Symbolism, Metaphors and Themes


Books 1-3

January 1, 2018

Book 1: Homer compares rallying troops to swarming birds
Book 2: Thersites claims that Agamemnon is slaughtering men for honor and glory.... he isn't wrong...
Book 3 (theme): Aphrodite and Paris- God Interfering. Due to Aphrodite favoring the man, she saves him from his battle with Menelaus.

Book 4-6

January 2, 2018

Book 4: Hera's trade-- God's Interfering. Hera is perfectly happy to offer up three entire cities and their destruction in turn for Troy's. This shows no regard for human life as long as she gets her way.
Book 5: Diomedes. Diomedes is proclaimed as a lion going after a heard of sheep. Homer is saying that he is a force to reckon with
Book 6: Helmet flashing. This is used to show which warrior Zeus favors and may aid. "And tall Hector nodded, his helmet flashing."

Books 7-9

January 3, 2018

Book 7: Fate. The characters on both sides acknowledge their own fate and create a day to bury their dead.
Book 8: Golden Scale. Zeus holds the golden scale, tipping it towards the side of the Trojans. This means he is in favor of the Trojans.
Book 9: Mortality. Achilles claims that all death is the same and because of this it does not really matter how you die.

Books 10-12

January 4, 2018

Book 10: War. Odysseus wears a helmet passed down from generation to generation. This symbolizes that war is a constant thing of life.
Book 12: The Eagle Clasping a Serpent. This was taken as a symbol to not attack, for the Trojans would lose.
Book 11: Blood rain. Zeus rains blood on the Acheans, causing them to panic as they believe this is a sign that the battle will end in blood spill for them.

Books 13-15

January 5, 2018

Book 13: Switch up/ Fate. Zeus discovers that despite his previous ability to affect all of the men's fates, he is not able to now. Fate is a separate force.
Book 14: Sleep/ Human Traits. Zeus is charmed and put to sleep by Hera, who is trying to sneak around and help herside of the battle. This proves even Zeus (the top dog) has human traits.
Book 15: Tuecer's Bow String/ Fate. Zeus proves he has his ability to affect fate by breaking the archer's bow and saving Hector.

Books 16-18

January 6, 2018

Book 16: Splitting of horses. The two horses splitting is a symbol for Zeus and his son, Sarpedon, separating. Despite Zeus wanting to save his son, he is unable. Thus, the two are separated just as the horses.
Book 17: Burning of the ship. The ships were the only way home for the Acheans. When they burn the first, it symbolizes that this is a crucial moment.
Book 18: The shield of Achilles. It depicts the fact that war is part of every day life. Children hold hands and dance in a circle, young men holding knives in their hands. Also, a scene of bulls being herded by dogs and lions. This inspires hope to Acheans, there are few lions just like the small numbers of them, yet the few lions are able to take on the bulls.

Books 19-21

January 7, 2018

Book 19: Death. Achilles refuses to eat until after battle. This proves that the man is eager to fight and proclaims that food is for those who are alive. He is essentially saying that he is not among the living.
Book 20: The gods and death. They are allowed to stop and affect the battle yet they don't until they have to. They'd rather watch, like how we stare at football on sunday afternoons.
Book 21: Death/ Merciless Achilles. Achilles runs into Lycanon, who has escaped from slavery and made it back to troys... just a couple days before this battle. Achilles mocks him and then kills him.

Books 22-23

January 8, 2018

Book 22: Heroism/Honor. Hector tries to save his city while Achilles tries to up his body count. Both are looking to receive great honor just in different way.
Book 23: A ghost! Patroclus' ghost makes an appearance, displaying the bond between him and Achilles.
Book 24: Honor. Apollo pleas for Hector's body to be protected as he was a man who was always respective towards the gods. The gods leave it up to Achilles, who releases his body.