The Predynastic era of Egypt is one of the cloudy areas of Egypt’s history, as there are no remaining written records from that time. Everything that archeologists know is from artifacts that were excavated, that show the different cultures of the time
During the Early Dynastic Era, the north and south of Egypt were unified and were controlled by a central government. Writing, sciences and art bloomed during this time, under the rule of a king. Artifacts from this time show even more cultural diversity and evolution as people began to identify as a unified population.
One of the most significant achievements of this era was the start of the building of the pyramids, including the pyramid of Giza. Much of the information from this era is found inside the pyramids and among stone tablets. The government situation fluctuated during this era, as the centralized government became strong and near the end, lost control. The Sphinx was also built during this time.
This era produced many great literature and art works, as observed through artifacts and architecture. Archeologists consider this era to be the time that has inspired ancient and even modern Egyptian culture. During this time, while the north and south remained in Egypt, they gained their own leaders and tensions between them built, as each leader wanted the other’s land for himself. However near the end, the two parts were ruled by one man, Mentuhotep II, who in a way, reunified the north and south.
It is during this era that Egyptians realized their power and created an empire. The rulers became known as pharaohs and there is written records of pharaohs and kings of other nations being in contact, for what you could call business matters. The empire began to grow powerful and slowly expand, which gave them more strength and made the empire rich, as it reaped the goods of its new territories. There was also an increase in trade and Egyptian culture evolved as it had access to foreign cultures.
During this period, Egyptian culture suffered at the hand of the many Persian invasions, during many of which the Persians ruled. Art from this era showed more artistic freedom and much of the finer art that we have found artifacts of were made of metals such as gold, silver and bronze. Despite the Persian invasions and rulings, Egyptian religion remained intact which allowed for some of the culture to escape the assimilation of the Persians.
The Ptolemaic Dynasty was the time during which the Greeks ruled over Egypt. While many Greeks lived in Egypt, both groups remained intact and there was minimal mixing of the two. Languages, cultures and religions were different in Alexandria, the city where the Greeks lives, and in the rest of Egypt. Cleopatra VII ruled during this era and was a special exception of a Macedonian who attempted to adopt some of the Egyptian culture, by learning the language. The Greeks played the role of both pharaoh and Greek monarchs and there was a lot of incest among them in attempts to keep the bloodlines pure.