Western Civ

Rome

death of Augustus

114

Pax Romana

114 - 180

Third Century Crisis

200 - 300

-wars, plague, famine & natural disaster: decline in population
-economic decline: luxury trade, transfer hard currency, debasement of currency
-threatened boarders
-problems with military organization: pay increases

Great Persecution

303

Diocletian's mass persecution of Christianity. Diocletian believed letting Christians live in Rome dishonored Rome's past (Christian's don't sacrifice). He wanted to eradicate Christians: they were not allowed to hold office, their money & land were taken away and given to the empire/emperor.

Christianization of Empire

306 - 395

Constantine was first Christian emperor (306-337). Issued the Edict of Milan. Theodosius I (379-395) adopted Christianity as the official religion of the empire.

Reign of Constantine

306 - 337

Edict of Milan

313

-accepted every religion

Reign of Theodosius I

379 - 395

-adopted Christianity as official religion

Official Adaption of Christianity

391

Theodosius finally banned all polytheist sacrifices, making Christianity the official religion of the empire.

Split of the Empire

395

When Theodosius died, he split the empire into two halves: eastern half became Byzantine Empire (ended 1453) and the western half became Medieval Europe.

Fall of Rome

410

-Rome sacked by Visogoths

Last Roman Emperor

476

Byzantium

Death of Justinian

565

Islamic Europe

Life of Muhammad

570 - 632

-prophet & creator of Islam

The Hijra

622

-Muhammad's pilgrimage to Medina
-marked true beginning of Islam

Spread of Islam

632 - 900

Umayyad Caliphate

661 - 750

-took over after prophet died
-moved capital to Damascus: easier to govern but led to competition with aristocracy already established there
-first mosques created
-Arabic was language of administration

Abbasid Caliphate

790 - 900

-wanted to spread Islam
-public education;built schools attached mosques;teach Arabic
-moved capital to Baghdad
-had 2 primary taxes: Kharah (tax on land & produce) & Jizya (tax on non-Muslims)
-achieved mass conversion

Islamic Renaissance

790 - 1050

-took place in Spain & Abbasid domains
-philosophy, science/medicine, math, etc
-intellectual, scientific & artistic achievements
-formation of institutes of higher learning in Madrasa (mosque schools)
-technical advances (paper)
-translation of ancient Greek texts into Arabic

Medieval Europe

Merovingian Dynasty

481 - 751

Reign of Clovis

485 - 511

-founded Merovingian Dynasty
-unified Gaul (France)
-converted to Catholic Chrisitianity

Reign of Charles Martel

714 - 741

-Mayor of the Palace
-aided papacy against Lombards
-defeated Muslim armies at Tours

Carolingian Dynasty

751 - 987

Charlemagne

768 - 814

-wished to unite traditions of Europe (Roman, Germanic & Christian)
-spread power; very Roman
-educational reforms; seven liberal arts
-military reforms

Agricultural, Commercial & Urban Revolutions

1000 - 1100

Gregorian Reform

1073 - 1085

-papal reform advocated by Pope Gregory VIII

Investiture Controversy

1075 - 1122

-conflict between King Henry III of England & Pope Gregory VII
-Henry appointed new archbishop of Milan & Gregory disputed Henry's power to "invest" archbishop
-Gregory said Henry should give more respect to him & his decisions; Henry called for Gregory to resign
-1076, Gregory excommunicated Henry & suspended him from office; anyone could be king
-antiking was elected by the German princes
-Henry & supporters elected antipope

First Crusade

1095

-crusade called for by Pope Urban II
-crusade: armed pilgrimage
-extreme violence in Europe; Urban said "take violence elsewhere where it will do more good"
-fighting Muslims/Turks was said to be a morally positive act, erase all sins

Sack of Jerusalem

1099

-city sacked & destroyed
-4 Crusader states carved from land
-meant to be purely Catholic states; forced to re-invite Muslims & Jews to territory (most crusaders returned to Europe)
-adopted policy of Muslim caliphs: practice what you want, pay a tax if not Catholicism

Rise of Universities

1100 - 1200

Concordat of Worms

1122

-ended fighting with a compromise: distinction between spiritual & secular parts of investiture ceremony
-spiritual part would be done by a churchman & secular part would be done by king

Second Crusade

1147 - 1149

-lost Edessa

Third Crusade

1189 - 1192

Fourth Crusade

1202 - 1204

Fourth Lateran Council

1215

-called by Innocent III
-discuss problem of heresy (cathars)

Papacy/Pope in Avignon

1305 - 1378

Famine in Europe

1315 - 1317

-decline in population
-first crisis faced by Europe in 14th century

The Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

-war between France & England
-4 phases of war: first 3 phases -> progressive weakening of French power, strengthening of England & creation of new kingdom (Burgundy, allied with England until 1435)
-4th phase of war began when King Henry V of England invaded France & achieved a great victory (Agincourt, 1415), ended with complete reversal & ousting of England from continent for good
-reversal began with Joan of Arc
-mercenaries were used by both sides coming from Germany, Switzerland & the Netherlands

The Black Death

1348 - 1352

-disease that spread across Europe killing 1/3 of the population
-in large cities about 60% of the population died

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

-Pope Gregory XI moved papacy back to Rome in 1377
-Romans determined to never lose papacy again & demanded that cardinals elect a Roman/Italian successor to Gregory; chose an Italian, Urban VI
-Urban abused the power of the pope & the cardinals decided that Urban's election had been irregular & called on him to resign, which he refused
-cardinals elected new pope, a Frenchman, Clement VII
-Urban & Clement excommunicated each other & Clement moved papal court back to Avignon
-1409; cardinals from both sides of schism met & deposed both popes, electing a new one, Alexander V
-Alexander's successor John XXIII called on emperor to arrange another council to fix schism

Council of Constance

1414 - 1418

-meeting to resolve papal crisis & institute church reforms
-delegates deposed John XXIII & accepted resignation of pope at Rome
-after long negotiations with supports of pope at Avignon, all allegiance to him was withdrawn & he was deposed
-council elected Martin V & all important rulers recognized him as pope, ending the Great Schism