Second Boer War and Khaki election; Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Last Prime Minister to serve entirely from the House of Lords
Nephew of the Marquess of Salisbury.
Had poor relations with Edward VII; his cabinet was split over free trade; establishment of the Committee of Imperial Defence; Entente Cordiale; Education Act 1902; Taff Vale case.
Restored autonomy to Transvaal and the Orange Free State; Anglo-Russian Entente; first Prime Minister to be referred to as such in Parliamentary legislation
Hung Parliaments. Liberal Welfare Reforms; People's Budget; Old Age Pensions Act 1908 and National Insurance Act 1911; Parliament Act 1911; Suffragettes and the Cat and Mouse Act; Home Rule Act 1914; World War I; Easter Rising.
Welsh-speaking: only Prime Minister whose mother tongue was not English. End of World War I; Paris Peace Conference; attempted to extend conscription to Ireland during the First World War; Chanak Crisis.
Canadian-born: only Prime Minister born outside the British Isles. Became Prime Minister following Conservative backbenchers' decision at the Carlton Club meeting to withdraw from the Lloyd George Coalition.
Called a general election to gain a mandate for protectionist tariffs but failed to gain a majority; resigned after losing a vote of confidence.
Hung Parliament; minority government reliant on Liberal support. First Labour Prime Minister; did not have a majority so could not introduce radical legislation; settled reparations with Germany following World War I; Zinoviev letter.
Treaty of Locarno; signatory of the Kellogg-Briand Pact; Pensions Act; enfranchisement of women over 21; UK General Strike of 1926.
Wall Street Crash in 1929.
National Government after 24 August 1931. MacDonald expelled from the Labour Party.
Edward VIII abdication crisis; started rearmament but later criticised for failing to rearm more when Adolf Hitler broke Germany's Treaty of Versailles obligations.
Attempted to maintain "peace for our time" through appeasement of Germany, settling the Munich Agreement; widely criticised following the German Invasion of Poland and consequent outbreak of World War II; resigned after failing to form a Coalition Government.
World War II; led a Coalition Government; foundation of the United Nations; proposed what would eventually lead to the European Union; Beveridge Report. Following the ending of his all-party coalition, Churchill formed a "caretaker" government
Initiated the post-war consensus; introduced nationalisation of utilities; foundation of the National Health Service; extended national insurance scheme; Independence of India and the end of the British role in Palestine; foundation of NATO; beginning of the Cold War; the Berlin Blockade and the resulting Berlin Airlift; the start of British involvement in the Korean War.
Domestic policy interrupted by foreign disputes (Korean War, Operation Ajax, Mau Mau Uprising, Malayan Emergency).
Egyptian nationalisation of the Suez Canal; which sparked the Suez Crisis
The UK applied to join the European Economic Community for the first time, the application split the Conservatives and was vetoed by Charles de Gaulle; acceptance of Keynesianism; Rent Act 1957; Wind of Change speech; Notting Hill race riots and New Commonwealth immigration; beginning of Beeching Axe; Night of the Long Knives; Cuban missile crisis; Profumo Affair.
Renounced his peerage in order to stand for the House of Commons.
Social reforms, including legalisation of abortion, abolition of capital punishment and decriminalisation of homosexuality; Rhodesian U.D.I.; adopted, then abandoned, the National Plan for the economy; Devaluation of the pound; foundation of the Open University; disputes with trade unions over In Place of Strife and prices and incomes policy.
U-turned over intervention in industry; negotiated Britain's entry to the European Community; Violence due to Northern Ireland's "Troubles" peaked; the Sunningdale Agreement agreed; Three-Day Week; Misuse of Drugs Act 1971; called early election in backfiring attempt to confront striking miners.
Hung parliament. Ended dispute with miners; Social Contract with trade unions over the economy; Health and Safety at Work Act; Renegotiated terms for EC membership, then 1975 referendum validated entry; North Sea oil; Cod War.
ternational Monetary Fund loan to support the pound; the Lib-Lab pact; enacted devolution to Scotland and Wales but referendums stopped them; breakdown of relations with trade unions and Winter of Discontent.
First female Prime Minister of the UK. Falklands War; sold council housing to tenants (right to buy); miners' strike 1984–85; privatisation of many previously government-owned industries; decreased the power of trade unions; negotiation of the UK rebate towards the European Community budget; Brighton hotel bombing; Sino-British Joint Declaration; Anglo-Irish Agreement; Westland Affair; abolition of GLC; Section 28; the "Poll tax" and Poll Tax Riots; Lockerbie bombing; the end of the Cold War.
Early 1990s recession; Gulf War; ratification of the Maastricht Treaty and the Maastricht Rebels; forced exit from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism ("Black Wednesday"); the Downing Street Declaration (initiating the Northern Ireland peace process); Privatisation of British Rail; The National Lottery; Citizen's Charter; Sunday Shopping
Hong Kong handover; Death of Diana, Princess of Wales; Independence for the Bank of England;Ecclestone tobacco controversy; Belfast Agreement; Human Rights Act; devolution to Scotland and Wales; House of Lords Reform; Minimum wage introduced; 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia; Fuel protests; creation of Greater London Authority and Mayoralty of London; 2001 foot and mouth crisis; War in Afghanistan; Iraq War; top-up fees introduced for university tuition; Civil Partnership Act; All forms of Magic Mushroom Class A; All forms of Cannabis moved from Class B to C; Constitutional Reform Act; 2005 London bombings; Cash for Honours scandal; Identity Cards Act; introduced student fees.
See Lecture 2 for impact: income tax doubled
1870s up to 1918, emphatic anti-suffragist claim was that the majority of women did not want the parliamentary vote
o Silent majority
o Female anti-suffragists organised tests of public opinion
Pre-war, remarkably consistent results: opposition generally outnumbered supporters by 2 to 1 (Bush)
National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies - led by Millicent Fawcett
Martin Pugh: The role of women had already changed by the Edwardian period. Work was a necessary part of women’s lives (14% of married women in paid employment) He points to the changing history of marriage, early male mortality and how such changes had already impacted on the women's movement, as unmarried middle-class women often struggled to support themselves
Contrast shows that there was a definite politicisation of women's rights after 1918
Women's Social and Political Union under Emmeline Pankhurst’s leadership (later nicknamed the ‘suffragettes’ by the Daily Mail)
Example of in-fighting and divergent tactices
Formed by a break-away faction of the WSPU in response to Emmeline Pankhurst’s leadership (deemed ‘tyrannical’ by the future WFL)
o 3 main examples show ‘militancy’ at a pivotal moment within the campaign for the vote:
- WSPU's 1908 "rush" on the House of Commons (see p.353-)
- WFL's 1908 "grille protest” (p.357-)
- WFL’s 1909 "siege" of Westminster
1908: Church of England pronounced contraception as theologically, socially and morally wrong (remained this way until 1930)
1910-12: rift opened up between democratic and equal franchise suffragists (the question of married and working-class women)
On what grounds would suffrage be granted was the major set-back
Stripped the Lords’ veto
Sped up women’s suffrage, but more a symptom of the changing political climate
Exposes major flaws of the suffrage movment's firm non-party stance - leads to pact with Labour later in the year
Pankhurst-backed candidate defeated
Shows WSPU not appealing to the public - unsavoury behaviour suffragettes alienating?
Women's legislation which Included the Sex Disqualification Act (1918), The Law of Property Act (1922) and the Age of Marriage Act (1929)
1919 Sex (Removal of Disqualifications) Act
o Recognised need for sexual equality in law, but did little to enforce it
1923 Matrimonial Causes Act
o Divorce still expensive and demeaning
1937 Matrimonial Causes Act
o Extended grounds for divorce to desertion, cruelty, insanity and drunkenness
o A.k.a. The Herbert Act (framed in Christian terms to make as inoffensive to the Church as possible)
o However did not much alter divorce rates (although enabled Mrs Simpson to get the divorce which would provoke the abdication crisis)
o ~1940s: only 7% of marriages ended in divorce
Universal male suffrage, vote for female householders over 30
Tripled the electorate, from 7.7 million to 21.4 million
although individual states had done so sooner
Abortion and birth control caused profound ideological disagreements
- War compelled Church to debate it at Lambeth Conference
- Clergy not unanimous
granted women the same voting rights as men
Lady Asquith (Lord Asquith’s daughter) commented on the suffragettes’ un-aesthetic appearance on a 1968 BBC TV show
Vote passed to allow women to become full members of the Carlton Club. Anne Widdecombe becomes the first full female member in June.
Oswald Mosley's British Union of Fascists (BUF) marched in London's largely Jewish East End. Met by police and left-wing counter-protestors - victory for the Left
Arguably the beginning of the Holocaust and led to thousands of Jews trying to emigrate from Germany and Austria. Many found homes in the UK (e.g. Sigmund Freud)
Symbol of West Indian immigration.
Arrived at Tilbury
From Attlee to Callaghan