Wrote a piece that brought the idea of original scripture into the Renaissance.
Hundred Years' War
May 1337 - October 1453
French nationalism awakened and a centralized state created.
The Black Death
1347 - 1350
Disease that entered Europe in Italy that came from the fleas of the rats of the trading ships. Caused chaos because many believed that this was Gods way of punishing them.
The Golden Bull
Created a 7 member electoral college that elected the emperor.
Hussites: John Huss
1369 - 1415
Huss was the first church reformer.
Renaissance in Italy
1375 - 1527
People learn the importance of the creativity of the individual.
The Great Schism
1378 - 1417
There was 2 popes wanting to take over, College of Cardinals choose to elect a new pope.
Lollards: John Wycliffe
1381 - 1401
Lollards were followers of Wycliffe who generally had something to gain from following his teachings.
Early Explorations-Portugal and Spain
1394 - 1521
Portugal made explorations in North America where spices were found and traded. Spain explored the Americas and takes control over them.
1400 - 1642
Usually women killed for witchcraft acts and problems people blamed on them.
Council of Constance
1414 - 1417
Named the new pope Martin V and council would meet every 10 years.
Printing press: Guttenberg
Invented by Johannes Guttenberg to help make books easier and more efficient.
1450 - 1580
Northern Renaissance was influenced by the printing press which made more people able to have a Bible.
1450 - 1700
Mercantilism was created by this.
1466 - 1536
humanist who wrote Julius Excluded from Heaven, which showed why Pope Julius was not included in Heaven.
Ferdinand and Isabella
1474 - 1516
Christianized all of Spain.
Columbus/Start of Spanish Empire
October 12, 1492
Columbus discovers the New World.
Italy's decline by (invasions)...
1494 - 1527
Italy loses their centralized monarchy when France invasions take place.
1500 - 1600
Revolution that helped produce food at a faster speed. Enclosures created that would section off a part of land a rotate the crops planted every year. The seed drill was invented that increased the amount of crops able to be planted.
Pope Julius II
1503 - 1513
Known as the warrior pope because of his support for the military.
John Calvin: Geneva
1509 - 1564
Religious reformer who created Calvinism.
Henry VIII r.
1509 - 1547
Had the nickname of "Defender of the Faith", because he stayed Catholic during the Protestant Reformation.
1511 - 1547
Was the king of England and known for having many wives.
The prince; Machiavelli
Machiavelli wrote the Prince as a satire about rulers and war.
1517 - 1648
Europe was no longer a majority of Catholics.
Luthers 95 Thesis, Diet of Worms
1517 - April 1521
Indulgences and the pope of the church are questioned if they are doing what God would want.
1520 - 1590
A Renaissance style of painting that was more realistic.
Catholics reaction to the Protestant reformation success.
German Peasant Revolts
1524 - 1525
Against what Luther wanted from his 95 Thesis.
William of orange
1533 - 1568
Known as the silent because he had a small group of confidants.
England was no longer under the control of the church.
Jesuits-society of Jesus-Ignatius of Loyola
wanted to promote protestantism.
Act of Supremacy
Made the state the head of the church, so Henry VIII was the head of the church.
Copernicus: On the Rev. of Heavenly Spheres
Many found his theories to be wrong.
Council of Trents
1545 - 1563
Church was most resistent to Jansenists doctrines as well as Protestant.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Meeting of the church that reenacted the codes of the doctrine.
1546 - 1601
Suggested only Venus and Mercury revolved around the sun and the rest of the planets orbited the Earth.
1553 - 1558
First female to be on the English throne.
Peace of Augsburg
Recognized cuius regio, eius religio, meaning the ruler of the land would determine the religion.
1558 - 1603
Successful in both foreign and domestic policy.
Thirty Nine Articles
Made moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England.
1564 - 1616
was the greatest play writer of his time.
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Nobles massacre thousands of Protestants in France.
Pacification of Ghent
Belgium became 7 large Protestant provinces against Spain.
Union of Utrecht
United the Netherlands as a independent nation.
Rise of the Netherlands-Dutch Golden Age
1581 - 1715
Financial and shipping power
high urban consolidation
overseas commercial empire
Mary Stuart Executed
Planned to kill Queen Elizabeth but was beheaded before she could.
Made Phillip II the highest person in the second half of the 16th century.
1589 - 1610
Ruler of France who made Edict of Nantes.
1590 - 1800
Refers to the period of time when materials are being bought more.
Artwork with emotion clearly shown.
Revocation of Edict of Nantes
king revokes Edict and follows with numerous persecutions.
Edict of Nantes
Henry IV's religious settlement.
1603 - 1649
King of England that tried to keep the powers of Parliament minimal.
Cervantes: Don Quixote
Cervantes wrote a book Don Quixote which was a satire about romantics.
Kepler: The New Astronomy
1609 - 1619
Three laws of planetary motion came from his writings.
Henry was assassinated by a Catholic fanatic.
1616 - 1619
The exchange of goods from the New World, Africa, and Europe.
Thirty Years' War
1618 - 1648
The Treaty of Westphalia ends the war. It leaves Germany fragmented and gives religious tolerance.
attacked the scholastic belief that most truth had already been discovered, believed that there was too much attention put on the knowledge of ancients.
1623 - 1662
People had to take a leap of faith in religion because there was no way to prove Gods existence.
Charles I (England)
1625 - 1649
He started the English civil war when he forced taxes without parliament agreeing to them.
Locke:Treatise of Government (1st and 2nd)
1632 - 1704
The 1st Treatise was to show that traditional analysis could not back up all information and the 2nd Treatise portrayed the natural human state as one of perfect freedom and equality.
Wrote a book that went against the Catholic churches beliefs and they put the book on the condemned list.
Descartes: Discourse on Method
book written by Rene Descartes.
1640 - 1688
Created a strong Prussia by uniting power by breaking the nobles estates, organizing a royal bureaucracy and building a strong army.
1640 - 1688
known as the Great Elector because he made a centralized government.
1640 - 1660
Long parliament met for 20 years and the short met for 3 weeks.
English Civil War
1642 - 1645
Led by Puritan representatives and Cromwell which would lead to Parliament taking over the government.
1643 - 1715
ran government in an absolute monarchy way and had Mazarin and Richelieu start his absolute ruling for him. He believed that he "was the state."
1649 - 1652
Rebellion of the french nobles against king Louis XIV.
Leviathan was a book saying there should be a strong government that has complete control. He believed the natural state of human kind was evil.
Academies of Science
1660 - 1700
The Royal Society of London came first and was an academy that discussed new science and carried out experiments.
Charles II given throne after dictatorship of Cromwell.
Charles II (England)
1660 - 1685
Led England back to the place they were in 1642 with a monarchy.
Peter the Great
1682 - 1696
modernized Russia to make it similiar to that of the West. He also founded St. Petersburg.
End of witch hunts
End because of the use of reason being more prominent in society at this time.
James II (England)
1685 - 1688
He takes the throne and allows religious toleration once again, in which the parliament responds by inviting William to invade and try and bring back the old traditional ways.
Newton: Principia Mathematica
The book Principia Mathematica was a book saying that every object affects all the other objects because of gravity.
English Bill of Rights
English citizens are given rights that can not be taken away from them.
The Great Northern War: Russia/Sweden
1700 - 1721
Sweden and Russia both wanted ports on the Baltic sea, Russia ends up winning the ports.
Act of Settlement
Parliament says that crown goes to Protestant house if no issues came from Queen Anne's death.
War of Spanish Succession
1701 - 1714
France, Spain and England at war with eachother because of trade issues.
Charles VI Pragmatic Sanction
1711 - 1740
was a legal document to instruct the line of inheritance within the habsburgs dynasty.
Age of Mercantilism
1713 - 1776
Is the economic theory that you should export more than import and that there is a limited amount of resources.
Treaty of Utrecht
ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Decline of Netherlands
no future "stadtholder"
fishing industry declines
no unity between the provinces
naval supremacy vanishes
Emergence of Rococo
Style that embraced lavish decorations and use of pastel colors.
1719 - 1720
There was not enough gold to back up paper money anymore. Paper money was feared in the public for years to come.
Death of Louis XIV
Grandson, Louis XV takes throne at 5 years old.
Emergence/dominance of Robert Walpole
1721 - 1742
his success was based off of his royal based support, ability to handle House of Commons, and control of government patronage.
War of Jenkin's Ear
Spaniards cut off the English captain, Robert Jenkins ear during a boarding operation.
War of Austrian Succession
1740 - 1748
Frederick II seized eastern Germany and upset the continental balance of powers.
1740 - 1780
She helpd to preserve the Habsburg empire as one of the major political powers.
Catherine the Great (Russia)
1741 - 1762
Was born a German princess but became the empress of Russia.
1750 - 1800
Replaced work in homes with factories.
art work had moral theme.
Prussia and Britain make alliance and Austria and France make an alliance to stop foreign troops from entering their country.
Seven Years' War
1756 - 1763
Ended by the Treaty of Paris, which gave Britain Canada, Ohio RIver valley, and eastern half of Mississippi river valley.
book written by Voltaire that is a satire attacking war, religious persecution and optimism about the human condition.
Rousseau-Emile, Social Contract:
In Emile the different spheres for men and women is discussed and social contract was that the individual is not as important as the whole group.
1763 - 1783
British colonies rebellion against Great Britain for their freedom from the king. Colonies would win and go on to create their government.
1765 - 1790
Ruler who was considered to be enlightened because he centralized authority and abolished serfdom.
Invented by James Hargreaves that allowed more spindles of thread to be spun.
Invented by James Watt which allowed industrialization to grow on itself.
Invented by Richard Arkwrights that allowed purely cotton fabric to be made.
Smith-Wealth of Nations
most important economic work of the Enlightenment period, it urged a mercantile system for England.
Nobles renounce feudal priv.
Estate general is called into order.
Rights of Man and Citizen
Rights given to man and citizens, but excluded women. Rights are similiar to that of our Bill of Rights.
France worries that Austria and Prussia will invade.
Tuileries Stormed-king captive
King and Queen agree to return to Paris once they capture them.
Estates General called/meets
Third estate was kicked out of the meeting by first and second estates.
Tennis Court Oath
June 20, 1789
Pledge taken by the Third Estate agreeing to not leave France until a Constitution was made.
Storming of Bastille
July 14, 1789
Prison of Bastille is taken over and free, innocent people are let go by the mob.
March of Fishwives
7,000 Parisian women marched to Versaille and demanded that the king and queen return to Paris.
Civil Constitution of Clergy
was an attempt to fix the debt of France-took Roman Catholic Church land.
The Legislative Assembly Meets
1791 - 1792
Radicals met who wanted to keep the revolution strong. Two groups were Girondists and Mountains.
Wollstonecraft-Vind. of Rights of Women
opposed Rousseau's judgement of the rational Enlightenment ideal of progressive knowledge.
War with Austria
April 20, 1792
Girondists declared war on Austria because they wanted to preserve the revolution from domestic enemies and bring the most advanced revolutionaries to power.
Convention meets-Monarch abolished
September 21, 1792 - 1795
Made France a Republic and and abolished the monarchy.
Louis XVI executed
Found guilty by the National Convention and beheaded.
Urged a policy of moderation which the Committee of Public Safety did not agree with.
Fall of Robespierre
The man who started the reign of terror had his life ended because of his actions.
Reign of Terror
1793 - 1794
Actions taken to protect the revolution.
Levee en Masse
was a military requisition on the entire population, conscribing males into the army and directing economic production to military purposes.
Cult of Reason
1793 - 1794
ended by the cult of supreme being.
Cult of Supreme Being
reflected Rousseau's vision of civic religon that would induce morality among citizens.
Constitution of the Year III-Directory Established
Created two house parliament consisting of 250 Council of Elders and 500 of Council.
1795 - 1799
Ended when Napoleon overthrew them.
1799 - 1815
general who was in charge of French invasions of Italy.