The earliest extant documented papyrus comes from Egypt's 1st Dynasty, but we believe it may have been used as early as 4,000 BCE
Hieroglyphic script developed
Changed SOCIAL; workers
The stones could have been dragged up a ramp. However, such a ramp would need to extend for hundreds of metres and would contain an enormous amount of bricks or rubble. An alternative idea is that a spiral ramp was wrapped around the pyramid as it rose in height. Dr Zahi Hawass, Egypt’s leading archaeologist, concluded that it could have been a combination of the two.
Ancient India's contributions in the field of astronomy are well known and well documented. The earliest references to astronomy are found in the Rig Veda, which are dated 2000 BC. During next 2500 years, by 500 AD, ancient Indian astronomy has emerged as an important part of Indian studies and its affect is also seen in several treatises of that period. In some instances, astronomical principles were borrowed to explain matters,
Surgical operations were performed like taking the fetus out of the womb, including caesarian, section, treatment of fistula, removal of stone from bladder and plastic surgery for the nose. Despite the developments as the above in medicine, ancient Indian doctors, in general had no knowledge of the functions of brain, although they knew the importance of the spinal cord and the existence of nervous system. Despite the fact that the physiological knowledge of ancient Indians was very poor, Indians evolved empirical surgery. They knew bone-setting, plastic surgery and surgeons in ancient India were experts is repairing noses, ears and lips lost, or injured by mutilation. The physician was a respectable member of society
Steal was developed in the Tamil region of Southern India between 300 BC and the start of the common era. Steal weapons were highly prized and traded throughout the Near east and ancient Europe. Indian steal was legendary for its tensile strength and knowledge of it fueled a quest for improved metallurgy across the Near east and Europe. By the time of the Gupta’s steel weapons would have been more come common in Indian warfare, but still only used by elite warriors.
the economic system of the Ottoman Empire consists of many key concepts. The Ottomans, like many other civilizations believed in military expansion to boost their economy. They also believed in fiscalism which is the economic theory of fiscal policy. This concept is the expenditures a government undertakes to provide goods and services. The two main practices are taxation and borrowing. Other economic strategies include traditional monopolies and conservative land holding.
As the capitalist system grew in Europe, the Turks methods became less and less useful and ultimately lead to their down fall.
Bad weather and crop failures result in famines across northwestern Europe. Unsanitary conditions and malnutrition increase the death rate. Even after the revival of agricultural conditions, weather disasters reappear. A mixture of war, famine and plague in the Late Middle Ages reduce the population by half.
Muslim scholars became intellectually conservative and resistant to new ideas; convinced of the superiority of Muslim / Ottoman civilization, they were seemingly oblivious to the advances being made in the infidel West. Meanwhile, the Ottoman religious establishment gradually became infiltrated by the Sufi orders, producing a new sort of symbiosis which gave greater strength to conservative religious” elements.