Victims and Domestic Violence

Main

Code of Ur-Nammu

2100 B.C.E. - 2050 B.C.E.

it institutes fines of monetary compensation for bodily damage, as opposed to the later lex talionis (‘eye for an eye’) principle of Babylonian law; however, murder, robbery, adultery and rape were capital offenses.

Code of Hammurabi

1760 B.C.E.

Retribution and Restitution. Eye for an Eye

Law of Moses

641 B.C.E. - 609 B.C.E.

. its reference to offense against a deity rather than against society

Puritans pass 1st laws against wife beating

1641

enacted laws against wife beating and family violence. These laws were rarely enforced.

William Blackstone:Marital Unity Doctrine

1765

The husband has to answer for his wife's misbehavior and is allowed to keep his life in line as well as his children.He gets punished for her wrongdoings and has the right to chastise her.

U.S. Constitution

1789

1st 10 amendments of U.S. constitution ratified by the States,went into effect

1791

Bradley v. States

1824

Mississippi, allows husbands to administer only moderate chastisement in cases of emergency

Commentaries on American Law Chancellor James Kent

1826 - 1830

Knight v Knight

1840

is an English trusts law case, embodying a simple statement of the "three certainties" principle. This has the effect of determining whether assets can be disposed of in wills, or whether the wording of the will is too vague to allow beneficiaries to collect what appears on the face of the will to be theirs. The case has been followed in most common law jurisdictions.

Massachusetts court is the first to recognize the spousal rape exemption

1857

Black v State

1864

North Carolina. A husband cannot be convicted of a battery on his wife unless he inflicts a permanent injury or uses such excessive violence or cruelty as indicates malignity or vindictiveness; and it makes no difference that the husband and wife are living separate by agreement.

14th Amendment came into effect

1868

This amendment provides that all states will provide equal protection to everyone within their jurisdiction. It provides due process under the law and equally provides all constitutional rights to all citizens of this country, regardless of race, sex, religious beliefs and creed.

Fulgham v State

1871

rescind the legal right of men to beat their wives

Commonwealth v. McAfee

1871

was the first time the court said husband could not to hit with an open hand, even if wife was drunk or insolent.

Jim Crow Laws

1876 - 1965

They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities in Southern states of the former Confederacy, with, starting in 1890, a "separate but equal" status for African Americans. The separation in practice led to conditions for African Americans that tended to be inferior to those provided for white Americans, systematizing a number of economic, educational and social disadvantages.

Maryland is the first state to pass a law that makes wife-beating a crime

1882

this is , punishable by 40 lashes, or a year in jail.

Harris v. State

1894

right to administer moderate chastisement is overruled in Mississippi

State v. Dowell

1899

condemns a husband's participation in the rape of his wife by a third party.

Frazier v. State

1905

a husband is convicted of assault with the intent to commit rape. The appellate court overturns the conviction by essentially restating Lord Hale's rule of immunity

First Family court created in Buffalo NY

1911

19th Amendment Passes

1919

American women win the right to vote

Watson proposed a theory of fear

1924

Suggested fear stimuli are learned with exception of innate fear stimuli associated with loud noise, loss of support, pain

crimes involving sex began to be written with regularity

1930 - 1939

The national Commission on Law observance and Enforcement

1931

saw that administration of justice suffered due to great economic and mental burdens placed on those who testified in court

UCR taken over by FBI

1931

Information on Crime Data

Rediscovery of Victims

1940 - 1949

Von Hentig

1941 - 1948

Created different levels of victim contributing causes, first victimologist to engage in this process

John Caffey study

1946

outlining bone damage of mysterious origin that he found in some of his patients. His discoveries prompted other doctors to conduct similar investigations

Victims used physical force against perpetrators in 1 out of 4 murder cases

1948

Wolfgang examined this

The civil rights, anti-war and black liberation movements

1950 - 1969

challenge the country, laying a foundation for the feminist movement.

Benjamin Mendelsohn

1956 - 1963

Termed victimology and victimity. Found a Strong interpersonal relationship b/w victims and offenders. Father of Victimology

Rape consider victim precipitated

1958 - 1960

Amir by studying Philly police files on rape, found rape to be victim precipitated when males believed female consented to sexual acts but than took back original acceptance.

Wolfgang

1958

Analysis of police homicide reports. Coined term victim precipitation.

Mapp v Ohio

1960

all evidence obtained by searches and seizures in violation of the Constitution is, by [the Fourth Amendment], inadmissible in a state court."

Legal reforms for protecting and helping victims

1960 - 1969

social scientists acknowledgmetn of feear of crime as an important social issue

1960 - 1969

Fiirst public denunciation of parents as intentional abusers

1960 - 1963

of their offspring. Kempe and his associates abandoned the term unspecified trauma and introduced a new phrase, the battered-child syndrome.

Commission on the Status of Women

1961

pressure from women's organizations made this established by President John F, Kennedy

New Zealand Passed the first compensation legislation

1963

England Passed compensation legislation

1964

Children's Right

1964 - 1966

Mental and Physical actions began to be questioned as abuse. Created Shelters.

California passed the compensation legislation

1965

Women's Movement

1965 - 1969

argued that CJ system treated sexual assault victims as offenders

1st Crime victim compensation program established in California

1965

Miranda v. Arizona

1966

The Court held that both inculpatory and exculpatory statements made in response to interrogation by a defendant in police custody will be admissible at trial only if the prosecution can show that the defendant was informed of the right to consult with an attorney before and during questioning and of the right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police, and that the defendant not only understood these rights, but voluntarily waived them.

NY passed the compensation legislation

1966

California Begins 1st compensations program in U.S.

1966

Beating,becomes grounds for divorce in New York

1966

but the plaintiff must establish that a "sufficient" number of beatings have taken place.

Study in Chicago

1966

reveals that from September 1965 to March 1966, 46.1% of the major crimes perpetrated against women took place in the home. It also found that police response to domestic disturbance calls exceeded total response for murder, rape, aggravated assault, and other service crimes.

National Organization of Women (NOW) held its first organizing conference

1966

Hawaii passed the compensation legislation

1967

Victim services and surveys started

1967

Victimization survey started,along with gathering information on ways to alleviate pain/loss of victims, and the gathering of ideas for community programs that provide victims services

President's Commission

1967

established restitution and victim compensation

Maine opens one of the first shelters in the United States

1967

nitial pilot studies was the poll sponsored by the NORC

1967

Massachusetts passed the compensation legislation

1968

end of current Victim Justice System

1968

Schafer, noted that the move by feudal barons to claim any compensation offenders pay victims and the transforming society

Victim Precipitation

1968

Schafer, talks about degree of which victim is responsible for their own victimization

women’s right movement brought a greater understanding of rape

1970 - 1979

and demanded that the public take notice of the plight of battered women and the blatant disregard of their needs by the police and the courts.

media focused on whether victims’ names should be included in news stories

1970 - 1979

Occupational Safety and Health Act

1970

addresses the issue of workplace safety in which known as general duty clause.

Victim-precipitated rape

1971

Amir analyzed rape incidents that took place in Philly

Victim Blaming

1971

Ryan says people see victims as that there must be something wrong with thm

Miranda Decision weakened

1971

Chief Justice Burger wrote a majority opinion that weakened Miranda decision, and caused beginning of trend to limit procedural rights gained by criminals in 1960s

Pael Study

1971

the problem of telescoping received further consideration of households undertaken by the Bureau of the Census in 1971

First Crime victim compensation program established in Maryland

1972

National Crime Survey launched

1972

NCS also launched a commercial victimization survey

1972

surveys in Netherlands; Zurich, Switzerland; and Stuttgart, Germany

1973

First shelters specifically designed for battered women established

1974

Federal govt provided funding for victim-witness assistance programs

1974 - 1976

Those programs were in the prosecutors offices

1st victim/witness assistance programs

1974 - 1976

FAST

1974

Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act

1974

providing funds to states that follow a series of federal protections, known as the "core protections," on the care and treatment of youth in the justice system.

National Organization for Victim Assistance founded

1975

this was to expand victims’ rights & services

First Victim impact statement created in California

1976

Five Types of Victims Created

1976

Mendelsohn:
Criminal, one's self, social environment, technology, natural environment

Supplemental Homicide Reports Created

1976

Provides more detailed data on victim characteristics

Milwaukee Victim/Witness Project

1976

Showed that Victim Compensation and Offender Restitution did not have the positive impact on the CJ system that was predicted

Battered Wives is published by Del Martin

1976

Renewed interest in victim actions

1977

Luckerbill- talked about homicide as situated transaction, meaning a chain of discrete actions and reactions by the participants caused the homicide.

National Association of Crime Victim Compensation Boards created

1977

Whalen v. Roe

1977

Rape is an act of physical violence which by its very nature is an affront to privacy

Comprehension Employment and Training Act

1977

several sources of gov't funding emerged to supplement private funding for early battered women's shelters.

Coker v. Gerogia

1977

The state of Georgia allowed the imposition of the death penalty of the charge of rape if aggravating circumstances were present.

Study on individual choice of behavior influences chances of being a victims

1978

Hindelang, Gottfredson, and Garofalo talk about crimes as a function of the lifestyle of the parties involved

The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence is formed

1978

this initiates the introduction of the Family Violence Prevention & Services Act in U.S. Congress

Crime Victims’ Legal Advocacy Institute

1979

Founded by Frank Carrington, renamed Victims Assistance Legal Organization to promote victims right in both civil and criminal justice systems.

Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act passed by U.S. Congress

1980

Wisconsis passed the first Crime Victims’ Bill of Rights

1980

media outlets voluntarily excluded rape victims’ names from news accounts

1980 - 1989

TRO's became one of the most frequently used legal options for battered women

1980 - 1989

Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) founded

1980

Minneapolis domestic violence experiment

1981 - 1982

conducted by Sherman and Berk, was first study to test short-term deterrent effect of arrest in domestic violence cases

President Ronald Reagan proclaims the First Victims’ Rights Week

1981

President Reagan appoints the Task Force on Victims of Crime

1982

Final Report offers 68 recommendations to improve the treatment of crime victims, including an amendment to the 6th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution to guarantee victims’ rights to be present & heard at critical stages of judicial proceedings

Victim/Witness Protection Act

1982

Require federal judge to provide written explanation on why there was no full restitution in a case

Argunment that Restitution become norm in criminal cases

1982

President’s Task Force on Victims of Crime recommended that restitution become the norm in criminal cases

California adopted Proposition Eight

1982

state legislation that included a victims bill of rights

The Federal Victim & Witness Protection Act is passed

1982

The Missing Children’s Act is passed by Congress

1982

was passed to help find missing children through FBI National Crime Information Center computer system.

British initiated the ongoing British Crime Survey (BCS)

1982

Wisconsin passes First Child Victim & Witness Bill of Rights

1983

International Association of Chiefs of Police adopts bill

1983

The bill is the Crime Victims’ Bill of Rights

President Reagon honors crime victims in First White House Rose Garden ceremony

1983

First National Conference of the Judiciary on Victims of Crime held

1983

was held at national judicial college in reno

The Office for Victims of Crime created

1983

U.S. Attorney General established a Task Force on Family Violence

1983

Weishaupt v. Commonwealth

1984

The court minimizes Lord Hale's theory (1500's), asserting that it was not a law. The court asserts the existence of implied consent to sexual intercourse in marriage, but states that the consent was revocable.

President Reagon signs Justice Assistance Act

1984

establishes financial & support assistance to state & local governments

U.S. Congress passes the Family Violence Prevention & Services Act

1984

funds domestic violence programs

The Victims of Crime Act is passed

1984

establishes the Crime Victims Fund from federal criminal fines & penalties to support state victim compensation & service programs

The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children is created

1984

The Spiritual Dimension in Victim Services is founded

1984

involves faith communities in victim services

A victim/witness notification system established

1984

this is within the Federal Bureau of Prisons

Victim/witness coordinator positions are established

1984

these are in in the U.S. Attorney’s offices

OVC establishes the Office for Victims of Crime Resource Center

1984

1st Victim Services Certification Program established at Cali State University

1984

National Incident Based Reporting System

1984 - 1986

Collects Detailed info on 22 categories of crime. This was because of needs to change data and analysis that could help law enforcement in crime

Arrest is best deterrent for spouse abuse

1984 - 1987

Report by NIJ

Federal Victims of Crime Act Passed

1984

Victims of Crime Act

1984

Established federal crime victims fund and federal money for state compensation programs

Legislation enacted to outline compensation when fed crimes occured

1984

Federal government enacted legislation that outlined compensations when federal crimes occurred and also provided more assistance to states with compensation programs

4 categories of intimate partner abuse

1984

Tong identified 4 categories, indicating more than one of four types occurs withing same abusive relationship

% of large city PD with pro-arrest policies increased from 10 to 46

1984 - 1986

Arrest is most effective when the batterer is married

1984

Sheman and Berk concluded this

National Incident Based Reporting System

1984 - 1986

Examined the changes needs for data collection and analysis that could assist law enforcement in combating crime.

Thurman v. City of Torrington

1985

brought about sweeping national reform of domestic violence laws, including the "Thurman Law" passed in Connecticut, making domestic violence an automatically arrestable offense, even if the victim does not wish to press charges

The National Center for Victims of Crime is founded

1985

this is to promote rights and needs of crime victims

PD mandated training sessions on family violence be part of police academy

1985 - 2000

NOVA convenes a forum

1986

this is to refine a national plan to secure state constitutional amendments for crime victims

Rhode Island passes a constitutional amendment

1986

this grants victims rights to restitution, victim impact statements & to be treated with dignity & respect

35 states have Victim Compensation Programs

1986

States receive funding from VOCA for first time

1986

DOJ issued Four Years Later: A Report on the Presidents Task force on VOC

1986

DOJ assessment which monitored compliance with Task Force's recommendations

American Correctional Association establishes a Task Force on Victims of Crime

1987

Booth v. Maryland

1987

ruled that victim impact statements are unconstitutional and violates 8th amendment

The National Victims’ Constitutional Amendment Network formed

1987

Security on Campus, Inc. is established

1987

to raise awareness about crime & victimization on our nation’s campuses

National Domestic Violence Awareness Month is designated

1987

Family Law Reform Act

1987

An Act to reform the law relating to the consequences of birth outside marriage; to make further provision with respect to the rights and duties of parents and the determination of parentage; and for connected purposes.

Formation of Nursing Home Reform Act

1987

this outlines various forms of prohibited activity, including abuse, neglect, and the unwarranted use of restraints.

The National Aging Resource Cenet in Elder Abuse is established

1988

VOCA amended

1988

requires states pay benefits to DV victims and drunk driving victims

South Carolina v Gathers

1989

reaffirms that victim impact statements violate the 8th amendment when applied to penalty phase in capital cases

45 states enacted compensation statutes

1989

13 states had enacted mandatory arrest policies for DV perpetrators

1989

ICVS initiated

1989

The advent of the ICVS has opened the door to a wider view of victimization

Hate Crime Statistics Act

1990

requires collection of data for crimes motivated by racial, religious, ethnic or sexual orientation prejudice

Congress passes legislation proposed by MADD

1990

prevents drunk drivers and other offenders from filing bankruptcy to avoid paying restitution or fines

The National Child Search Assistance Act

1990

requires law enforcement to enter missing children reports to NCIC computer

Student Right-to-Know & Campus Security Act is passed

1990

requires institutions of higher learning to disclose crime information

48 states had specific legislation in regards to restitution

1990

Restitution was either a separate sentence, or an additional requirement to another sentence.

Victims of Child Abuse Act

1990

federal reform to protect child victims and witnesses in court settings

Shift focus to Critical Victimology

1990 - 1999

Circles of Support and Accountability came into existence in Canada

1990 - 1999

lack of prosecutorial support from victims results in low conviction rates.

1990

Buzawa and Buzawa took note

courts began to examine and reinvent court processes

1990 - 1999

this was to improve victim protection and offender accountability

The National Network to End Domestic Violence

1990

another membership and advocacy organization of state domestic violence coalitions.

Hawaii Healthy Start Program began

1990 - 1993

sponsored by Prevent Child Abuse America, whose goal is to promote child abuse prevention programs

Simon & Schuster v New York Crime Victims Board

1991

rules that New York's notoriety-for-profit statute was overly broad & unconstitutional

The First Congressional Joint Resolution filed

1991

U.S. representative Ilena Ros-Lehtinen filed this to place victims rights in constitution

Payne v Tennessee

1991

reverses earlier decisions & rules that testimony & prosecutorial arguments on the victim’s good character & victim impact statements do not violate the defendant’s constitutional rights

InterNational parental Child Kidnapping Act

1991

makes the unlawful removing of a child outside the U.S. a federal felony

OVC began funding/providing technical assistance to state police academies

1991

U.S. Congress re-authorizes the Higher Education Bill

1992

includes the campus sexual assault victims bill of rights

Battered Women’s Testimony Act

1992

urges states to accept expert testimony in cases involving battered women is passed

R.A.V.v City of St. Paul

1992

strikes down Minnesota local hate crime ordinance

protective orders available to abused women in 50 states and D.C.

1992

NCS renamed the National Crime Victimization Survey

1992

5o states and D.C. passed anti-stalking statutes

1993

Clinton signs the Brady Bill

1993

requires a waiting period for handgun purchases

Child Sexual Abuse Registry Act

1993

Established Federal Bill of Rights for crime victims

HIV testing on sex offenders happened

1993

Reauthorization of the Older Americans Act

1993

new initiatives dealing with the protection of the elderly including an ombudsman program, abuse and neglect prevention programs, and legal assistance.

Violence Against Women Act

1994

authorized over one billion dollars to be applied for domestic violence

Model Code on Domestic and Family Violence

1994

issued by National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges

VAWA strengthened federal law against DV, sexual assault, and stalking

1994

provided 3.3. billion in grant programs over 5 years to assist states and local communities

VAWA authorizes STOP grants, with required matching state funds

1994

Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act

1994

Office of Community Oriented Policing Services of the U.S. Department of Justice created because of this act

U.S. DOJ issues Attorney General Guidelines for victim/witness assistance

1995

NCVS

1995 - 1996

National Crime Victimization Survey

JacobWetterlingCrimesAgainstChildren+SexuallyViolent Offender Registration Act

1995

States must establish registries of convicted sex offenders or face a reduction in federal criminal justice funding.

Antiterrorism & Effective Death Penalty Act

1996

Clinton signs this, providing strengthened antiterrorism efforts, making restitution mandatory in violent crime cases, & expanding compensation & assistance to victims of terrorism at home & abroad

Juvenile Justice Action Plan

1996

Office of Juvenile Justice & Delinquency Prevention issued this for rights and services to victims of juvenile offenders

The National Domestic Violence Hotline is established

1996

Drug-induced Rape Prevention Act

1996

enacted to address issue of drug facilitated rape and sexual assault

Community Notification Act

1996

AKA Megan's law. This required states to notify community members when a sexual predator was released back into the community

Better understanding of costs and consequences of criminal victimization

1996

Miller went through data including NCVS to attain this

States enact significant legislation in variety of contexts

1996

Like family violence issues

Florida extended insurance discrimination

1996

to include health maintenance organizations

Delaware broadened insurance discrimination

1996

this included homeowner's and motor vehicle insurance

National College Women Sexual Victimization study was conducted

1996

Amendment to the Gun Control Act of 1968

1996

banned gun ownership by any person ever convicted of a misdemeanor domestic violence charge

federal anti-stalking law is enacted by Congress

1997

Victims’ Rights Clarification Act

1997

clarifies existing law allowing victims to attend and provide impact during sentencing in both capital & non-capital cases

Indiana and South Dakota enhanced penal codes

1997

This was to address sanctions for violations of protection orders

7 states enacted legislation regarding treatment programs

1997

legislation was to permit or mandate courts to require participation in treatment programs.

4 states enacted laws requiring the certification of programs

1997

this was to be within the context of individual state standards

Nevada amended a confidentiality statute

1997

allows victims of DV to file with a secretary of state to establish a fictitious address.

Kansas v Hendricks

1997

the Court set forth procedures for the indefinite civil commitment of prisoners convicted of a sex offense whom the state deems dangerous due to a mental abnormality.

Child Protection & Sexual Predator Punishment Act

1998

providing sentencing enhancements and addressing sex crimes against children

Crime Victims with Disabilities Act

1998

passed to gather information about the extent of individuals with developmental disabilities

New Directions from the Field: Victims’ Rights and Services for the 21st Century

1998

Office for Victims of Crime update that called for renewed emphasis and refocusing on assisting victims of crime. The report was allowed to be made to persons such as counselors and medical personnel.

Identity Theft and Deterrence Act

1998

Criminalized identity theft and those who identities were stolen were allowed to be considered victims

Pennsylvania and Kentucky amended their penal codes

1998

this is to include protective orders as an aggravating circumstance in sentencing murder, when at the time of killing the defendant was subject to a court order relating to the protection of the victim

Rosenbaum substitution effect theory

1998

Found that mandatory interventions produced less violence against the family member on whose behalf the arrest was made but at the same time increased level of violence perpetrated on other family members

Florida and California enacted legislation

1998

created address confidentiality programs,allowing program participants the ability to vote by absentee ballot.

Westside Middle School shooting

1998

Victim Restitution Enforcement Act

1999

requires mandatory restitution

North Dakota amended legislation

1999

This legislation required courts to take into account any protective orders when considering the restriction or exclusion of custody or visitation right or duty

32 states enacted laws

1999

providing full faith/credit for valid orders of protection from other places

Alabama and Tennessee enacted legislation

1999

this created privileged communication between victims and victim service providers

23 states were participating in the NCIC protection order file registry

1999

Washington required treatment programs to include education

1999

This education was regarding the effects of domestic violence on children for those offenders and victims with children

Mills argument about mandatory intevention

1999

actually mirrors the battering relationship itself, reinforcing a patriarchal system in which women have power

Texas enacts a Safe Haven Law

1999

effort to deal with baby abandonment and infanticide.

Columbine High School shooting

1999

Victims of Trafficking & Violence Protection Act

2000

for immigrant victims

January is National Personal Self-Defense Awareness Month

2000

OVC funded the federal law enforcement training center

2000

this was to provide training to federal law enforcement officers, representing 70 federal agencies, in basic and advanced Victimology curricula

VAWA also provided funding to the federal law enforcement training center

2000

this was to implement its newly developed domestic violence train-the-trainer program law enforcement officials in rural communities

Air Transportation Safety and System Stabilization Act

2001

Federal victim compensation program for the victims of 9/11

47 states and D.C. made DV a factor in decisions about child custody/visitation

2001

26 states and D.C. enacted UCCJEA

2001

this was to better protect victims of domestic violence and their children.

Krumholz argument

2001

There may be a disjuncture between the image of the domestic violence unit and the reality that some units merely serve a symbolic role.

All of US areas established compensation programs

2002

This includes all 50 states, D.C., U.S. Virgin islands, Puerto Rico, Guam

Office on Violence Against Women a permanent independent office

2003

Protect act of 2003

2003

creates a national network of AMBER to facilitate rapid law enforcement & community response to kidnapped or abducted children

Prison Rape Elimination Act

2003

address issue of rape in correctional institutions

National Violent Death Reporting System

2003

Launched by the Centers for Disease control and Prevention. This utilizes records to have a more comprehensive picture of victims, offenders and circumstances.

Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act

2003

new protections against identity theft and helped victims to recover financial losses

Justice for All Act

2004

Provided tools at federal level to enforce rights of crime victims

The National Institute of Corrections study

2004

Found significant utilization of restorative justice programs in the U.S.

Crawford v. Washington

2004

Admitting testimonial statements without affording the defendant the opportunity to cross-examine the witness amount a fundamental violation of the 6th amendment

Re-authorization of the Violence Against Women Act

2005

included the Sexual Assault Services Program, the first ever funding stream dedicated solely to providing direct services to victims of sexual assault

U.S. v Woods

2006

Defendant's drug conspiracy sentence is affirmed where: 1) the district court properly calculated defendant's new advisory Guidelines range, and accounted for the 15% substantial assistance downward departure the court previously granted; and 2) while the district court would have been within its discretion to consider further the crack versus powder cocaine disparity in arriving at defendant's sentence, the district court was not required to apply this consideration by lowering defendant's sentence further.

Adam Walsh Children Protection and Safety Act

2006

Increased Supervision of sex offenders. Eliminated states limitation for fed prosecution of sexual offense or child abduction. Extended civil remedy for child sex crime victims to people victimized as children even if injuries didnt surface until they became adults

Davis v Washington

2006

Supreme Court drew a distinction between testimonial and nontestimonial statements that can be used in court

32 students deaths at Virginia Polytechnic Institute+State University

2007

shooting of two students at Delaware State University

2007

Protect Our Children Act

2008

Improved ability of law enforcement to prosecute child predators

Kennedy v. Louisiana

2008

Louisiana punished child rape as a capital offense, meaning child rape was death penalty-eligible

Giles v. California

2008

Forfeiture by wrongdoing would be appropriate only if the defendant murdered the victim in a deliberate effort to keep her from testifying against him

Workplace Bullying Institute

2010

considers workplace bullying a repeated, health-harming mistreatment of one or more persons (the targets) by one or more perpetrators tat take one or more of the following forms: verbal abuse; offensive conduct/behaviors (including nonverbal) which are threatening, humiliating, or intimidating; work interference – sabotage – which prevents work from getting done

April as National Child Abuse Prevention Month.

2010

By Barack Obama. He calls upon all Americans to observe this month with programs and activities that help prevent child abuse and provide for children’s physical, emotional, and developmental needs.