The Age of Revolutions

The Haitian Revolution

The Revolution Begins

August 14, 1791

On this day, a ceremony known as the Bois Caïman ceremony took place. This ceremony is where the slaves made their final decisions and finalize their plan of attack. They also conduct a series of Voodoo rituals in order to prepare.

Le Cap is Burned

September 6, 1791

This event was lead by rebelling slaves, and gains them a great advantage in the rebellion. It allows them to gain land, stabilize their position, and leads to new military strategies.

Citizenship is Granted to Mulattoes and Free Blacks

September 21, 1791

Tension between whites and people of color in the colonies rise after citizenship is granted to mulattoes and free blacks. This event was caused by a series of uprisings, including the burning of over 100 plantations.

Equal Political Rights are granted to Mulattoes and Free Blacks

April 4, 1792

King Louis XVI of France declares that all free men should have equal political rights, no matter their race.

Spain and the Rebellion Join Forces

Approx. February 1793

Among the many rebel leaders to join the rebellion is Toussaint Louverture, who is at this point a prominent rebel leader. At this time, France also declares war on England and Holland, stretching itself even thinner.

France Frees Haitian Slaves

February 4, 1794

Because France was at war with Spain, Britain, and the slaves, they decide to free the slaves and lessen their list of enemies.

The National Assembly is DIssolved

October 26, 1795

The National Assembly in France is dissolved, and the Directory is established. Five new civil commissioners are sent to Saint-Domingue in order to make sure the colony was adhering to French law, as well as to restore economic prosperity.

Sonthonax Forced Back to France

August 25, 1797

Louverture uses his rapidly growing political power to push Sonthonax (who already wanted to leave) forcefully out the colony and back to France. Those remaining in political power defer their decisions and opinions to Louverture.

Le Cap is Burned...AGAIN!

February 4, 1802

General Christophe sets fire to Le Cap in preparation for the arrival of European troops.

Haiti Gets its Inedependence

January 1, 1804

After nearly 13 years of revolutions, Haiti finally received its independence on January 1, 1804. With this, the first black republic is formed, but it is quickly shunned from the outside world of trade.