Related to the IB History DBQ Subject for Paper 1
This agreement divided the possessions of the Ottoman Empire between Great Britain and France.
The British supported through this declaration the formation of a national homeland of Jews in Palestine.
France wanted a guarantee that in the event of a German attack, the UK and the US would come to their aid. However, the US and then the UK both refused to ratify this agreement and so it was not officially signed off on.
Settlement with Turkish (Ottoman) Empire. Revised at Lausanne 1923
Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia & Romania combine to resist Hungarian irredentism.
Attempt to threaten Germany with 2-front war, as the Franco-Russian alliance had done prior to WW1.
Settles Russo-Polish War giving Poland 80,000 km2 of Ukraine and White Russia.
German-Russian effort for mutual aid and to evade the restrictions of Versailles.
Settles Greco-Turkish War and revises Sevres Treaty, in Turkey's favor.
Japan demanded equal tonnage with the UK and the United states, but eventually left the treaty with Italy. France, the UK, and the United States signed the treaty in 1936 regarding cruise tonnage, but agreements about limiting the size and number of battleships fell apart in 1936 due to Japanese and German rearmament.
The conference established the ratio of warships between the UK, United States, and Japan at 5:5:3. These countries also agreed to halt battleship production for 10 years.
UK:US:Japan = 10:10:7
Italy & France agree to 5-year building halt, but do not set ratios.
France was unwilling to reduce military spending without guarantee of protection and support from major powers, and when the UK and other powers didn't agree, France refused to consider disarmament. Germany demanded that countries be disarmed to the German level after the Treaty of Versailles, but left the conference in July 1932. Germany rejoined with Adolf Hitler as Germany's Chancellor in 1933, but withdrew again from the conference and the League of Nations when his demands were unanswered. He used this as a reason for Germany's rearmament.
League provides aid to 1.4 million Greek refugees fleeing Smyrna in Turkey.
Lenin's "Red" Bolsheviks fight against opponent "Whites" for control of Russia.
Poles & Czechs fight over coal-mining town.
British, French, American and Japanese forces fight in Russian against the Bolshevik "Reds."
Rogue Italian group occupies Fiume. Italian govt. Attacks and returns port city to Yugoslavia, who had been awarded it at the Paris Settlement.
Mussolini gets Fiume upon renegotiation with Yugoslavs after the Corfu Crisis in 1923.
Polish take the city from Lithuanians who want it as their capital (though only 2% Lith and 30% Pole). League fails to persuade Poland to give it up, despite Lithuanian appeals.
Poles defeat Bolsheviks and extend their border east, well beyond the ethnic-based "Curzon Line." Settled at Treaty of Riga.
Rioting & violence erupts after a split vote over joining Germany or Poland. League inquiry settles dispute by dividing the region.
Swedish residents of these Finnish islands wish to join Sweden. League arbitration grants islands to Finland but demilitarizes them. Both sides accept.
Italy shells Greek island to protest death of Italian members of a survey team. Greeks appeal to League, but Mussolini refuses and 'bullies' conference of Ambassadors to force Greece to pay 50 m lira fine. He then meets with Yugoslavs, who hand over Fiume without argument.
Lithuanians invade port controlled by French General under League auspices (Lith. majority population). League agrees to Lithuanian control of port as an 'international zone.'