Contemporary like Petrarch.
Father of humanism.
Selling of indulgences begins.
Wrote a piece that brought the idea of original scripture into the Renaissance.
French nationalism awakened and a centralized state created.
Disease that entered Europe in Italy that came from the fleas of the rats of the trading ships. Caused chaos because many believed that this was Gods way of punishing them.
Created a 7 member electoral college that elected the emperor.
Huss was the first church reformer.
People learn the importance of the creativity of the individual.
There was 2 popes wanting to take over, College of Cardinals choose to elect a new pope.
Lollards were followers of Wycliffe who generally had something to gain from following his teachings.
Portugal made explorations in North America where spices were found and traded. Spain explored the Americas and takes control over them.
Usually women killed for witchcraft acts and problems people blamed on them.
Named the new pope Martin V and council would meet every 10 years.
Northern Renaissance was influenced by the printing press which made more people able to have a Bible.
Mercantilism was created by this.
Invented by Johannes Guttenberg to help make books easier and more efficient.
humanist who wrote Julius Excluded from Heaven, which showed why Pope Julius was not included in Heaven.
Christianized all of Spain.
Columbus discovers the New World.
Italy loses their centralized monarchy when France invasions take place.
Revolution that helped produce food at a faster speed. Enclosures created that would section off a part of land a rotate the crops planted every year. The seed drill was invented that increased the amount of crops able to be planted.
Known as the warrior pope because of his support for the military.
Had the nickname of "Defender of the Faith", because he stayed Catholic during the Protestant Reformation.
Religious reformer who created Calvinism.
Was the king of England and known for having many wives.
Machiavelli wrote the Prince as a satire about rulers and war.
Indulgences and the pope of the church are questioned if they are doing what God would want.
Europe was no longer a majority of Catholics.
A Renaissance style of painting that was more realistic.
Against what Luther wanted from his 95 Thesis.
Catholics reaction to the Protestant reformation success.
England was no longer under the control of the church.
Known as the silent because he had a small group of confidants.
wanted to promote protestantism.
Made the state the head of the church, so Henry VIII was the head of the church.
Many found his theories to be wrong.
Meeting of the church that reenacted the codes of the doctrine.
Church was most resistent to Jansenists doctrines as well as Protestant.
Suggested only Venus and Mercury revolved around the sun and the rest of the planets orbited the Earth.
First female to be on the English throne.
Recognized cuius regio, eius religio, meaning the ruler of the land would determine the religion.
Successful in both foreign and domestic policy.
Made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England.
was the greatest play writer of his time.
Nobles massacre thousands of Protestants in France.
Belgium became 7 large Protestant provinces against Spain.
United the Netherlands as a independent nation.
Financial and shipping power
high urban consolidation
overseas commercial empire
Planned to kill Queen Elizabeth but was beheaded before she could.
Made Phillip II the highest person in the second half of the 16th century.
Ruler of France who made Edict of Nantes.
Refers to the period of time when materials are being bought more.
Artwork with emotion clearly shown.
Henry IV's religious settlement.
king revokes Edict and follows with numerous persecutions.
Cervantes wrote a book Don Quixote which was a satire about romantics.
King of England that tried to keep the powers of Parliament minimal.
Three laws of planetary motion came from his writings.
Henry was assassinated by a Catholic fanatic.
The exchange of goods from the New World, Africa, and Europe.
The Treaty of Westphalia ends the war. It leaves Germany fragmented and gives religious tolerance.
attacked the scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered, believed that there was too much attention put on the knowledge of ancients.
People had to take a leap of faith in religion because there was no way to prove Gods existence.
He started the English civil war when he forced taxes without parliament agreeing to them.
The 1st Treatise was to show that traditional analysis could not back up all information and the 2nd Treatise portrayed the natural human state as one of perfect freedom and equality.
Wrote a book that went against the Catholic churches beliefs and they put the book on the condemned list.
book written by Rene Descartes.
Long parliament met for 20 years and the short met for 3 weeks.
known as the Great Elector because he made a centralized government.
Created a strong Prussia by uniting power by breaking the nobles estates, organizing a royal bureaucracy and building a strong army.
Led by Puritan representatives and Cromwell which would lead to Parliament taking over the government.
ran government in an absolute monarchy way and had Mazarin and Richelieu start his absolute ruling for him. He believed that he "was the state."
Rebellion of the french nobles against king Louis XIV.
Leviathan was a book saying there should be a strong government that has complete control. He believed the natural state of human kind was evil.
Led England back to the place they were in 1642 with a monarchy.
Charles II given throne after dictatorship of Cromwell.
The Royal Society of London came first and was an academy that discussed new science and carried out experiments.
modernized Russia to make it similiar to that of the West. He also founded St. Petersburg.
End because of the use of reason being more prominent in society at this time.
He takes the throne and allows religious toleration once again, in which the parliament responds by inviting William to invade and try and bring back the old traditional ways.
The book Principia Mathematica was a book saying that every object affects all the other objects because of gravity.
English citizens are given rights that can not be taken away from them.
Sweden and Russia both wanted ports on the Baltic sea, Russia ends up winning the ports.
France, Spain and England at war with eachother because of trade issues.
Parliament says that crown goes to Protestant house if no issues came from Queen Anne's death.
was a legal document to instruct the line of inheritance within the habsburgs dynasty.
Is the economic theory that you should export more than import and that there is a limited amount of resources.
ended the War of Spanish Succession.
no future "stadtholder"
fishing industry declines
no unity between the provinces
naval supremacy vanishes
Style that embraced lavish decorations and use of pastel colors.
There was not enough gold to back up paper money anymore. Paper money was feared in the public for years to come.
Grandson, Louis XV takes throne at 5 years old.
his success was based off of his royal based support, ability to handle House of Commons, and control of government patronage.
Spaniards cut off the English captain, Robert Jenkins ear during a boarding operation.
Frederick II seized eastern Germany and upset the continental balance of powers.
She helpd to preserve the Habsburg empire as one of the major political powers.
Was born a German princess but became the empress of Russia.
art work had moral theme.
Replaced work in homes with factories.
Ended by the Treaty of Paris, which gave Britain Canada, Ohio RIver valley, and eastern half of Mississippi river valley.
Prussia and Britain make alliance and Austria and France make an alliance to stop foreign troops from entering their country.
book written by Voltaire that is a satire attacking war, religious persecution and optimism about the human condition.
In Emile the different spheres for men and women is discussed and social contract was that the individual is not as important as the whole group.
British colonies rebellion against Great Britain for their freedom from the king. Colonies would win and go on to create their government.
Invented by James Hargreaves that allowed more spindles of thread to be spun.
Ruler who was considered to be enlightened because he centralized authority and abolished serfdom.
Invented by Richard Arkwrights that allowed purely cotton fabric to be made.
Invented by James Watt which allowed industrialization to grow on itself.
most important economic work of the Enlightenment period, it urged a mercantile system for England.
Estate general is called into order.
King and Queen agree to return to Paris once they capture them.
France worries that Austria and Prussia will invade.
Rights given to man and citizens, but excluded women. Rights are similiar to that of our Bill of Rights.
Third estate was kicked out of the meeting by first and second estates.
Pledge taken by the Third Estate agreeing to not leave France until a Constitution was made.
Prison of Bastille is taken over and free, innocent people are let go by the mob.
7,000 Parisian women marched to Versaille and demanded that the king and queen return to Paris.
was an attempt to fix the debt of France-took Roman Catholic Church land.
Radicals met who wanted to keep the revolution strong. Two groups were Girondists and Mountains.
opposed Rousseau's judgement of the rational Enlightenment ideal of progressive knowledge.
Girondists declared war on Austria because they wanted to preserve the revolution from domestic enemies and bring the most advanced revolutionaries to power.
Made France a Republic and and abolished the monarchy.
Found guilty by the National Convention and beheaded.
The man who started the reign of terror had his life ended because of his actions.
Urged a policy of moderation which the Committee of Public Safety did not agree with.
ended by the cult of supreme being.
was a military requisition on the entire population, conscribing males into the army and directing economic production to military purposes.
Actions taken to protect the revolution.
reflected Rousseau's vision of civic religon that would induce morality among citizens.
Ended when Napoleon overthrew them.
Created two house parliament consisting of 250 Council of Elders and 500 of Council.
general who was in charge of French invasions of Italy.
had a "natural" system of wages for workers.