Mussolini becomes Prime Minister.
The American stock market crash starts a world-wide Depression, which is at its worst in most of Europe from the summer of 1931 through the end of 1932 and in some places much longer.
The third Reich withdraws from the disarmament conference and the league of nations.
This agreement, Hitler's first significant initiative in Eastern Europe.
The third Reich repudits the disarmament clauses of the Treaty of Versailles and begins the rearm openly.
Nazi Germany repudiates the demilitarization clauses of the Treaty of Versailles and the Locarno Treaties.
A Civil War starts out in Spain, lasting until 1939.
Germany annexes Austria after sudden crisis.
Germany's invasion of Poland is followed by British and French declarations of war on Germany. The Soviet Union, having signed the Nazi-Soviet Pact with Germany a week earlier, remains out of the war and in fact uses the terms of the Pact to justify its occupation of part of Poland, the Baltic States, and parts of Romania over the next year.
German armies conquer Yugoslavia and Greece in a few weeks.