Industrial Revolution


Farming Methods Improve


Some farmers mixed different kinds of soils to get higher crop yields. Others tried crop rotation and farmers were urged to grow turnips. Jethro Tull invented the seed drill which deposited seed in rows rather than scattering them wastefully over the land.

Canals boom

1700 - 1800

In 1763, when the Bridgewater canal opened, it not only made a profit from tolls, but it cut in half the price of frenzy. Entrepreneurs formed companies to construct canals for profit. Later in the 1830s canals lost their importance as steam locomotives made railroads the new preferred form of transportation.

New Methods of Producing Iron


Abraham Darby used coal instead of charcoal to smelt iron which means to separate iron from its ore. His experiments led him to produce less expensive and better-quality iron that was then used to produce parts of the steam engine. Later went on to create the first bridge which still stands today

Steam Engine invented


British inventor Thomas Newcomen had developed a steam engine powered by coal to pump water out of mines.

Invention of Flying Shuttle


John Kay invented the flying shuttle to increase cotton production and this invention sped up weaving.


1750 - 1780

The British market town of Manchester numbered 17,000 people in the 1750s. Later by 1780 the population soared to 40,000 and by 1801 it soared to 70,000. Urbanization is the movement of people to cities.

Invention of Spinning Jenny


James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny which increased the speed of spinning thread.

Steam Engine Improvements


Scottish engineer James Watt looked at Newcomen's invention in 1764 and set out to make improvements. The steam engine opened the door not only to operating machinery but eventually to powering locomotives and steamships.

Invention of Water Frame


Invented by Richard Arkwright and was invented to increase the speed of spinning thread

Steam Locomotive Invention


This invention made the groth of railroads possible. Tracks could now go places where rivers did not allow. The world's first major rail line, from Liverpool to Manchester, opened in England in 1830. By 1870, rail lines crisscrossed Britain, Europe, and North America.