AP European History- 1st Semester

Key events from the first Semester of AP Euro 2012

1st semester

Avignon Papacy

1309 - 1376

The Pope moved his residence from Rome to Avignon. This created tension within the Church, particularly between the French and Italian Cardinals.

Hundred Years' War

1337 - 1453

The Great Schism

1378 - 1417

Division in European Christian (Catholic) Church. Two Popes, one in Rome, one in Avignon.

Printing Press


Gutenberg invented the movable type printing press.

Posting of the 95 Theses


Martin Luther posted his complaints about the selling of indulgences on the Church door in Wittenburg

Diet of Worms

01/28/1521 - 05/25/1521

Catholic/Holy Roman Emperor meeting to address Luther. Luther was excommunicated.

German Peasant Revolts

1525 - 1526

Inspired by Lutheranism and upset with the social order of the day, German peasants rebelled against their Noble Landlords. Upwards of 100,000 peasants died.

The Prince


Machiavelli's influential treaty on politics.

The Jesuits


The Jesuits, formally known as The Society of Jesus, also called the Soldiers of Christ were founded in reaction to the spreading Protestant Reformation.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Catholic Church's official response to the Protestant Reformation. Reformed internal church corruption. Did not give any doctrinal concessions to the Protestants.

French Wars of Religion

1562 - 1598

Series of religious wars in France fought between Catholics and Huguenots. As much a rebellion of nobles against the monarchy as it was about religion. Ended in 1598 when Henri IV issued the Edict of Nantes.

Dutch Revolt against Spain

1568 - 1648

The United Dutch Provinces revolt against, and ultimately gain their independence from Spain. They were led, in the beginning, by William of Orange (Stadtholder) (The Silent) a politique

Henri IV of France (r.)

1572 - 1610

Henri of Navarre- Henry IV of France- Politique who ended the tumultuous religious wars that plagued France. Issued the Edict of Nantes. Laid the foundations for the policies of royal absolutism. Assassinated in 1610.

St. Bartholomew's Day massacre


Pacification of Ghent


Alliance of Dutch provinces against Spain.

Union of Utrecht


Union of the Seven Northern Dutch Provinces. This union will become The Netherlands.

Spanish Armada


Edict of Nantes


Don Quixote of La Mancha


Considered the first modern novel. Written by Miguel de Cervantes.

The Fronde

1648 - 1652

Rebellion of French Nobles against the centralization policies of Richelieu and Mazarin

Leviathan- Thomas Hobbes


Political treaty defending Absolutism. Man in the state of Nature is selfish, a beast, life is nasty, brutish, and SHORT, (like me)

The Royal Society (of London)


The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, founded in 1660.

Principia Mathematica- Newton


Treaty of Utrecht


Ended the War of Spanish Succession. Checked France's expansion. The last of Louis XIV's wars...

Wealth of Nations- Adam Smith


Laid down key ideas for modern capitalism- laissez-faire, free trade, blah, blah, its important and stuff...

French Revolution


Meeting of the Estates General


The Three French Estates convene for the first time since 1614

National Assembly created


The Third Estate, joined by some members of the first estate name themselves the "National Assembly"

Tennis Court Oath


The National Assembly swear the Tennis Court Oath. Swearing not to disband until they have written a constitution for France.

The Great Fear

07/1789 - 08/04/1789

Peasants destroy feudal records. Culminates with the renunciation of feudal privileges by the nobles on August 4th, 1789.

Storming of the Bastille


Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen


March of the Fishwives

10/5/1789 - 10/6/1789