1st Semester AP Euro Timeline



1265 - 1321

Contemporary like Petrarch.


1304 - 1374

Father of humanism.

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1377

Selling of indulgences begins.


1313 - 1375

Wrote a piece that brought the idea of original scripture into the Renaissance.

Hundred Years' War

May 1337 - October 1453

French nationalism awakened and a centralized state created.

The Black Death

1347 - 1350

Disease that entered Europe in Italy that came from the fleas of the rats of the trading ships. Caused chaos because many believed that this was Gods way of punishing them.

The Golden Bull


Created a 7 member electoral college that elected the emperor.



Peasant revolts.

Hussites: John Huss

1369 - 1415

Huss was the first church reformer.

Renaissance in Italy

1375 - 1527

People learn the importance of the creativity of the individual.

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

There was 2 popes wanting to take over, College of Cardinals choose to elect a new pope.

Lollards: John Wycliffe

1381 - 1401

Lollards were followers of Wycliffe who generally had something to gain from following his teachings.

Early Explorations-Portugal and Spain

1394 - 1521

Portugal made explorations in North America where spices were found and traded. Spain explored the Americas and takes control over them.

Witch Hunts

1400 - 1642

Usually women killed for witchcraft acts and problems people blamed on them.

Council of Constance

1414 - 1417

Named the new pope Martin V and council would meet every 10 years.

Northern Renaissance

1450 - 1580

Northern Renaissance was influenced by the printing press which made more people able to have a Bible.

Commercial Revolution

1450 - 1700

Mercantilism was created by this.

Printing press: Guttenberg


Invented by Johannes Guttenberg to help make books easier and more efficient.


1466 - 1536

humanist who wrote Julius Excluded from Heaven, which showed why Pope Julius was not included in Heaven.

Ferdinand and Isabella

1474 - 1516

Christianized all of Spain.

Columbus/Start of Spanish Empire

October 12, 1492

Columbus discovers the New World.

Italy's decline by (invasions)...

1494 - 1527

Italy loses their centralized monarchy when France invasions take place.

Agricultural Revolution

1500 - 1600

Revolution that helped produce food at a faster speed. Enclosures created that would section off a part of land a rotate the crops planted every year. The seed drill was invented that increased the amount of crops able to be planted.

Pope Julius II

1503 - 1513

Known as the warrior pope because of his support for the military.

Henry VIII r.

1509 - 1547

Had the nickname of "Defender of the Faith", because he stayed Catholic during the Protestant Reformation.

John Calvin: Geneva

1509 - 1564

Religious reformer who created Calvinism.

Henry VIII

1511 - 1547

Was the king of England and known for having many wives.

The prince; Machiavelli


Machiavelli wrote the Prince as a satire about rulers and war.

Luthers 95 Thesis, Diet of Worms

1517 - April 1521

Indulgences and the pope of the church are questioned if they are doing what God would want.


1517 - 1648

Europe was no longer a majority of Catholics.


1520 - 1590

A Renaissance style of painting that was more realistic.

German Peasant Revolts

1524 - 1525

Against what Luther wanted from his 95 Thesis.

Catholic/Counted Reformation


Catholics reaction to the Protestant reformation success.

English Reformation


England was no longer under the control of the church.

William of orange

1533 - 1568

Known as the silent because he had a small group of confidants.

Jesuits-society of Jesus-Ignatius of Loyola


wanted to promote protestantism.

Act of Supremacy


Made the state the head of the church, so Henry VIII was the head of the church.

Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres


Many found his theories to be wrong.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Meeting of the church that reenacted the codes of the doctrine.

Council of Trents

1545 - 1563

Church was most resistent to Jansenists doctrines as well as Protestant.

Tycho Brahe

1546 - 1601

Suggested only Venus and Mercury revolved around the sun and the rest of the planets orbited the Earth.

Mary I

1553 - 1558

First female to be on the English throne.

Peace of Augsburg


Recognized cuius regio, eius religio, meaning the ruler of the land would determine the religion.

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Successful in both foreign and domestic policy.

Thirty Nine Articles


Made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England.


1564 - 1616

was the greatest play writer of his time.

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre


Nobles massacre thousands of Protestants in France.

Pacification of Ghent


Belgium became 7 large Protestant provinces against Spain.

Union of Utrecht


United the Netherlands as a independent nation.

Rise of the Netherlands-Dutch Golden Age

1581 - 1715

Financial and shipping power
high urban consolidation
transformed agriculture
extensive trade
overseas commercial empire

Mary Stuart Executed


Planned to kill Queen Elizabeth but was beheaded before she could.

Spanish Armada


Made Phillip II the highest person in the second half of the 16th century.

Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Ruler of France who made Edict of Nantes.

Consumer Revolution

1590 - 1800

Refers to the period of time when materials are being bought more.

Baroque art


Artwork with emotion clearly shown.

Edict of Nantes


Henry IV's religious settlement.

Revocation of Edict of Nantes


king revokes Edict and follows with numerous persecutions.

Cervantes: Don Quixote


Cervantes wrote a book Don Quixote which was a satire about romantics.

James I

1603 - 1649

King of England that tried to keep the powers of Parliament minimal.

Kepler: The New Astronomy

1609 - 1619

Three laws of planetary motion came from his writings.

Henry IV


Henry was assassinated by a Catholic fanatic.

Columbian Exchange

1616 - 1619

The exchange of goods from the New World, Africa, and Europe.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

The Treaty of Westphalia ends the war. It leaves Germany fragmented and gives religious tolerance.

Bacon:Novum Organum


attacked the scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered, believed that there was too much attention put on the knowledge of ancients.

Blaise Pascal

1623 - 1662

People had to take a leap of faith in religion because there was no way to prove Gods existence.

Charles I (England)

1625 - 1649

He started the English civil war when he forced taxes without parliament agreeing to them.

Locke:Treatise of Government (1st and 2nd)

1632 - 1704

The 1st Treatise was to show that traditional analysis could not back up all information and the 2nd Treatise portrayed the natural human state as one of perfect freedom and equality.

Galileo Condemned


Wrote a book that went against the Catholic churches beliefs and they put the book on the condemned list.

Descartes: Discourse on Method


book written by Rene Descartes.

Long/Short Parliament

1640 - 1660

Long parliament met for 20 years and the short met for 3 weeks.

Frederick William

1640 - 1688

known as the Great Elector because he made a centralized government.

Frederick II

1640 - 1688

Created a strong Prussia by uniting power by breaking the nobles estates, organizing a royal bureaucracy and building a strong army.

English Civil War

1642 - 1645

Led by Puritan representatives and Cromwell which would lead to Parliament taking over the government.

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

ran government in an absolute monarchy way and had Mazarin and Richelieu start his absolute ruling for him. He believed that he "was the state."

The Fronde

1649 - 1652

Rebellion of the french nobles against king Louis XIV.



Leviathan was a book saying there should be a strong government that has complete control. He believed the natural state of human kind was evil.

Charles II (England)

1660 - 1685

Led England back to the place they were in 1642 with a monarchy.



Charles II given throne after dictatorship of Cromwell.

Academies of Science

1660 - 1700

The Royal Society of London came first and was an academy that discussed new science and carried out experiments.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1696

modernized Russia to make it similiar to that of the West. He also founded St. Petersburg.

End of witch hunts


End because of the use of reason being more prominent in society at this time.

James II (England)

1685 - 1688

He takes the throne and allows religious toleration once again, in which the parliament responds by inviting William to invade and try and bring back the old traditional ways.

Newton: Principia Mathematica


The book Principia Mathematica was a book saying that every object affects all the other objects because of gravity.

English Bill of Rights


English citizens are given rights that can not be taken away from them.

The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden

1700 - 1721

Sweden and Russia both wanted ports on the Baltic sea, Russia ends up winning the ports.

War of Spanish Succession

1701 - 1714

France, Spain and England at war with eachother because of trade issues.

Act of Settlement


Parliament says that crown goes to Protestant house if no issues came from Queen Anne's death.

Charles VI Pragmatic Sanction

1711 - 1740

was a legal document to instruct the line of inheritance within the habsburgs dynasty.

Age of Mercantilism

1713 - 1776

Is the economic theory that you should export more than import and that there is a limited amount of resources.

Treaty of Utrecht


ended the War of Spanish Succession.

Decline of Netherlands


no future "stadtholder"
fishing industry declines
no unity between the provinces
naval supremacy vanishes

Emergence of Rococo


Style that embraced lavish decorations and use of pastel colors.

Mississippi Bubble

1719 - 1720

There was not enough gold to back up paper money anymore. Paper money was feared in the public for years to come.

Death of Louis XIV


Grandson, Louis XV takes throne at 5 years old.

Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole

1721 - 1742

his success was based off of his royal based support, ability to handle House of Commons, and control of government patronage.

War of Jenkin's Ear


Spaniards cut off the English captain, Robert Jenkins ear during a boarding operation.

War of Austrian Succession

1740 - 1748

Frederick II seized eastern Germany and upset the continental balance of powers.

Maria Theresa

1740 - 1780

She helpd to preserve the Habsburg empire as one of the major political powers.

Catherine the Great (Russia)

1741 - 1762

Was born a German princess but became the empress of Russia.



art work had moral theme.

Industrial Revolution

1750 - 1800

Replaced work in homes with factories.

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

Ended by the Treaty of Paris, which gave Britain Canada, Ohio RIver valley, and eastern half of Mississippi river valley.

Diplomatic Revolution

January 1756

Prussia and Britain make alliance and Austria and France make an alliance to stop foreign troops from entering their country.



book written by Voltaire that is a satire attacking war, religious persecution and optimism about the human condition.

Rousseau-Emile, Social Contract:


In Emile the different spheres for men and women is discussed and social contract was that the individual is not as important as the whole group.

American Revolution

1763 - 1783

British colonies rebellion against Great Britain for their freedom from the king. Colonies would win and go on to create their government.

Spinning Jenny


Invented by James Hargreaves that allowed more spindles of thread to be spun.

Joseph II

1765 - 1790

Ruler who was considered to be enlightened because he centralized authority and abolished serfdom.

Water frame


Invented by Richard Arkwrights that allowed purely cotton fabric to be made.

Steam engine


Invented by James Watt which allowed industrialization to grow on itself.

Smith-Wealth of Nations


most important economic work of the Enlightenment period, it urged a mercantile system for England.

Nobles renounce feudal priv.

July 1788

Estate general is called into order.

Tuileries Stormed-king captive


King and Queen agree to return to Paris once they capture them.

Great Fear


France worries that Austria and Prussia will invade.

Rights of Man and Citizen


Rights given to man and citizens, but excluded women. Rights are similiar to that of our Bill of Rights.

Estates General called/meets

May, 1789

Third estate was kicked out of the meeting by first and second estates.

Tennis Court Oath

June 20, 1789

Pledge taken by the Third Estate agreeing to not leave France until a Constitution was made.

Storming of Bastille

July 14, 1789

Prison of Bastille is taken over and free, innocent people are let go by the mob.

March of Fishwives

October 5,1789

7,000 Parisian women marched to Versaille and demanded that the king and queen return to Paris.

Civil Constitution of Clergy

November 1789

was an attempt to fix the debt of France-took Roman Catholic Church land.

The Legislative Assembly Meets

1791 - 1792

Radicals met who wanted to keep the revolution strong. Two groups were Girondists and Mountains.

Wollstonecraft-Vind. of Rights of Women


opposed Rousseau's judgement of the rational Enlightenment ideal of progressive knowledge.

War with Austria

April 20, 1792

Girondists declared war on Austria because they wanted to preserve the revolution from domestic enemies and bring the most advanced revolutionaries to power.

Convention meets-Monarch abolished

September 21, 1792 - 1795

Made France a Republic and and abolished the monarchy.

Louis XVI executed

December 1792

Found guilty by the National Convention and beheaded.

Fall of Robespierre


The man who started the reign of terror had his life ended because of his actions.

Danton Executed


Urged a policy of moderation which the Committee of Public Safety did not agree with.

Cult of Reason

1793 - 1794

ended by the cult of supreme being.

Levee en Masse


was a military requisition on the entire population, conscribing males into the army and directing economic production to military purposes.

Reign of Terror

1793 - 1794

Actions taken to protect the revolution.

Cult of Supreme Being

May 1794

reflected Rousseau's vision of civic religon that would induce morality among citizens.

The Directory

1795 - 1799

Ended when Napoleon overthrew them.

Constitution of the Year III-Directory Established


Created two house parliament consisting of 250 Council of Elders and 500 of Council.

Napoleon-coup Brumaire

1799 - 1815

general who was in charge of French invasions of Italy.

Ricardo: Iron Law of Wages


had a "natural" system of wages for workers.