The invention of the transistor in 1948 gave the Nobel Prize to U.S. Walter H. Brattain, John Bardeen and William B. Shockley. This is a decisive step, not only in computer, but in all electronics.
The first computers designed for people
With invention of integrated circuit, computers were smaller than older.
first removable magnetic disk appears as storage medium
Computers of this generations were sale to people in April 1964 and they were cheaper and smaller than computers form previous generations.
The computers with these chips was very cheap and small so it is very easy to introduction it anywhere in offices, homes, schools...