Ap European History



1265 - 1321

He was a writter during the renaissance
Wrote Dante's Inferno

Renaissance in Italy

1304 - 1550

This was when the ideas of humanism came about
Italy prime spot in trade routs lots of culture flowed through
Started in Flourence with the Medici


1304 - 1374

The Father Of Humanism
Was a poet

Avingnon Papacy

1309 - 1377

Papacy is in Avingnon France
Pope is French


1313 - 1375

Renaissance writer

The Hundered Years War

1337 - 1453

France and England were fighting. Long bows Monarchy s tronger nobles weakened population of france dessimated

The Black Death

1346 - 1348

This was a plague that wiped out 1/3 to 2/3 of the population in europe
People were living at the subsistence level
Very little meds

The Golden Bull


This was what made up the electoral for the HR emperor
Brandenburg Prussia key

Hussites: John Huss

1369 - 1415

He was another Early Cheurch Reformer based in Prague

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Three popes
one in Avingnon France
One in Italy and one was elected to try to remedy the problem



These were the French Peasant revolts

Lollards: John Wycliffe


A reform on the church that included trying to limit the Churches power
Shakes peoples faith
Whanted to be judged by merit

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

This is the council that solved the great Schism and made only one pope the pope

Northern Rennaissance

1443 - 1509

Includes the printing press and Erasmus as well
Focused on Education and Religious reforms

Printing Press Guttenberg


The press of movable type was invented in Mainz HRE and it allowed for the reformation to spread much faster Johannas Guttenberg invented it


1466 - 1536

Wrote some literature on greed and selfishness
Northern Humanist

Ferdinand and isabella are Married


Made spain stronger so could defend its boarders

Columbus/Start of the Spanish Empire


Columbus finds the new world

Early Exploration Portugal and Spain

1492 - 1600

They are the pioneers in the finding of the New world

Italy's Decline

1494 - 1527

Italy declined due to invasions
France had been invited in and it caused problems

Columbian Exchange

1500 - 1600

The exchange of goods from Europe to the Colonies

Witch Hunts

1500 - 1600

when there was a fear of witches making things go wrong
Catholic church just trying to gain majority and control

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

The warrior pope
Fought a bunch of wars
Active foreign Policy

Henry the Eighth

1509 - 1547

had lots of wives and had the seperation of church and state. In search of a male Heir so needed a divorce which led him to break away from the church/ pope
Did not do much to change church after lef

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

Had many wives
Church under state
Male Heir

The Prince: Machiavelli


A book on how to rule because Machiavelli was tired of other people ruling Italy

The Reformation

1517 - 1563

The time when many catholics and people broke away with the church because they felt there was a misunderstanding of the bible. This is when Several new protestant faiths were found.

Martin Luthers 95 thesis

October 31 1517

A document posted on the church door to spark conversation and debate about church reforms

Luther- 95 Thesis. Diet of Worms

June 27 1519

Luther posts his list of grievences on the doors of the church and then is excommunicated from the church


1520 - 1580

This was the Art form that came after Renaissance more abstract and colorful as well as more of the Artist

Diet of Worms


The Diet where Martin Luther is Excommunicated

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

The peasants of Germany were rising up to challange authourity
Luther Condemned it

English Reformation

1527 - 1600

The Reformation of the catholic church to be under the state

William of Orange( the Silent)

1533 - 1584

Brought the Netherlands together
Shtadholer/ landowner

Act of Supremacy


This made Church under state

Jesuits Society of Jesus Ignatius of Loyola

1534 - 1600

Ignatius was wounded then became a devout catholic and began to pull people back into the catholic faith
Counter reformists



Geneva strict Theocracy
JOhn Calvin is a controler
2 sacraments

John Calvin- Geneva


Geneva = Strict Theocracy
Calvin= 2 Sacraments and major reformer

Copernicus on the Revolutions of heavenly Spheres


The heliocentric model originates here
published on his death bed

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The church met to try to do internal reforms to the church includes Bishop things and clergy reforms, made it more strict to the celebate

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Increased power of the pope and gave internal church reforms
No bend toward Protestant doctrine

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Has several noses lost his in a duel
Beleived in Geocentric

Mary I

1553 - 1558

Bloody Mary
Didn't kill that many people

Peace of Augsburg


This made it so the Ruler of the state chose the Religion

Elizabeth of England

1558 - 1603

Elizabeth the I
Steered middle route

French Religious Wars

1562 - 1598

These were a bunch of wars that france fought over religion mostly the Thirty Years War

Thirty Nine Articles


Made protestantism official religion


1564 - 1616

A playwrite
That's pretty famous today
Wrote some tragedies
Giant in Literature

Rise in the Netherlands Dutch golden age

1572 - 1610

The netherlands are rising to the top economicaly
tulip bubble
Dutch india trading company

Saint Barholomew's Day Massacre

August 22 1572

This was when Catholics actively went after the Hugonaughts to kill them

Pacification of Ghent

November 4 1576

This was when a bunch of spanish just leveled a town aka the Spanish Fury

Union of Utrecht

January 1579

William of Orange brings the Netherlands together

Mary Stuart is Executed


She is executed for plotting a coup on Elizabeth's life

Spanish Armada


The spanish armada is destroyed by england

Henry the IV

1589 - 1610

Edict of Nantes

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

Raised standard of living
More consumers for new goods
materialistic values


1594 - 1658

The General who takes over the crown when Parliament and the monarchy go to war

Descartes Discourse on Method

1594 - 1650

Describes his deductive reasoning
Defines what is real

Edict of Nantes

April 13 1598

Forced religious Toleration
State within a state

Decline of Gothic Art

1600 - 1800

Gothic art replaced with neoclassicalism art

Baroque Art: (catholic Nations)

1600 - 1700

Also very elaborate but restricted to catholic nations

Age of Mercantilism

1600 - 1800

The beleife in the idea that resources are scarce and a monopolization on resources

Prussian Militarism

1600 - 1800

Prussia's military

James I

1603 - 1625

King James Bible

Cervantes: Don Quixote


Cervantes wrote this book about Don

Henry the IV is assasinated


It was a crazy friar that did it

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Louis the XIII
Made France leading power

The Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

Catholics VS Protestants
Ravaged the land

Bacon:Novum Organum


Explains inductive reasoning

Keplar: The New Astronomy


Describes his discoveries
And shows the Heliocentric model

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

Believe just in case

Charles I

1625 - 1649

Catholic caused English civil war to occur sooner

Galileo Condemned


Condemned for disagreeing with the church about weather his work agreed with the church

Long/ Short Parliament

1640 - 1660

short= charles disbanded imediatly
Long= after long call to figure out taxation and funds

English Civil War

1642 - 1646

This was when England was working out their parliamentary monarchy
W.m of OrangeIII comes in and Cromwell


1642 - 1661

The assistant to Louis XIV

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

The Sun king
Nobles power drained
Absolute monarchy

Treaty of Westphalia


This ended the thirty years war
France main power
lutheran and Catholic only accepted religions

The Puritan Republic

1649 - 1660

This was not truly a republic more of a dictatorship

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

the french revolts that left a impression on Louis XIV and mad him change what he did

Academies of Science

1650 - 1800

Focused on Practical uses of science
Royal society of London

Decline of the Netherlands

1650 - 1750

Competition in naval merchants from england and england's improvement in ship building contributed to the decline of the netherlands

Hobbes Laviathan


Absolute monarchy
Man is inherently evil
Chaos in the state of nature

The Restoration of the Crown

1660 - 1685

This was when James the First came back and was king again

Royal Society of London founded


opening of royal society

Charles II

1660 - 1685

Restored the monarchy after Cromwell and was followed by James the I

Agricultural Revolution

1674 - 1795

This was when there was more food
Less Plague
Less war
New crops
New Inventions

End of the Witch Hunts


The witch hunts are coming to a close and order is returning

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

took land on the baltic sea
St petersburg
westernizes russia

The Glorious Revolution

1685 - 1689

William of Orange III and Mary come in to power through a bloodless coup

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes


The Edict of nantes is revoked
Bad Move

James the II

1685 - 1688

Replaced by william of Orange III and Mary

Newton: Principia Mathematica


This was Newtons book on the laws that he observed in nature

Frederick Weihelm

1688 - 1740

The soldier King
started to form the military to what it was

English Bill of Rights


This gave freedoms to parliament not to everybody, just the priveleged

LOcke:Treatises on Government( 1st and 2nd)


Natural rights
Social Contract


1700 - 1900

Very real life and emphasise respect and responsibility

The Great Northern War of Russia/ Sweden

1700 - 1721

Russia fights sweden over a city on the baltic sea which would give Russia a warm water port

War of Spanish Sucession

1701 - 1714

This was the war where it was everyone else against France and spain because spain was giving the throne to the bourbon family which was France

Act of settlement


Gave Sophia of Hanover the throne of England

Death of William of III of England


William dies

Emergence of Rococo

1710 - 1750

Rococo is an art form that is very elaborate and symetrical

Charles VI Pragmatic Sanction


This was when charles garenteed that the throne would pass on to his daughter Maria Theresa

Treaty of Utrecht


France makes a treaty with everyone else ending the War of Spanish Sucession
Swears not to join with spain

Death of Louis XIv


Louis Dies

MIssissippi Bubble


A scandal by the french government after Louis XIV died to earn more money

Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole

1722 - 1742

first prime minister of England and consolidated power in the paliament

Catherine the Great of Russia

1729 - 1796

Enlightened Despot
Pugachevs rebellion stopped her from going anywhere with it
not very enlighteded
serfdom got worse
Crushed by a horse

War of Jenkins Ear

1739 - 1748

This was when Spain attacked some of the English smugglers and England rallied behind Jenkins and went to war
the start of public opinion

Frederick II

1740 - 1786

Gained land through poland
Enlightened Despot
First servant of the state

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1765

Was the leader of Austria due to the pragmatic sanction lost land because everyone took land from her
Mother of Joseph the second

War of Austrian Sucession

1740 - 1765

Maria gave up some of the power of the monarchy to the nobles in order to preserve Austria
Most notable of the nobles were the Guise

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1850

The time when textile manufacturing moved from the Putting out system and into factories

Seven Years War

1754 - 1763

England used prussia as a way to destract France to enable England to attack France in the Americas

Diplomatic Revolution


France with Austria
Bourbon with Habsburg
England with Prussia

Voltaire: Candide


Satire on Society and on france as well as religion

Enclosure Method

1761 - 1792

This was when farm land was used more productively and thus more food was produced

Rousseau: Emile, Social Contract


Pursue interests in curriculum, not just curriculum
Social Contract

Treaty of Paris


England took some territory from France up in Canada and gave France back some territory

Joseph the II

1764 - 1790

Enlightened Despot
Equal taxation, law,
abolished serfdom
church arm of state

Spinning Jenny


This allowed the spinners to produce yarn faster

Water Frame


This allowed water to be used as power for the spinning jenny

Steam Engine


This allowed for mines to be cleared of water and power machines faster

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

America Revolts from the new taxation that England places on them and france aids the americans

Smith Wealth of Nations


Man is free
Everywhere chains

Malthus Principle of population


Human suffering inevitable
Not enough resources to support society

Ricardo Iron Law of Wages


Laissez faire
worked with adam smith
low controlled wages

French Revolution

Great Fear


Peasants flip and burn legal papers and take back lost land

Rights of Man and Citezen


Very enlightened
All men created equal and free

Estates General called


Estates general meets

Storming of the Bastile


The Mob forces the revolution to go radical
Release all seven prisoners none are political
get weapons for militia

Tennis Court Oath


The 3rd estate swears to write a constitution for a new government

War With Austria


The Revolution felt threatened when Leopold Antionnetes sister threatened to attack if the royal family was injured

Nobles Renounce Feudal priveleges

August 4 1789

On paper nobles are equal

March of the Fishwives

October 6 1789

Mob again forces the Revolution to Go Radical
Send king to paris
Raid Versailles

Civil Constiturion of Clergy


Took catholic lands and rented them back
made Catholics swear loyalty to the state over the pope
Turned many Catholics against the state

Legislative Assembly meets


New government meets very radical
first meeting

Wollstonecraft The Vindication of Rights of Women


Feminist views on women rights

Louis XIV executed


Gave Louis a shave with the National Razor
guilty of treason

convention meets monarch abolished


monarchy is abolished and first republic is voted into place

Tuileries Stormed king captive


the King is taken captive
now prisoner of the revolution
king put on trial

Levee en masse


Drafting of males into the Army

Danton is executed


Robespierre took leadership
Danton is killed because Robespierre feels threatened

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

The most radical stage
Lots of guillotining of people

Cult of the Supreme being


Deism now religion of Republic
Failed in the End

Fall of Robespierre


Said there are enemies amoung us didn't say who
the convention then turned against him and he was executed face up

Cult of Reason


Robespierres form of deism in the new republic

Constitution of the YearIII The Directory established


back swing of the pendulum
moderates are in the convention and start establishing a new constitution that helps the middle class the most

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Overthrown by Napolean

Napoleon coup brumaire


When Napoleon weakened the directory so he could establish himself as the consolate