Pre Civil War, Civil War, Reconstruction
Reflected American nationalism, idealistic vision of social perfection. Westward expansion was a result of superior American race
Democrat idea. Expand US democracy and ideals to the world - turn focus away from slavery.
Not successful - Ostend Manifesto made Northerners angry - thought South trying to get more slave territory.
Tension b/w North and South from economic and territorial interests, but also hardening ideas. Each thought own vision should be dominant.
Free soil and free labor Slavery wrong - to whites. Citizens have rights to own property, control own labor, access opportunity, but South was a closed, static society. Slavery preserved aristocracy and common whites had no opportunities. Support from Church too.
Slave Power Conspiracy - Northerners thought they were prospering and South was stagnating, yet South was trying to extend slavery and crush capitalism.
Republican idea. Republicans also committed to Union - splitting would be going backwards, less prosperous, which would have been anti-free labor.
1. Whites wanted security after Nat Turner
2. Cotton became even more profitable in Deept South
3. Garrisonians becoming more vehement against South.
Slavery is positive good
1. Slaves in better conditions than industrial workers.
2. Two races could live together.
3. Helped national economy.
4. Preserve southern way of life. North was greedy, destructive, dirty, crowded with immigrants. South was stable, orderly, protected workers.
5. Blacks biologically inferior.
Increase their tax revenues, wanted Americans as a buffer against US and Indians.
Encourages American immigration to Texas
General Houston took Santa Anna prisoner, made him sign a treaty giving TX indpc.
Jackson against - feared sectional controversy. Van Buren and William Henry Harrison did not press the issue. Tyler encouraged, but Calhoun (Sec of State) presented annexation as if to extend slavery - NO.
Polk sends General Zachary Taylor to Rio Grande to protect it.
Polk orders Taylor across the Rio Grande, deliberately antagonizing Mexicans.
Opposition: Polk had deliberately started the war. Pacific NW more important - Mexico was a distraction. Compromise over Oregon should have gotten US more - Mexico had been distracting.
Polk sent General Winfield Scott, won. Wanted to end the war quickly but also wanted more of Mexico.
Colonel Kearny united the Bear Flag Revolutionists (American settlers, navy, exploring party) and conquered CA.
Forty-niners - abandoned everything to go to CA. Mostly men - fluid and volatile society. First Chinese immigrants - voluntary, looking for economic opportunities.
Labor shortage (everyone looking for gold) - Indian slavery.
Most immigrants stayed after gold was gone - diverse, turbulent place. Needed stable government - need to resolve the issue of territories.
Rio Grande established as boundary. US paid financial claims of new citizens. Pay Mexico $15 mil. Polk wanted more, but Americans tired of war.
Disputed control of Oregon Country with Britain. American immigration began growing, settlements along Pacific coast.
Most from Old Northwest - relatively young, migrated before, relatively prosperous (migrating required money). Some wanted quick riches, others public lands, others to become merchants in the new white societies.
Long, slow, arduous journeys. Many died because of plagues. Indians helped them.
High collective experience - travelling in large groups, constant contact.
Neither Britain nor US really wanted war -> treaty to make 49th parallel the boundary.
Scared the Southern whites, felt the North was antagonistic.
Calhoun - slavery is not a necessary evil but a positive good.
1. Slaves have better conditions than industrial workers in the North.
2. Two races can live together.
3. Profitable for the country.
4. Black people are naturally inferior.
5. Preserves the southern way of life - stable/orderly society, slow and human pace, protecting workers' welfare and aristocrats' status. No Northern conflicts between capital and labor.
Amendment to the bill prohibiting slavery in any territory from Mexico.
Signaled inability of parties to address issue of slavery.
President Taylor asked Congress as free and New Mexico under pop sovereignty.
Congress - NO.
1. Antislavery efforts in D.C. were resisted by southerners.
2. Personal liberty laws - courts and police could not return runaway slaves to owners.
3. Two new free states would upset balance between North and South in Senate.
Mobs prevented southern slave catchers from taking slaves back to South - Southerners angry
settlers moving into plains (farming), pushing out Indians.
Railroads - expansion = need for communication -> support for transcontinental railroad. Problem - placement, especially where to connect with existing rail network - North or South.
Clay's omnibus bill
1. CA admitted as free.
2. Form territorial governments in territory from Mexico, no restrictions on slavery.
3. Abolish slave trade (not slavery) in D.C.
4. New, more effective slave law.
Calhoun - N. give S. equal rights in new territories. Radical demands (dual presidents, cease abolition, etc.)
Clay's bill is defeated.
Seward (ideals of Union < eliminating slavery)
Jefferson Davis (slavery more about economics than ideals)
Stephen A. Douglas (westerner, wanted economic benefits for West. Not about broad national goals - sectional/personal gain.)
Zachary Taylor adamant that CA and NM had to be admitted before other issues - conveniently dies, so omnibus bill can be broken down. President Fillmore rallies N Whig support. Get each bill passed, but out of self-interest not national agreement.
Bought strip of land for $10 million, remove one obstacle for southern railroad.
Tried to buy Cuba from Spain, antislavery Northerners feared new slave state.
Stephen A. Douglas wanted RR to go through western states - created bill to organize a territory, Nebraska.
To appease South, Douglas gave territory popular sovereignty. Also agreed to split the territory into Kansas and Nebraska. Kansas (southern half) more likely to become slave. Repealed Missouri Compromise.
Consequences - divided and destroyed Whigs, divided northern Democrats.
Thousands of Missourians crossed border to vote in Kansas, legalized slavery. Antislavery supporters formed own Constitution and applied for statehood.
Earned name "Bleeding Kansas" because of sectional strife.
John Brown killed 5 pro-slavery settlers. Led to irregular guerrilla warfare.
Sumner made a rude speech about slavery and Southerners, Brooks beat Sumner with his cane.
1857 - new Kansas Constitution legalized slavery, but newly elected legislature widely rejected it. 1858 - Buchanan pressured Congress to admit KS as slave, but Congress refused. Compromise - popular sovereignty - rejected again.
Led followers to Harpers Ferry, Virginia, hoped to lead slave rebellion. Failed, tried, hanged.
White southerners felt threatened, thought that North endorsed raid and slave rebellion.
After some Southern states have seceded
Vice President of William Henry Harrison
Caught a cold a month into office.
Henry Clay (Whig) vs. Polk (southern Democrats).
Cass (Democrats) vs. General Zachary Taylor (Whigs).
Van Buren (Free-Soil).
Taylor wins, but Free-Soil gets some members into Congress.
Pierce (Democrat) vs. General Winfield Scott (Whig) vs. John Hale (Free-Soil)
Many Whigs defected (not addressing issue of slavery) so Democrats won
Northerners and Southerners who opposed Kansas-Nebraska Act formed the Republican Party.
Republican platform - denounced Kansas-Nebraska Act and slavery, supported internal improvements. Antislave, helped North economically.
Congressional elections - Lincoln (Rep) ran against Stephen Douglas (Dem). Debates attracted attention.
Lincoln's arguments - denying blacks rights -> could eventually deny immigrants of rights. Extending slavery into territories would deprive poor whites of opportunity.
Opposed slavery but did not see alternative. Thought that if he could prevent spread, slavery would die out on its own.
Democrats split between southerners (strong support for slavery) and westerners (popular sovereignty).
Republicans tried to appeal to all of North, who feared South blocking economic interests - high tariffs, internal improvements, homestead bill, Pacific railroad, popular sovereignty (but Congress or territory legis could legalize slavery in territories)
Lincoln - moderate, obscure, native westerner. Lincoln won - South felt being in the Union was hopeless
Supreme Court ruled that slaves were property, and under the Fifth Amendment, Congress can not take property without due process of law. Congress could not deprive people of their slave property.