Key events from the first Semester of AP Euro 2012
The Pope moved his residence from Rome to Avignon. This created tension within the Church, particularly between the French and Italian Cardinals.
Division in European Christian (Catholic) Church. Two Popes, one in Rome, one in Avignon.
Gutenberg invented the movable type printing press.
Martin Luther posted his complaints about the selling of indulgences on the Church door in Wittenburg
Catholic/Holy Roman Emperor meeting to address Luther. Luther was excommunicated.
Inspired by Lutheranism and upset with the social order of the day, German peasants rebelled against their Noble Landlords. Upwards of 100,000 peasants died.
Machiavelli's influential treaty on politics.
The Jesuits, formally known as The Society of Jesus, also called the Soldiers of Christ were founded in reaction to the spreading Protestant Reformation.
Catholic Church's official response to the Protestant Reformation. Reformed internal church corruption. Did not give any doctrinal concessions to the Protestants.
Series of religious wars in France fought between Catholics and Huguenots. As much a rebellion of nobles against the monarchy as it was about religion. Ended in 1598 when Henri IV issued the Edict of Nantes.
The United Dutch Provinces revolt against, and ultimately gain their independence from Spain. They were led, in the beginning, by William of Orange (Stadtholder) (The Silent) a politique
Henri of Navarre- Henry IV of France- Politique who ended the tumultuous religious wars that plagued France. Issued the Edict of Nantes. Laid the foundations for the policies of royal absolutism. Assassinated in 1610.
Alliance of Dutch provinces against Spain.
Union of the Seven Northern Dutch Provinces. This union will become The Netherlands.
Considered the first modern novel. Written by Miguel de Cervantes.
Rebellion of French Nobles against the centralization policies of Richelieu and Mazarin
Political treaty defending Absolutism. Man in the state of Nature is selfish, a beast, life is nasty, brutish, and SHORT, (like me)
The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, founded in 1660.
Ended the War of Spanish Succession. Checked France's expansion. The last of Louis XIV's wars...
Laid down key ideas for modern capitalism- laissez-faire, free trade, blah, blah, its important and stuff...
The Three French Estates convene for the first time since 1614
The Third Estate, joined by some members of the first estate name themselves the "National Assembly"
The National Assembly swear the Tennis Court Oath. Swearing not to disband until they have written a constitution for France.
Peasants destroy feudal records. Culminates with the renunciation of feudal privileges by the nobles on August 4th, 1789.