APUSH Semester 1 Timeline

History Timeline

Black Death- Bubonic Plague


Prince Henry the Navigator


Collected sailing information for Portuguese

Portuguese colonization of African slaves on sugar plantations


Columbian Exchange


Spaniards brought Christianity, iron, ships, guns, animals, diseases to the New World. New World gave Europeans corn, potatoes, syphilis, tobacco.

Christopher Columbus


Treaty of Tordesillas


Drew a line west of the Canary Islands. Land west of the line was Spain's, land east of it was Portugal's

Vasco da Gama


Commanded first Portuguese fleet to India

Protestant Reformation


Martin Luther, justification by faith- faith is enough for salvation, offerings are bad

New Spain


A Spanish colony

Hernan Cortés


translator Malinali, city of Tenochtitlán, emperor Montezuma

Magellan Circumnavigation


Sponsored by King Charles I of Spain

Francisco Pizarro


Incan empire, emperor Atahualpa, gave Pizarro lots of gold and silver

English Reformation


King Henry VIII outlawed Catholic Church and proclaimed king supreme ruler-->political and religious turmoil

New Spain Silver Mining




Labor reform that limited the labor an ecomendero could force his Indians to do.

Acoma Pueblo Revolt


In Mexico, Indians rebelled against the Spanish and Oñate killed them, confirming Spanish military superiority. Did not bring peace of stability to the region.

Indentured servitude as the main labor force

1600 - 1700

Majority were white immigrants from England, freedom dues, perpetuated gender imbalance, women's pregnancy fees

Viriginia Company


English merchants pooled capital and shared risks

Jamestown Built


Disease and starvation, relied on Powhatan Indians, Virginia Company kept sending colonists, few survived

House of Burgesses


An assembly of representatives elected by the colony, laws passed by it had to be approved by the king, all free men would vote for it

New England Puritans


Separatists leb by Bradford, created Mayflower Compact- covenant to obey laws, Wmpanoag Indians rescued their failing settlement

Opechancanough's Uprising


Killed 1/3 of the colonists, did not dislodge them, settlers started Indian extermination, considered them enemies now

Virginia becomes royal colony


Under the order of King James, Virginia became subject to control of the government, not the investors

Winthrop's Puritans


Puritans who wanted reform not separate, city on a hill, Arbella sermon, covenant with God, Massachusetts Bay Company, encountered few Indians, death by disease, immigrants were middle class, came in families with women and children making up a majority, each family was a commonwealth that mirrored God's hierarchy, predestination, derived from Calvinism- conform to God's commandments, unknown who was predestined, church played no direct role in government, New England government distributed land, expelled Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson (antinomianism- people could be saved by faith alone and didn't have to follow rules), John Cotton's covenant of grace- individuals would only be saved by God's selection, covenant of works- a person can influence God's decision by doing good deeds (Arminianism), Thomas Hooker- conversion shouldn't be a requirement for church membership

Puritan Revolution


Escalated from disputes between King Charles I and Parliament, Parliament won and proclaimed England a Puritan republic

Navigation Acts of 1650 and 1651

1650 - 1651

Colonial goods had to be transported in English ships with English crews, later required English ports

Quakers in Massachusetts


Opposed Puritan traditions

Navigation Act of 1660


Import tax on colonial tobacco brought into England

Halfway Covenant


Massachusetts, unconverted children of saints could be halfway church members and baptize their kids, they could not participate in communion or have voting rights

Charleston Founded


Slave as a labor force

1670 - 1700

Emerbed in Chesapeake, advantages over servants: cost more but never became free, children of slaves were slaves = infinite labor, can be controlled politically

King Philip's War


War between Indians and Chesapeake/New England colonists after the colonists massacred Pequot Indians, Wampagnoags and Metacomet (King Philip) retaliated, the colonists finally won and left the colonists with an enduring hatred of Indians, a large war debt, and a devastated frontier

Noncomsumption Agreements


Boycott of British goods, hard to enforce, encouraged female patriotism-->Daughters of Liberty, public spinning yarn, success as imports fell 40%

Bacon's Rebellion


started as a fight over Virginia's Indian policy, Opechancanough attacked again in 1644, Nathaniel Bacon accused the grandees or elite planters that they used the government for personal gain, governor Berkeley called for a new election and lost, Bacon passed Bacon's Laws that gave people a voice in government, Bacon declared war against Berkeley and fought the Indians, did not dislodge grandee power- strengthened them, king put a new governor that would act in the king's interests and put a new export tax on tobacco to pay for the damage

Pueblo Indian Revolt


Led by Popé and was a religious rebellion against Christianity and Spanish

Colonial Population Growth

1700 - 1770

Yansee War of 1715


Yansee and Creek Indians were encouraged by the French to attack South Carolina colonial settlements. The Cherokee allied with the colonists and helped them win

Great Awakening


Instigated by Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield preached messages of sin and salvation, communicated that every soul mattered, bridged colonial divides of faith region class status

Molasses Act


6 pence per gallon on any molasses purchased from non-British sources, purpose was to discourage French Caribbean trade, failed

Stono Rebellion


Slaves burned plantations and were suppressed by whites who put their heads on posts, illustrated that slaves had no chance of overturning slavery or freeing themselves

Albany Congress


Goal was to repair relations with Indians and secure their help against French, Albany Plan of Union- proposed a colonial government for war and defense policies (was rejected)

Seven Years' War

1754 - 1763

Conflict began over land in Ohio Valley, French traded with Indians there, Pennsylvanians and Virginians infringed on the territory, French sent soldiers and built forts like Fort Duquesne, the first battle was the French and Indian War, Taghrisson killed Frech commander, Washington retreated to Fort Necessity, British wins in the end, Treaty of Paris, Colonists mad at British, illegal trade wtih French fur traders along with molasses in the Caribbean, doubled national debt

Proclamation of 1763


Forbade colonists from settling west of the Appalachians and limited trade with Indians and forbade sale of Indian land, impossible to enforce

Treaty of Paris


Ended French-Indian war, British victory, British got Canada but territory west of the Mississippi was transferred to Spain, Cuba was given to Spain, Martinique and Guadeloupe were given to France

Revenue Act / Sugar Act


Lowered tax on French molasses and raised penalties for smuggling, intended to make money, failed

Stamp Act Congress


Met in NYC to write a petition to king and Parliament, resembled Virginia Resolves

Stamp Act


Imposed a tax on all paper, designed to make money, raised the issue of virtual representation, colonists believed they didn't have representation

Virginia Resolves


Patrick Henry's resolutions on the Stamp Act that were debated and passed, It stated Vriginians were British citizens so they should get the same rights including self-taxation, Virginians had always taxed themselves, only Virginia could tax Virginia, denied legitimacy to non-Virginian taxes, openly challenged the Stamp Act

Declatory Act


Asserted Parliament's right to make laws for the colonies in all cases whatsoever

Revenue Act


New taxes on tea, glass, lead, paper, paint

Townshend Duties


Not burdensome but embodied taxation through trade taxes, some revenue went to pay governors-->protest

Boston Massacre


Croud taunted 8 British soldiers who fired and killed 5 colonists, Sons of Liberty staged elaborate funerals, the soldiers were acquitted

Boston Tea Party


Hutchinson holds ships until they pay the tea tax, men threw tea into harbor

Tea Act


Allowed East India Company to set directy to government to lower its price and motivate Americans to buy it and stop smuggling Dutch tea

Committees of Correspondence


Massachusetts, provided local forums for debate, politicized people and sparked revolutionary ideas

Coercive Acts + Quebec Act = Intolerable Acts


Pariliament laws to punish Massachusetts for destroying tea, (1) Boston Port Act- closed Boston harbor to all shipping (2) Massachusetts Govenrment Act- increased the governor's power and the council became appointive (3) Impartial Administration of Justice Act- any official accused of a crime would be tried in British courts (4) Quartering Act- allowed soldiers to live wherever they want (5) Quebec Act- affirmed French government, Catholicism, and gave Quebec control of Ohio Valley land

Battle of Lexington and Concord

1774 - 1775

Gage wanted repeal of the Coervice Acts but Britain could not admit failure, started the Revolutionary War

First Continental Congress


Talked about rights and the power of Parliament, made declaration of rights, started limited trade boycott

Powder Alarm


Gage sent soldiers to capture gunpowder but false news spread that the troops killed people, armed men came to avenge the dead, the error was correct, it proved the speed number and determination of the colonists

Battle of Bunker Hill


Expennsive British victory

Second Continental Congress


Philadelphia, focused on (1) raising an army (2) working things out with Britain, opinions were varied, agreed military buildup was necessary-->Continental army, A Declaration on the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms

Start of Revolutionary War


Common Sense


Thomas Paine, criticized British monarchy

Battle of Long Island


American victory because British didn't do a follow-up attack

Declaration of Independence


Battle of Saratoga


Turning point in the revolutionary war in favor of the colonists, the American victory led to French aid

French Aid for Colonists


France entered the war because of the Battle of Saratoga and provided its navy

Ladies Association


Women from Philadelphia raised money for continental soldiers

Articles of Confederation


Difficult to implement due to disagreement over government power and congress power over boundaries of states, the unions was a firm league of friendship, no executive, no judiciary, congress has elected delegates, nothing to make states pay taxes, unanimous approval

Battle of Yorktown


Ended British involvement in the Revolutionary War

End of Revolutionary War


Treaty of Paris


Failed to recognize Indians, Indian lands were assigned to victors, British to withdraw troops, set country border at Mississippi River

Treaty of Fort Stanwix


Agreements between the Americans and the Indian, left some tribes out

Ordinance of 1784


Rectangular grid, 10 states, self-government and statehood policies

Treaty of Fort Stanwix


Meeting with Iroquois, return of American prisoners, recognition of the confederation's authority (not states), cession of land south of Fort Niagara, sketchy treaty that some tribes did not know about

Ordinance of 1785


Sectors of land sold by public auction

Shay's Rebellion

1786 - 1787

About taxes, Daniel Shys attack courthouses in Massachusetts against oppressive taxation, Disqualification Act prohibited the rebels form voting, holding office, serving on juries, teaching, or operating taverns, cased leaders to worry about the confederation's ability to handle rebellions

Constitutional Convention


Philadelphia, Virginian driven, upper-class attendance, to write constitution, Virginia (vote by population) and New Jersey plan (vote by state), Great Compromise (bicameral legislature of House and Senate), 3/5 clause, needed 9 states to ratify at ratifying conventions

Northwest Ordinance


Set the state application process

Constitution Ratified


New Hampshire provided the last vote

President Washington


Bill of Rights


Outlined guarantees of freedom, did not include the right to vote

Hamilton's Economic Plans


Add state debt to federal debt, Madison opposed, create national Bank of the United States modeled off European banks, encouraged production of American-made goods

First Party System


Federalists (supported Britain) and Republicans (liberty in France)

Haitian Revolution


Catalyzed by the French Revolution of 1789, white colonists challenged the government, mixed-raced planters rebelled in 1791 demanding rights, blacks wreacked havoc, provoked naked fear of race war in white southerners

Neutrality Proclamation


Washington said we wont enter European wars

Whiskey Rebellion


Hamilton imposed an excist tax on whiskey, farmers rebelled, no blood was spilled, showed the power of the federal government

Battle of Fallen Timbers


Indians ambushed Americans but lost, major defeat for the Indians

Jay Treaty


Failure, failed to address the captured cargo or slaves, granted British a lot of time to get out, let them have fur trade rights, called for repayment of debts of Americans, secured limited trading rights in the West Indies, Canada disputes and ship losses would be decided later

Treaty of Grenville


Americans offered goods like blankets, knives, liquor, goal was to create a dependency on American goods to keep Indians friendly, Indians ceded Ohio to Americans

President Adams




US v French undeclared war, location of Caribbean, intensified Federalist v Republicans

Alien and Sedition Acts


Extended waiting period of alien to achieve citizenship, required all aliens to register with federal government, empowered president to deport foreigners, intended to harass French, Republicans opposed them

Gabriel's Rebellion


Failed slave revolt

President Jefferson


Beat Burr, Jefferson was Democrat

Barbary Wars


Tripoli v Decatur

Lousiana Purchase


Marbury v Madison


Supreme Court ruled that it had the right to determine the constitutionality of congressional enactments

Lewis and Clark


Embargo Act of 1807


Banned importantion of British goods into country, disaster as destroyed employment and prices

President Madison


War of 1812


Indians v British v US, Clay War Hawks welcomed war to end impressment and justify attacking Indians, Canada never fell even though we tried, Creek War, Battle of Horseshoe Bend, British burn White House, Battle of New Orleans

Hartford Convention


Secret antiwar Federalist meeting to discuss how to curb the South's power

Treaty of Ghent


No country was the victory, no land was exchanged, American dropped goal of trying to end impressments and gave up claim to Canada, British agreed to stop aiding Indians

Clay's American System


Promoted a tariffs to encourage federal improvement of roads and canals

Transportation Revolution


National Road 1806, steamboats 1807, canals 1815, railroads 1830

Second Bank of the United States


President Monroe


Panic of 1819


Blamed the 2BUS for failing to control state banks that suspended specie payments, BUS called in loans + parallel financial crisis in Europe = prices plummet

Missouri Compromise


Maine as free balancing Missouri as slave, 36 30 as dividing line

Monroe Doctrine


Europe can't interfere in North America, US will stay out of European fights

President Adams


Corrupt bargain, Jefferson mad, Clay secretary after helping Adams win, sectional conflict emerges

President Jackson


First election decided by popular vote, Clay v Jackson, Whigs v Democrats, favored Jeffersonian limited federal gov, opposed econ intervention, opposed transportation and grants, focused on removing indians, exercised veto a lot

Nullification Crisis


SC nullifies 1828 Tariff of Abominations, Jackson sends army to to SC and creates Force Bill that authorized military action to collect tariffs, Congress also revised the tariff, SC accepted new tariff and nullified Force Bill

Transcendentalist Movement


Indian Removal Act of 1830


Relocate eastern tribes west of the Mississippi, Black Hawk resisted, Cherokee soverignty and assimilation, Trail of Tears force Cherokees to go west

Female Literacy Up


Second Great Awakening


Offered salvation to all who embraced it, merchant classes, separate spheres and separate duties of women and men, Finney (Christian perfection), American Temperance Society (Lyman Beecher alcohol), Moral Reform Societies (eradicate sexual sin), David Walker (racism bad), Garrison (immediate abolition), Grimkés (woman's rights)

President Van Buren


Panic of 1837


Bad harvests in Europe + trade problems between Britain and US = Bank of England calling in loans to American merchants

Free Labor Ideal


President Harrison



President Tyler


President Polk


Manifest Destiny


Mexican-American War

1846 - 1848

Seneca Falls Conference


Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo


Ended the Mexican-American war, Mexico agreed to give up all claims to Texas above the Rio Grande and to cede New Mexico and California to the US

Compromise of 1850


(1) California enters Union as free state (2) Texas gives up New Mexico get gets $10 mil from fed gov (3) New Mexico and Utah as popular soverignty states (4) Congress ended slave trade in DC but creates a strict slave law

Mormon War