The remarkable rise of European political and military power relative to the rest of the world was the fourth major change.
A second major development was the Columbian Exchange of plants, animals, and microorganisms between Afroeurasia and the Americas.
The fifth great change was the development in western Europe of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment and the subsequent diffusion of their ideas to other parts of the world, as women and men grappled with them in a variety of ways.
Big Era Six was a period of major population increase in Afroeurasia. The world’s population increased from about 375 million in 1400 to 954 million in 1800. it saw a catastrophic collapse in the population of the Americas as a whole, which plummeted from at least 50 million in 1500 to perhaps 10 million by 1600.
A third change was the emergence of a truly global economy.
The most striking aspect of the 1400s was the enormous extension of networks of communication and exchange that linked individuals and societies more and more tightly.