Social Studies

1870-2000

Presidents

Ulysses S. Grant

3/4/1869 - 3/4/1877

Republican

Rutherford B. Hayes

03/04/1877 - 03/04/1881

Republican

James Garfield

03/04/1881 - 09/09/1881

Republican

Chester Aurther

09/19/1881 - 03/04/1885

Republican

Grover Cleveland

03/04/1885 - 03/04/1889

Democrat

Benjamin Harrison

03/04/1889 - 03/04/1893

Republican

Grover Cleveland

3/4/1893 - 3/4/1897

Democrat

William Mickinley

03/04/1897 - 09/14/1901

Republican

Theodore Roosevelt

September 14, 1901 - March 4, 1909

Republican

William Howard Taft

March 4, 1909 - March 4, 1913

Republican

Woodrow Wilson

March 4, 1913 - March 4, 1921

Democrat

Warren G. Harding

March 4, 1921 - August 2, 1923

Republican

Calvin Coolidge

August 2, 1923 - March 4, 1929

Republican

Herbert Hoover

March 4, 1929 - March 4, 1933

Republican

Franklin D. Roosevelt

March 4, 1933 - April 12, 1945

Democrat

Harry S. Truman

April 12, 1945 - January 20, 1953

Democrat

Dwight D. Eisenhower

January 20, 1953 - January 20, 1961

Republican

John F. Kennedy

January 20, 1961 - November 22, 1963

Democrat

Lyndon B. Johnson

November 22, 1963 - January 20, 1969

Democrat

Richard Nixon

January 20, 1969 - August 9, 1974

Republican

Gerald Ford

August 9, 1974 - January 20, 1977

Republican

Jimmy Carter

January 20, 1977 - January 20, 1981

Democrat

Ronald Reagan

January 20, 1981 - January 20, 1989

Republican

George H. W. Bush

January 20, 1989 - January 20, 1993

Republican

Bill Clinton

January 20, 1993 - January 20, 2001

Democrat

Senate

Republican Majority

1869 - 1879

Democratic Majority

1879 - 1881

Same Majority

1881 - 1883

Republican majority

1883 - 1893

Democratic Majority

1893 - 1895

Republican Majority

1895 - 1913

Democratic Majority

1913 - 1919

Republican Majority

1919 - 1933

Democratic Majority

1933 - 1947

Legislation, Supreme Court, Amendment

legislation

1870

Hiram Revels is the first African American elected to the U.S. Senate and Joseph Hayne Rainey becomes the first African American member of the U.S. House of Representatives.

supreme court

1870

Jasper J. Wright is elected to the South Carolina Supreme Court.

Amendment

1870

The Fifteenth Amendment is ratified by the states, giving freed slaves and other African Americans the equal right to vote.

Legislation

1877

The Hayes-Tilden compromise marks the beginning of the end of Reconstruction and effectively gives white Democrats free reign to subjugate blacks and newly-freed slaves./

Disputed returns from the November 1876 presidential election, in which Democrat Samuel J. Tilden won the popular vote against Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, but fell one electoral vote short of the 185 needed to win the presidency, provoke a Constitutional crisis. The crisis is resolved when Hayes agrees to recognize Democratic administrations in Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina - and return federal troops to their barracks - in exchange for Democrats in Congress accepting him as President.

Supreme court

1917

In a setback to Native American voting rights, the Minnesota Supreme Court rules in Opsahl v. Johnson to deny members of the Red Lake Chippewa Tribe the right to vote.

Supreme Court

1922

In Takao Ozawa v. United States, the U.S. Supreme Court holds that a person of Japanese origin is barred from naturalization under the statute limiting eligibility to "free white persons and to aliens of African nativity and to persons of African descent."

Supreme Court

1923

The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Guinn v. United States that Oklahoma's "grandfather clause," which is used to disfranchise black men, is unconstitutional.

Supreme court

1937

In a setback to African American voting rights, the U.S. Supreme Court rules in Breedlove v. Suttles to uphold the constitutionality of Georgia poll taxes

Legislation

1940

Only 3% of eligible African Americans in the South are registered to vote.

Wars & World Events

Franco-Prussian War unifies Germany

1870 - 1871

Red River War

1874 - 1875

Sioux & Cheyenne defeat Custer at Little Big Horn, Montanna

1876 - 1877

Cuba occupid by U.S. and released

1898 - 1902

U.S. declared war against Germany

04/06/1917 - 04/17/1917

Versailles Peace Treaty

1919 - 1920

League of Nations

1919 - 1920

Worldwide Depression Begins

1930 - 1931

Bureau of Indian Affairs reformed

1933 - 1934

Sales of Indian lands halted

Technology

Chewing Gum

1870 - 1871

By Thomas Adams

Barbed Wire

1873 - 1874

By: Joseph Glidden

Blue Jeans

1873 - 1874

By: Jacob Davis & Levi Strauss

Refrigerator

1876 - 1877

Carol Linde

Carpet Sweeper

1876 - 1877

By: Melville Bissell

Christmas Lights

1882 - 1883

By: Edward Johnson

Kodak Camera

1888 - 1889

By George Eastman
-he also invented the roll of film in 1884

Electric Power AC

1888 - 1889

By: Nikola Tesla

Automobile

1889 - 1890

By: Karl Benz

Swiss Army Knife

1891 - 1892

By: Carl Elsene

Cracker Jacks

1893 - 1894

By: F.W. Rueckheim

Aspirin

1897 - 1898

By: Felix Hoffmann

Jell-O

1897 - 1898

By: Pearle B. Wait

Hershey Bar

1900 - 1901

By: Milton Hershey

Flashlight

1902 - 1903

By: Conrad Hubert

Airplane

1903 - 1904

By: Wright brothers

Crayons

1903 - 1904

By: Binney & Smith

Shopping Bag

1912 - 1913

By: Walter H. Deubner

Zipper

1913 - 1914

By: Gideon Sundback

Lincoln Logs

1916 - 1917

By: John Lloyd Wright

Band-Aid

1920 - 1921

By: Earle Dickson

Traffic Light

1920 - 1921

By: William Potts

Television

1927 - 1928

By: Philo T. Farnsworth

Trampoline

1935 - 1936

By: George Nissen

Monopoly

1935 - 1936

By: Charles Darrow

Ballpoint pen

1935 - 1936

By: Ladislas & Georg Biro

Blood Bank

1940 - 1941

By: Charles Drew

Society & Culture

Reconstruction in the old South

1865 - 1877

National League founded (baseball)

1876 - 1877

Women lawyers permitted to argue cases before Supreme Court

1879 - 1880

Civil Service established

1883 - 1884

Haymarket Square labor riot in Chicago kills eleven people

1886 - 1887

AFL founded by S Gompers

1890 - 1891

Pres. McKinley shot by anarchist

1901 - 1902

Roosevelt begins conservation of forests

1902 - 1903

Fundamentalism begins with "Five Points"

1910 - 1911

Blacks migrate north and west

1917 - 1918

Lindbergh crosses Atlantic non-stop

1927 - 1928

Roosevelt begins "New Deal"

1933 - 1934

Social Security Act provides retirement insurance

1935 - 1936

House of Representatives

Republican Majority

1869 - 1875

1869-1871
Democrats: 73
Republicans: 170
Others:
1871-1873
Democrats: 104
Republicans: 139
Others:
1873-1875
Democrats: 88
Republicans: 203
Others:

Democratic Majority

1875 - 1881

1875-1877
Democrats: 181
Republicans: 107
Others:

1877-1879
Democrats: 156
Republicans: 137
Others:
1879-1881
Democrats: 150
Republicans: 128
Others: 14

Republican Majority

1881 - 1883

Democrats: 130
Republicans: 152
Others: 11

Democratic Majority

1883 - 1889

1883-1885
Democrats: 200
Republicans: 119
Others: 6
1885-1887
Democrats: 182
Republicans: 140
Others: 2
1887-1889
Democrats: 170
Republicans: 151
Others: 4

Republican Majority

1889 - 1891

Democrats: 156
Republicans: 173
Other: 1

Democratic Majority

1891 - 1895

1891-1893
Democrats: 231
Republicans: 88
Other: 14
1893-1895
Democrats: 220
Republicans: 126
Other: 10

Republican Majority

1895 - 1911

1895-1897
Democratic: 104
Republican: 246
Other: 7
1897-1899
Democratic: 134
Republican: 206
Other: 16
Vacant: 1
1899-1901
Democratic: 163
Republican: 195
Other: 9
1903-1905
Democratic: 178
Republican: 207
Other: 0
1905-1907
Democratic: 136
Republican: 250
Other: 0
Vacant: 1
1907-1909
Democratic: 164
Republican: 222
Other: 0
1909-1911
Democratic: 172
Republican: 219
Other: 0

Democratic Majority

1911 - 1917

1911-1913
Democrats: 228
Republicans: 162
Other: 1
1913-1915
Democrats: 290
Republicans: 127
Other: 18
1915-1917
Democrats: 231
Republicans: 193
Other: 8
Vacant: 3

Republican Majority

1917 - 1931

1917-1919
Democrats: 210 (With help of other parties)
Republicans: 216
Other: 9
1919-1921
Democratic: 191
Republican: 237
Other: 7
1921-1923
Democratic: 132
Republican: 300
Other: 1
Vacant: 2
1923-1925
Democratic: 207
Republican: 225
Other: 3
1925-1927
Democratic: 183
Republican: 247
Other: 5
1927-1929
Democratic: 195
Republican: 237
Other: 3
1929-1931
Democratic: 163
Republican: 267
Other: 1
Vacant: 4

Democratic Majority

1931 - 1939

1931-1933
Democratic: 216 (Democrats organized House due to Republican deaths.
Republican: 218
Other: 1
1933-1935
Democratic: 313
Republican: 117
Other: 5
1935-1937
Democratic: 322
Republican: 103
Other: 10
1937-1939
Democratic: 333
Republican: 89
Other: 13