The princes of the German states vote to depose Wenceslaus as Holy Roman Emperor due to his weak leadership and his mental illnesses. Rupert, Count Palatine of the Rhine, is elected as Holy Roman Emperor.
September 16 – Owain Glyndŵr is proclaimed Prince of Wales by his followers and begins attacking English strongholds in north-east Wales.
December – Manuel II Palaiologos becomes the first (and last) Byzantine Emperor to visit England.
August 10 – Diogo Dias discovers an island which he names St Lawrence (after the saint's day on which it was first sighted), later to be known as Madagascar
November 11 – Treaty of Granada: Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon agree to divide the Kingdom of Naples between them.
November 16 – Emperor Go-Kashiwabara accedes to the throne of Japan.
December 31 – The last of the incunabula are published.
January 31 – Battle of Gembloux: Spanish forces under Don John of Austria and Alexander Farnese defeat the Dutch. Alexander Farnese begins to recover control of the French-speaking Southern Netherlands.
April 27 – The Duel of the Mignons claims the lives of two favorites of Henry III of France and two favourites of Henry I, Duke of Guise.
May 31 – Martin Frobisher sails from Harwich, England to Frobisher Bay, Canada, eventually to mine fool's gold, used to pave streets in London.
July 2 – Battle of Nieuwpoort in the Eighty Years' War (Dutch War of Independence) between the Dutch and the Spanish
October 17 – Battle of Sekigahara in Japan, granting Tokugawa Ieyasu nominal control over the whole country.
December 31 – East India Company granted a Royal Charter in Kingdom of England.
January 1 Protestant Western Europe (except England) starts using the Gregorian calendar
January 1 (Julian) – Russia begins numbering its calendar from the birth of Christ (Anno Domini) instead of since the Creation (Anno Mundi).
January 26 (approx. 9 p.m.) – Cascadia earthquake: One of the largest earthquakes known ruptures the Cascadia subduction zone offshore from Vancouver Island spreading along more than 600 miles (966 km) of North America's West Coast to Cape Mendocino in northern California. The magnitude of the earthquake is estimated as between 8.7 and 9.2. Houses in First Nations communities on Vancouver Island collapse and an entire village on its west coast is destroyed with no survivors. The earthquake triggers an Orphan Tsunami which hits Japan approximately 10 hours later and is recorded as flooding fields and washing away houses.