Three”
Normandy Landings (D-Day)
Battle of Iwo Jima
02/1945 - 03/1945
The Battle of Iwo Jima: groundbreaking and transformative campaign in the United States counter-offensive efforts.
Hitler Commits Suicide
April 30, 1945
07/17/1945 - 08/02/1945
Potsdam Conference is held and the Potsdam Declaration issued: Within this proclamation, Truman declares that if Japan doesn’t surrender they will be exposed to “Prompt and Utter Destruction”
US and LA
New Deal Programs
1933 - 1936
The Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (US and LA)
between the United States and Latin America: this undoubtedly speaks to the transformation of the inter-American regional social climate and this larger concept of illusion vs. reality.
illusion vs reality: US appearing to transition from hegemony to hemispheric solidarity but its ties to LA still run deep although they are not as overt as there military and economic occupations of the 1920's under Wilson
“Lend-Lease Act” issued by the United States: related to this idea of illusion vs. reality, and the wavering position of neutrality on the part of the United States.
US having it both ways by aiding in the war effort and still remaining neutral
Lend-Lease Act benefitted Allied Powers
The Atlantic Charter
The Atlantic Charter: within this, the theme of socio-ideologies and their impact on international relations is noted. The United Kingdom and United States were more closely allied than their third partner, the Soviet Union.
but hypocrisy in calling for self determination and then agreeing to Percentages Agreement
US declares war on Japan
Roosevelt delivers “Day of Infamy,” and The United States Declares war on Japan
President Roosevelt issues Executive Order 9066
1942 - 1946
enforces Japanese internment camps after belief of threat that Japanese would invade from Pacific Coast and that Japanese Americans were "fifth pillar???"
US begins firebombing Japan
1939 - 1946
Manhattan Project established, flourishes and expands in size and significance beginning in 1942 under the leadership of Major Leslie R. Groves
Einstein's Letter to Roosevelt
Albert Einstein’s Letter to President Roosevelt: This letter speaks to the beginnings of the atomic bomb.
South Manchurian Railway Incident-Japanese Incursion
indicative of the beginning of a period of intense military expansion on the part of Japan.
replaces Manchuria: the Japanese invasion speaks to the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations and the debasement of all of the peace treaties made prior.
took a very cautious tone when addressing the Japanese and ultimately concluded that temporary occupation of China should take place to help its internal reconstruction
Japan did not accept the Commission's suggestion and WITHDREW FORM THE LEAGUE
the suggestion would have diluted Chinese sovereignty and obviousl ynot allowed Japanese to expand and obtain hegemony
Henry Stimson Response to Japanese Situation
dispatches a non-recognition doctrine to Tokyo, doesn’t entail an economic sanction. This decision is indicative of a cautious American response in an attempt to avoid war with Japan and preserve their position of neutrality. A number of other factors were at play as well.
1937 - 1941
Pact of Neutrality b/w USSR and Japan
Battle of Midway
Battle of Midway: first United States Counter-Offensive attack and a prelude to their extensive counter-offensive plan. It is indicative of technological advancement, air craft carriers confront each other for the first time and America claims a victory.
Japan Breaks Deadlock- Plans to Surrender
Japanese Emperor breaks deadlock and announces plans to surrender
USSR Joins League of Nations
onsider this to be the Soviet Union’s first shift in foreign policy, pay close attention to the events revolving around this decision and the events that caused Stalin to make a “2nd About Face,” which will be introduced later in the timeline.
Battle of Stalingrad
August 23,1942 - February 2, 1943
The Middle East
Report of Britain’s Peel Commission: in response to the civil war in Palestine between the Arab Palestinians and the Zionists, also a reflection of the failure of the British to fulfill the Hashemite and Zionist wishes. The Peel Commission suggests that the ideal solution is a PARTITIONING
White Paper Report
The British government issues the White Paper: which places restrictions on Jewish immigration, consider the intersections of religion and political prowess.
PROPOSES SINGLE STATE SOLUTION WITH LIMITATION TO JEWISH IMMMIGRATION