The Pope moved his residence from Rome to Avignon. This created tension within the Church, particularly between the French and Italian Cardinals.
Hundred Years' War
1337 - 1453
The Great Schism
1378 - 1417
Division in European Christian (Catholic) Church. Two Popes, one in Rome, one in Avignon.
Gutenberg invented the movable type printing press.
Posting of the 95 Theses
Martin Luther posted his complaints about the selling of indulgences on the Church door in Wittenburg
Diet of Worms
01/28/1521 - 05/25/1521
Catholic/Holy Roman Emperor meeting to address Luther. Luther was excommunicated.
German Peasant Revolts
1525 - 1526
Inspired by Lutheranism and upset with the social order of the day, German peasants rebelled against their Noble Landlords. Upwards of 100,000 peasants died.
Machiavelli's influential treaty on politics.
The Jesuits, formally known as The Society of Jesus, also called the Soldiers of Christ were founded in reaction to the spreading Protestant Reformation.
Council of Trent
1545 - 1563
Catholic Church's official response to the Protestant Reformation. Reformed internal church corruption. Did not give any doctrinal concessions to the Protestants.
French Wars of Religion
1562 - 1598
Series of religious wars in France fought between Catholics and Huguenots. As much a rebellion of nobles against the monarchy as it was about religion. Ended in 1598 when Henri IV issued the Edict of Nantes.
Dutch Revolt against Spain
1568 - 1648
The United Dutch Provinces revolt against, and ultimately gain their independence from Spain. They were led, in the beginning, by William of Orange (Stadtholder) (The Silent) a politique
Henri IV of France (r.)
1572 - 1610
Henri of Navarre- Henry IV of France- Politique who ended the tumultuous religious wars that plagued France. Issued the Edict of Nantes. Laid the foundations for the policies of royal absolutism. Assassinated in 1610.
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre
Pacification of Ghent
Alliance of Dutch provinces against Spain.
Union of Utrecht
Union of the Seven Northern Dutch Provinces. This union will become The Netherlands.
Edict of Nantes
Don Quixote of La Mancha
Considered the first modern novel. Written by Miguel de Cervantes.
1648 - 1652
Rebellion of French Nobles against the centralization policies of Richelieu and Mazarin
Leviathan- Thomas Hobbes
Political treaty defending Absolutism. Man in the state of Nature is selfish, a beast, life is nasty, brutish, and SHORT, (like me)
The Royal Society (of London)
The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, founded in 1660.
Principia Mathematica- Newton
Treaty of Utrecht
Ended the War of Spanish Succession. Checked France's expansion. The last of Louis XIV's wars...
Wealth of Nations- Adam Smith
Laid down key ideas for modern capitalism- laissez-faire, free trade, blah, blah, its important and stuff...
Meeting of the Estates General
The Three French Estates convene for the first time since 1614
National Assembly created
The Third Estate, joined by some members of the first estate name themselves the "National Assembly"
Tennis Court Oath
The National Assembly swear the Tennis Court Oath. Swearing not to disband until they have written a constitution for France.
The Great Fear
07/1789 - 08/04/1789
Peasants destroy feudal records. Culminates with the renunciation of feudal privileges by the nobles on August 4th, 1789.