PEACEMAKING & PEACEKEEPING: 1918-1936

Related to the IB History DBQ Subject for Paper 1

Main

TREATIES

Sykes-Picot Agreement

1916

This agreement divided the possessions of the Ottoman Empire between Great Britain and France.

Balfour Declaration

1917

The British supported through this declaration the formation of a national homeland of Jews in Palestine.

Paris Peace Settlements

1919 - 1923

Anglo-American Guarantee

1919

France wanted a guarantee that in the event of a German attack, the UK and the US would come to their aid. However, the US and then the UK both refused to ratify this agreement and so it was not officially signed off on.

Sevres

1920

Settlement with Turkish (Ottoman) Empire. Revised at Lausanne 1923

Little Entente

1921

Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia & Romania combine to resist Hungarian irredentism.

Franco Polish Alliance

1921

Attempt to threaten Germany with 2-front war, as the Franco-Russian alliance had done prior to WW1.

Treaty of Riga

1921

Settles Russo-Polish War giving Poland 80,000 km2 of Ukraine and White Russia.

Rapallo

1922

German-Russian effort for mutual aid and to evade the restrictions of Versailles.

Lausanne

1923

Settles Greco-Turkish War and revises Sevres Treaty, in Turkey's favor.

The London Naval Treaty

1936

Japan demanded equal tonnage with the UK and the United states, but eventually left the treaty with Italy. France, the UK, and the United States signed the treaty in 1936 regarding cruise tonnage, but agreements about limiting the size and number of battleships fell apart in 1936 due to Japanese and German rearmament.

DISARMAMENT TALKS

The Washington Conference

1921 - 1922

The conference established the ratio of warships between the UK, United States, and Japan at 5:5:3. These countries also agreed to halt battleship production for 10 years.

London Naval Agreement

1930

UK:US:Japan = 10:10:7
Italy & France agree to 5-year building halt, but do not set ratios.

The Geneva Disarmament Conference

1932 - 1934

France was unwilling to reduce military spending without guarantee of protection and support from major powers, and when the UK and other powers didn't agree, France refused to consider disarmament. Germany demanded that countries be disarmed to the German level after the Treaty of Versailles, but left the conference in July 1932. Germany rejoined with Adolf Hitler as Germany's Chancellor in 1933, but withdrew again from the conference and the League of Nations when his demands were unanswered. He used this as a reason for Germany's rearmament.

LEAGUE OF NATIONS

Smyrna

1923

League provides aid to 1.4 million Greek refugees fleeing Smyrna in Turkey.

CONFLICTS & CRISES

Russian Civil War

1918 - 1920

Lenin's "Red" Bolsheviks fight against opponent "Whites" for control of Russia.

Teschen

1919

Poles & Czechs fight over coal-mining town.

Foreign Intervention

1919

British, French, American and Japanese forces fight in Russian against the Bolshevik "Reds."

Fiume

September 1919 - January 1921

Rogue Italian group occupies Fiume. Italian govt. Attacks and returns port city to Yugoslavia, who had been awarded it at the Paris Settlement.
Mussolini gets Fiume upon renegotiation with Yugoslavs after the Corfu Crisis in 1923.

Vilna

1920

Polish take the city from Lithuanians who want it as their capital (though only 2% Lith and 30% Pole). League fails to persuade Poland to give it up, despite Lithuanian appeals.

Russo-Polish War

1920 - 1921

Poles defeat Bolsheviks and extend their border east, well beyond the ethnic-based "Curzon Line." Settled at Treaty of Riga.

Upper Silesia

1921

Rioting & violence erupts after a split vote over joining Germany or Poland. League inquiry settles dispute by dividing the region.

Aaland Islands

1921

Swedish residents of these Finnish islands wish to join Sweden. League arbitration grants islands to Finland but demilitarizes them. Both sides accept.

Greco-Turkish War

1921 - 1923

Corfu

1923

Italy shells Greek island to protest death of Italian members of a survey team. Greeks appeal to League, but Mussolini refuses and 'bullies' conference of Ambassadors to force Greece to pay 50 m lira fine. He then meets with Yugoslavs, who hand over Fiume without argument.

Memel

1923

Lithuanians invade port controlled by French General under League auspices (Lith. majority population). League agrees to Lithuanian control of port as an 'international zone.'

Greco-Bulgarian war

1925